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Techniques of Supervision Winthrop University

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Title: Techniques of Supervision Winthrop University


1
Techniques of SupervisionWinthrop University
Welcome!
2
Introductions
  • Introduce yourself to the person beside you and
    tell him/her why you are here.

3
Housekeeping
  • Review of Syllabus
  • Restrooms
  • Breaks
  • Food
  • Punctuality
  • Ground Rules

4
SOLO Rubric
  • Extended Abstract
  • Relational
  • Multistructural
  • Unistructural
  • Prestructural

5
SOLO Rubric
  • Extended Abstract
  • Relational
  • Multistructural
  • Unistructural
  • Prestructural
  • Only Relational and Extended Abstract
  • are acceptable for graduate students.

6
Graduate Conceptual Framework
  • Leadership
  • Scholarship
  • Service

7
Changing Schools Through Changing Leadership
  • What Successful School Leaders need to know and
    be able to do
  • Research from SREB
  • Commissioned a literature review Leading School
    Improvement What the Research Says
  • Interviewed Exemplary School Leaders
  • Convened national, state, university and school
    leaders
  • Wrote Preparing a New Breed of School Principal
    Its Time For Action

8
Good Leadership
  • Do you feel that good leadership is an essential
    ingredient of high-performing schools and
    high-achieving students?
  • Good to Great Jim Collins
  • Good is the enemy of great and that is one of
    the key reasons few schools ever become great.

9
Preparing a New Breed of School Principals
13 Characteristics and Behaviors of
Wildly Successful Leaders
10
Oliva, Chapter 1Historical Approaches
  • Chart, Page 5
  • Inspection to present
  • Main idea The role of the supervisor in public
    schools has expanded

11
Oliva, Chapter 1Supervision Defined
  • Supervisors must leave their offices for the
    purpose of helping others do their job better
  • Supervideo to oversee Latin
  • Not evaluation
  • Definitions from text
  • What is your definition?

12
Oliva, Chapter 1Complications to Supervision
  • Diversity in Concepts of Supervision
  • Of Effective Teaching
  • Mandates from the State Level
  • Tensions between Teachers and Supervisors
  • Others from your experience?

13
Oliva, Chapter 1
Who Are The Supervisors???
14
Oliva, Chapter 1More on Supervision
  • William Burton, 1922, page 19
  • Harris, 1972, page 20
  • Snyder, 1997, page 20
  • Domains of Supervision
  • Roles of Supervision
  • Personal Traits
  • Knowledge and Skills
  • Describe the current state of instructional
    supervision in your school

15
Interview Assignment
16
Issues in Supervision
  • Read Chapter 2 entirely
  • Take 3 notes on each of the 14 pressing
    issues/questions presented in the text
  • Be prepared to share those notes/key points in
    class
  • Decide who you are going to interview for the
    first assignment and schedule an interview date
  • Tell me who you are going to interview and why

17
14 Issues in Supervision
  • Popcorn Activity on Issues

18
Welcome Back
  • Come in and have some refreshments. Lets talk
    about the revised schedule and syllabus.
  • During the first half hour, we will have some
    social time and review the last class.
  • Reach consensus in your group on what the 5 most
    important points are on the topic you are
    assigned. Decide who will report out to us.

19
Welcome Back, continued
  • Turn in Your Supervisor Interview What are some
    of the take aways from the interview experience?
    Lets debrief.
  • Tonight we will continue our discussion of Best
    Practice in Instruction. Why is it important for
    a supervisor to understand Best Practice in
    Instruction?
  • You are to think as a supervisor, not a teacher
    during this class.

20
Icebreaker
  • This is a community meeting held at 7PM in a
    school cafeteria.
  • The community is in an uproar your high school
    just received the NCLB Report Card and it isnt
    pretty!

