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A Survey on Software Architecture Analysis Methods

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Title: A Survey on Software Architecture Analysis Methods


1
A Survey on Software Architecture Analysis Methods
  • Liliana Bobrica and Eila Niemela
  • IEEE TOSE July 02

2
A Software Architecture Evaluation ModelSAEM
  • Presented by
  • Jeff Hank, Ping Li, Zhihong Zeng
  • Gregory Matthews, Yong Peng

3
Summary
  • SAEM is based on ISO/IEC 14598-1 quality
    evaluation model
  • SAEM implements this standard as a means of
    predicting quality of a product based on its SA.
  • SAEM Identifies quality attributes
  • External quality expresses the users view
  • Internal quality expresses the developers view

4
Presentation Outline
  • Context in terms of Dobricas Survey of SA
    Analysis Methods
  • Explain The Software Architecture Evaluation
    Model
  • Walkthrough a Quick Example
  • Evaluation of the SAEM as an SA Analysis Method

5
Main elements of Dobricas comparison framework
6
Goal of SAEM
  • Establishes the basis for the SA quality
    evaluation.
  • Attempts to predict the quality of the final
    system.

the assessment of quality is based upon
developers ability to match the needs and desires
of the user.
7
Quality Model (SAEM)
  • The number of attributes can vary with the
    quality model selected and the attributes deemed
    important within that model

8
Reusability of the Existent Knowledge (SAEM)
  • Not Applied but assumed to exist in order to
    define the expected internal attributes and their
    target values.

9
Stakeholders Involvement (SAEM)
  • Experts knowledge and a companys accumulated
    data are used in the mapping of quality
    requirements to internal attributes (user
    specified qualities mapped to the internal
    attributes that must satisfy the user quality
    requirements)
  • The development team specifies all the quality
    requirements

10
The Evaluation Technique (SAEM)
  • Measuring technique using intrinsic or defined
    metrics

11
SA Description (SAEM)
  • Considered from two viewpoints, the developer and
    the user
  • The SA is considered either an intermediate or
    final product in the software system process
  • The intrinsic properties can only be detected by
    measuring techniques applied to the SA
    representation formalized through an ADL
    (Architecture Description Language)

12
ADL( Architectural Description Language)
  • What is ADL
  • Is a kind of language used to describe a
    software architecture
  • ( An ADL may be a formal or semi-formal
    descriptive language, a graphics language, or
    include both)
  • Why use ADL
  • Lies in the ability to rigorously specify an
    architecture so that it can be analyzed
  • to improve software quality and correctness
  • How many different ADLs?
  • A lot
  • The link of different ADLs

13
SAEMs Validation
  • SAEM has not been validated on any software
    system
  • Duenas paper on SAEM suggests the method was to
    be validated on a telecommunication package, but
    no results have ever been published. Nor have any
    other examples of the application of SAEM been
    published.

14
The Software Architecture Evaluation Model
15
Elements Required for SA Quality Evaluation
  • From ISO/IEC 14598-1
  • The quality model
  • The method for evaluation
  • The metrics
  • The supporting tools
  • SAEM implements this standard as a means of
    predicting quality of a product based on its SA.

16
Software Architecture Evaluation Model
  • The Quality Model ISO/IEC 9126-1
  • The Quality Specification ISO 8402 and/or
    Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
  • The Metrics Specification from intrinsic metrics
    and/or defined by Goal-Question-Metric (GQM)
  • The Quality Evaluation data collection,
    measurement, analysis of results

17
1 The Quality Model ISO 9126-1
  • What is it?
  • ISO 9126-1 is the software product evaluation
    standard from the International Organization for
    Standardization. This international standard
    defines six characteristics that describe, with
    minimal overlap, software quality.
  • What is the benefit?
  • ISO 9126-1 intends to eliminate any
    misunderstanding between purchaser and supplier.

18
Elements of the ISO 9126-1 Quality Reference Model
  • Functionality
  • Reliability
  • Usability
  • Efficiency
  • Maintainability
  • Portability

19
Functionality
Functionality is the set of attributes that bear
on the existence of a set of functions and their
specified properties. The functions are those
that satisfy stated or implied needs.
20
Reliablility
  • Reliability is the set of attributes that bear on
    the capability of software to maintain its level
    of performance under stated conditions for a
    stated period of time.

21
Usability
  • Usability is the set of attributes that bear on
    the effort needed for use, and on the individual
    assessment of such use, by a stated or implied
    set of users.

22
Efficiency
  • Efficiency is the set of attributes that bear on
    the relationship between the level of performance
    of the software and the amount of resources used,
    under stated conditions.

23
Maintainability
  • Maintainability is the set of attributes that
    bear on the effort needed to make specified
    modifications.

24
Portability
  • Portability is the set of attributes that bear on
    the ability of software to be transferred from
    one environment.

25
2 Quality Specification ISO 8402
  • The quality specification contains the totality
    of the characteristics bearing on the products
    ability to satisfy the stated and implied needs.
  • The user view is expressed in the external
    quality specification.
  • The developer is express in the internal quality
    specification.