21
Icebreaker
  • Present are
  • Principal
  • Assistant principal
  • District office curriculum specialist
  • District office testing specialist
  • Teachers
  • Parents
  • Students from student council
  • President, local Chamber of Commerce

22
If Only. . .
  • Student achievement and learning at our school
    would increase if only. . .

23
High-Expectation Classrooms
  • More time spent on learning
  • Clear goals and performance criteria
  • Belief that all students can do the work
  • Require students to think and reflect, analyze,
    synthesize and evaluate
  • Use a variety of methods and materials
  • Communicate a joy for learning
  • Time provided for cooperative work and trying out
    various learning strategies
  • A sense of teamwork exists
  • Learning is connected to childrens lives

24
Low-Expectation Classrooms
  • More time on discipline, classroom management
  • Movement is from chapter to chapter goals
    arent present or are not tied to standards
  • Emphasis on working quietly, following
    directions, and using teacher-shown strategies
  • Fewer opportunities for students to try different
    learning strategies
  • Students asked to recall facts, follow simple
    procedures, answer true/false or matching items
  • Low-level tasks are common true/false, etc.
  • Lack of enthusiasm and optimism
  • Harder-to-engage students are ignored
  • Focus on isolated skills

25
What We Know About Classroom Practice
  • Information gathered from teachers and students
    surveyed in hundreds of schools throughout the
    SREB region found that their students, when
    compared with the rest of the nation
  • Were assigned less group or partner work in math
  • Were assigned fewer projects in math
  • Wrote less about how to solve problems in math

26
More about Classroom Practice
  • Believed math is mostly about memorizing facts
  • Designed and carried out fewer scientific
    investigations
  • Gave fewer oral reports in science
  • Had fewer discussions about material they had
    read.
  • In short, students were given fewer
    opportunities to deepen their understanding
    through application.

27
How We Can Improve
  • What Kentucky teachers and school leaders said
    made them able to show consistent improvement in
    student achievement over six years
  • 87 Curriculum more aligned with
    assessment
  • 70 Strong school leadership
  • 70 Faculty working together
  • 50 Better instruction
  • 43 Better diagnosis of student needs
  • 38 Better professional development

28
If Only. . .
  • Student achievement and learning at our school
    would increase if only we would. . .

29
Helping Teachers Plan for Instruction
  • Resistance to Planning
  • 6 Point Program
  • What are some models of instruction you are
    familiar with?
  • 3 characteristics of instructional objectives

30
Helping Teachers Plan for Instruction
  • The supervisor should encourage teachers to write
    objectives in all 3 domains.
  • Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective
  • Bloom Cognitive Most Focus
  • Krathwohl Affective Least Focus
  • Simpson Psychomotor

31
Application
  • Work with your partner or group to identify the
    domain and then the category within the domain.

32
Essential Questions Chapter 4
  • Should Cooperative Learning Replace
    Individualized Learning? Why/Why Not?
  • Should teachers be more concerned about
    content/skills or self-esteem of students? Why?
  • Should all students be expected to master all
    basic knowledge and skills? Why?
  • What is the place of direct teaching?
  • What knowledge and skills are needed for teachers
    to make effective presentations

33
Supervision Interviews
  • Utility Person
  • Communicating with Parents
  • Flexibility
  • Observing Teachers
  • Supervision Traits
  • Time Management
  • Reprimanding Teachers
  • Life Long Learning
  • Dealing with Difficult Supervisors
  • Peacemaker
  • Parents
  • Preparation/Coach
  • Challenges for New Administrators
  • Simple Solutions Made Difficult
  • Community Involvement
  • Accessible to Teachers
  • Safety of Students

34
Supervision Interviews
  • Multi-faceted
  • Daily Planning
  • Frustration
  • Being familiar with other content areas
  • Organization
  • Multi-tasking
  • Paperwork
  • Handling Discipline

35
School Time
  • Hrs/day
  • 0.5-1.5
  • 1.5-3.5
  • 2.0-4.0
  • 4.75
  • 5.4-6.0
  • 6.0

Academic Learning Time
Engaged Time
Instruction Time
Allocated Time
Attendance Time
Total Available Time
36
Good Morning Miss Toliver
  • As you are watching the video tape, please make a
    list of things the teacher is doing well to
    manage the classroom and increase instructional
    time and things she is not doing well or could
    improve upon.

37
Maximizing Instructional Time
  • You are a resource for maximizing instructional
    time.
  • What are some things teachers can do to make the
    most of the time? What strategies did Miss
    Toliver use to maximize instructional time?

38
Classroom Management Research
  • Jacob Kounin Ripple Effect 1970. He found
    that teacher intervention has almost no impact on
    student behavior after the misbehavior has
    occurred. The most effective action is to prevent
    problems from happening at all.
  • Evertson Study 5000 hours observing 400
    teachers found that teachers whose students
    consistently gained in achievement had organized
    classrooms that ran smoothly, with a minimum of
    disruption.

39
Evertsons Characteristics
  • Effective classroom managers
  • Planned rules and procedures carefully.
  • Systematically taught these to students.
  • Monitored student work and behavior closely.
  • Organized instruction to maximize student task
    engagement and success.
  • Communicated expectations clearly.

40
Implications of Findings
  • Teachers should plan in the summer for how they
    will organize space, materials, students,
    assignments, etc. to facilitate on-task time.
  • Teachers should spend time at the beginning of
    the year teaching students rules and procedures
    not just a quick go over it.
  • The system should be maintained throughout the
    school year so students know what to expect and
    what is expected from them.

41
Six Areas
  • Classroom Arrangement
  • Rules and Procedures
  • Student Accountability
  • Maintaining Good Behavior
  • Organizing Academic Activities
  • Student Engagement

42
Keys in Arranging
  • Visibility
  • Accessibility
  • Distractibility

43
Rules and Procedures
  • RULES
  • Are always applicable and govern relationships
    with others, time, space, and materials
  • Understandable, manageable, few in number, stated
    behaviorally, stated positively when possible
  • PROCEDURES
  • Situation-specific ways to get things done
  • Ways to participate in activities, beginning
    end of class routines, housekeeping, paperwork
  • Require teaching and practice

44
Accountability
  • Set the Stage
  • Make assignments accessible
  • Clarify what to do and how to do it
  • All students know when, where, and how to submit
    work
  • Maintain
  • Be consistent
  • Use fair grading system
  • Timely feedback
  • Students can track own progress

45
Differentiated Instruction Is. . .
  • Proactive
  • More qualitative than quantitative
  • Rooted in assessment
  • Multiple approaches to content, process, and
    product
  • Student-centered
  • Blend of groupings
  • Organic
  • From How to Differentiate Instruction in
    Mixed-Ability Classrooms,
  • by Carol Ann Tomlinson

46
Flow of Instruction
Figure 1.1 Differentiation of Instruction A
teacher's response to learners needs, guided by
general principles of differentiation, such
as Respectful tasks
Flexible grouping Ongoing
assessment

and
adjustment Teachers can differentiate
Content
Process
Product
According to students
Learning Profile
Readiness
Interests
Through a range of instructional and management
strategies such as
Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products
Learning contracts Small-group instruction
Group investigation orbitals Independent study
4MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest
centers Interest groups Varied homework
Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex
instruction
Multiple intelligences Jigsaw puzzles Taped
material Anchor activities Varying organizers
Varied texts Varied supplementary materials
Literature circles
  • From How to Differentiate Instruction in
    Mixed-Ability Classrooms,
  • by Carol Ann Tomlinson

47
Differentiated Instruction Isnt. . .
  • Individualized instruction of the 1970s
  • Chaotic
  • Just another way to provide homogeneous groupings
  • Tailoring the same suit of clothes
  • From How to Differentiate Instruction in
    Mixed-Ability Classrooms,
  • by Carol Ann Tomlinson

48
Definition
  • In a differentiated classroom, the teacher
    proactively plans and carries out varied
    approaches to content, process, and product in
    anticipation of and response to student
    differences in readiness, interest, and learning
    needs.
  • From How to Differentiate Instruction in
    Mixed-Ability Classrooms,
  • by Carol Ann Tomlinson

49
We Know What Works
  • Marzano 9 Strategies Based on Research
  • You are assigned a strategy to read about. You
    will have at least one partner with the same
    strategy.
  • Report out on 1) How research supports this
    strategy 2) General principles for using this
    strategy effectively 3) Variations on the
    strategy 4) How this information can help you as
    an instructional leader.