26
Quality Specification QFD
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a structured
approach to defining customer needs or
requirements and translating them into specific
plans to produce products to meet those needs.
The "voice of the customer" is the term to
describe these stated and unstated customer needs
or requirements. The voice of the customer is
captured in a variety of ways direct discussion
or interviews, surveys, focus groups, customer
specifications, observation, warranty data, field
reports, etc. This understanding of the customer
needs is then summarized in a product planning
matrix or "house of quality". These matrices are
used to translate higher level "what's" or needs
into lower level "how's" - product requirements
or technical characteristics to satisfy these
needs.
27
QFD ( Quality Function Deployment)
What is QFD Is a systematic process for
motivation a business to focus on its
customers Why use QFD to improve the
communication of customer wants throughout the
organization to improve the completeness of
specifications and to make them traceable
directly to customer wants and needs What are
the basic tools of QFD Project Roadmaps,
Documents, Lists and Matrices What are the
approaches to QFD Four-Phase approach uses a
QFD matrix to translate Customer wants into
Product Characteristics Matrix of Matrices
used to a address a wide variety of development
issues etc.
28
3 Metrics Specification
  • The Metrics Specification must contain
  • The selected measure for each quality
    characteristic
  • A measurement scale
  • The set of methods for measurement
  • Divided into external and internal metrics
    specification
  • Metrics can be determined with a tool such as the
    Goal-Quality-Metric method

29
External Metrics Specification
  • Purpose
  • Provide data for the evaluation of SA as a
    product itself, focusing on its usage during
    development.
  • Metrics
  • Have to be evaluated as part of the working
    environment for the intended usage.
  • Eg. Mean time for analysis total analysis times
    / number of analyses

30
Internal Metrics Specification
  • Purpose
  • Provide data for the SW product evaluation
    regardless of its environment and is used to
    evaluate product quality before its usage.
  • Metrics
  • Special elements Eg. Data encryption ratio
    number of encrypted components / specified number
    of components requiring encryption
  • Intrinsic properties Eg. Size, complexity,
    coupling, modularity, cohesion.

31
GQM (Goal-QuestionMetric)
GQM Used to define measurement on the software
project, process, and product in
such a way that 1) resulting metrics are tailored
to the
organization and its goal, 2) resulting
measurement data play a
constructive and instructive role in the
organization and 3) metrics and
their interpretation reflect the values and the
viewpoints of the different groups affected
(e.g., developers, users, operators). Three
steps 1. to define the goal in terms of
purpose, perspective and environment 2. to
establish the questions that indicate the
attributes related with the
goal 3. to answer each question and proposal new
existing metrics.
32
GQM ( Goal-Question-Metrics) 2
What are the GQM phases The Planing phase,
during which the project for measurement
application is selected, defined,
characterized, and planned, resulting a project
plan. The Definition phase, during which the
measurement programs is defined (goal,
questions, metrics and hypotheses are defined)
and documented. The Data collection phase,
during which the actual data collection takes
place, resulting in collected data. The
Interpretation phase, during which the collected
data is processed with respect to the defined
metrics into measurement results, that provide
answers,to the defined questions, after which
goal attainment can be evaluated.
33
4 Quality Evaluation
  • Data collection, measurement, analysis of results
  • End result the measurement result can be used as
    feedback for the improvement of the SA
    development process.

34
Example
  • Select the quality model and the characteristics
    of interest
  • Define the sub-characteristics in terms of the
    external and internal views
  • Define the attributes to measure the internal and
    external characteristics
  • Define the metrics for the attributes
  • Select the target values for the metrics
  • Perform the quality evaluation on the measured
    values

35
1. Select the quality model and the
characteristics of interestISO 9126-1
36
2. Define the sub-characteristics in terms of the
external and internal views ISO8402
37
3. Define the attributes to measure the internal
and external characteristics
38
4. Define the metrics for the attributes
39
5. Select the target values for the metrics
40
6. Perform the quality evaluation on the measured
values
41
Analysis of SAEM
  • Is SAEM useful?
  • On paper, SAEM would appear useful in
    demonstrating a quantifiable level of SA quality.
  • However, in practice, its never been used.

42
Analysis of SAEM
  • Whats good about SAEM?
  • Its adaptable
  • Uses established standards and proven analysis
    tools such as ISO documents, QFD, GQM

43
Analysis of SAEM
  • Whats bad about SAEM?
  • SAEM has never been validated and therefore not
    used

44
In Conclusion
  • SAEM does not establish optimal values for the
    measured quality attributes, but just formalizes
    a framework providing the means to measure these
    values and predict the quality of the final
    product from the SA evaluation.

45
REFERENCES
  • J.C. Duenas, W. L. de Oliceira, and J.A. de la
    Puente, A Software Architecture Evaluation Model
    , Proc. Second Intl ESPRIT ARES Workshop.
    Pp.148-157, Feb.1998
  • http//www.isaca.org.za/Iso9126.htm
  • http//www3.sqi.gu.edu.au/dannyp/SQM/lectures/lw2
    a.pdf
  • http//www.qfdi.org/
  • http//ivs.cs.uni-magdeburg.de/sw-eng/us/java/GQM/
    link4.shtmlvv
  • http//www.npd-solutions.com/qfdsteps.html

46
Evaluation and Comparison
  • 5 methods

47
Venn Diagrams
48
Venn Diagrams
49
Venn Diagrams
50
Table 5
51
Table 5 cont
52
Schedule
  • IS 12/3 fault detection
  • Thurs Frankl
  • Tues Frankl/Elbaum
  • IS final exam q and a
  • Thurs - Elbaum
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