50
Marzano
  • Marzano Presentations
  • You have 40 minutes to prepare for your
    presentation to the class.
  • Please give us a visual or an activity to help us
    remember the strategy
  • Presentations can last up to 10 minutes each, but
    no longer.

51
Instruction that is proven to increase student
achievement has the following qualities
  • Aligned with standards
  • Active student participation
  • Emphasis on higher-order thinking skills and
    rich, complex ideas
  • Reading and writing in all subjects
  • Complex problem-solving
  • Uses formative assessment to inform teaching
    decisions and provide student feedback

52
Lets Look At The Schedule
  • Updated schedule
  • Midterm in two weeks will cover Chapters 1 5,
    overview of supervision and Best Practice in
    Instruction
  • Read Kohn Article for next class
  • Read Black and Stiggins articles for next class
  • Test 1 at beginning of class on March 4

53
Marzano
54
Last Weekend!!!
  • Have something to eat
  • Review for test which begins at 445 on the DOT
  • Complete Internship Application and Review the
    articles you read when you finish the test

55
Papers
  • Thesis Tell me what you are going to tell me.
  • Also called Topic Sentence.
  • Also called giving your paper some direction in
    the first few paragraphs.
  • Rewrites due on March 11 at 500 pm.
  • Excellent work overall

56
Culminating Portfolio
  • Draft of requirements
  • Completed During Internship III - 623

57
Essential Question 1
  • What is the relationship among curriculum,
    assessment and instruction?

58
Relationships
How will we know they know it?
What do we want students to know and be able to
do?
Curriculum
Assessment
Instruction
Student achievement can best be addressed here.
How will we get there?
59
Understanding By Design
  • The critical point is that we start with
    outcomes, as defined by curriculum standards, and
    only then are we ready to specify which
    instruction is appropriate.
  • This is the basic principle of Understanding By
    Design

60
Assessment-True or False?
  • Curriculum standards are not generally in our
    control, but we can choose how much time we spend
    on each, and which teaching strategies we will
    use.
  • We should focus on assessments that are used not
    just at the end of the unit to assign a grade,
    but throughout instruction to chart student
    progress and tailor instruction as needed.
  • Assessments are often performance based so that
    we get very rich information from which to base
    our decisions.

61
Continued
  • Once we have defined the desired performance
    (standards), we build instruction so that
    students can succeed at these assessments.
  • We know that our assessments and instruction are
    tied to the standards and that we are assessing
    learning outlined in the curriculum.
  • This is typical practice in schools across the
    nation.

62
Essential Question 2
  • What is the role of the school leader in
    improving student achievement through exemplary
    practices in assessment and instruction?

63
Leadership Quote 1
  • After a decade of reform, we have finally learned
    in hindsight what should have been clear from the
    start Most schools and teachers cannot produce
    the kind of learning demanded by the new reforms
    not because they do not want to, but because
    they do not know how, and the systems in which
    they work do not support them in doing so.
  • --Linda Darling-Hammond

64
Leadership Quotes 2 and 3
  • The primary purpose of assessment should be to
    assist both educators and policymakers to improve
    instruction and advance student learning.
  • --National Forum on Assessment
  • What we assess signals what we value. How it is
    assessed signals how it should be taught.
  • --Jay McTighe

65
Research on Teacher Preparation 1996-1999
  • Performance areas where new teachers said they
    were most prepared. Ability to
  • Establish a positive classroom learning
    environment.
  • Communicate high expectations to students.
  • Use different teaching strategies for different
    instructional purposes.
  • Design instruction that is developmentally
    appropriate for students taught.
  • Communicate knowledge and core concepts of
    content areas.

66
Research on Teacher Preparation 1996-1999
  • Performance areas where new teachers said they
    were least prepared. Ability to
  • Use a variety of assessments including
    portfolios, open-ended questions and performance
    events.
  • Address student discipline problems.
  • Design instruction for students of diverse ethnic
    and cultural backgrounds.
  • Identify professional development options and
    plan a program for professional growth.
  • Design instruction to achieve states learning
    goals and academic expectations.

67
Becoming a Leader
  • Schools are organizations that benefit from
    having facilitative leaders.
  • Facilitators create opportunities for others to
    lead.
  • Teachers can become teacher leaders in both
    formal and informal roles.
  • Leadership capacity is expanded by empowering
    teachers to be leaders.

68
Leadership Quote 4
  • Testing programs should be redirected from
    over-reliance on multiple choice tests toward
    alternative forms of assessment. Carefully
    crafted assessment devices would ask students to
    supply answers, perform observable acts,
    demonstrate skills, create products, and supply
    portfolios of their work.
  • --Gatekeeper to Gateway
  • Transforming Testing in America

69
Leadership Quote 5
  • In their study of effective curriculum leaders,
    Aronstein and DeBenedictis determined that such
    principals used behaviors that had a school-wide
    impact rather than a narrowly focused curriculum
    emphasis. They identified five enabling
    behaviors that made a school-wide difference a)
    facilitating communication, b) creating a
    positive open climate, c) building a vision with
    the staff, d) developing staff through
    involvement, and (e) being an effective and
    positive role model.
  • --Allan A. Glatthorn,
  • The Principal as Curriculum Leader

70
Leadership Quote 6
  • I have noted in the last decade more principals
    are complaining that deeper student understanding
    is often sacrificed in favor of preparation for
    tests measuring factual retention. Some say it
    is a case of the tail wagging the dog. Testing
    that should be a means to improve the ability of
    the students to think and understand instead
    becomes an obstacle to this end. Yet is may not
    be easy to get teachers to give up their practice
    of teaching for the tests.
  • --Jack McCall, The Principal As Steward

71
Leadership Quote 7
  • We take the students who most depend on their
    teachers for subject-matter learning and assign
    them teachers with the weakest academic
    foundations. A decade ago, we might have said
    that we didnt know how much this mattered. We
    believed that what students learned was largely a
    factor of their family income or parental
    education, not of what schools did. But recent
    research has turned these assumptions upside
    down. What schools do matters enormously. And
    what matters most is good teaching.
  • --Kati Haycock, Closing the Achievement Gap

72
Essential Question 2
  • What is the role of the school leader in
    improving student achievement through exemplary
    practices in assessment and instruction?

73
Meet Miss Bonkers!
  • Purposes
  • To explore the purpose of assessing students
  • To consider the effectiveness of teaching to the
    test
  • To rediscover good teaching practices

74
Discussion Questions
  • What teaching strategies were they using in the
    Diffendoofer School?
  • What makes Miss Bonkers teaching so effective?
  • What is good teaching?
  • What does teaching to the test mean?

75
HOTS for Miss Bonkers
  • Miss Bonkers rose. Dont fret! she said.
  • Youve learned the things you need
  • To pass that test and many more--
  • Im certain youll succeed.
  • Weve taught you that the earth is round,
  • That red and white make pink,
  • And something else that matters more--
  • Weve taught you how to think.

Dr. Seuss, Hooray for Diffendoofer Day!
76
Whats the Point?
  • Should we teach to the test?
  • Should we teach only to the test?

If state or local curricula overlap with
objectives of a standardized test, then teaching
to the test is inevitable and desired. F.W.
English, 1992
We need a rich, rigorous, and relevant curriculum
that teaches how to think.
77
Implications
  • We are charged with teaching the standards
    therefore, we teach to a standards-based
    (criterion-referenced) test.
  • The strategies we use are up to us.
  • There is danger in only teaching to the test.
  • If we use good teaching strategies, test scores
    will come naturally.
  • Its not just about the grade its about
    learning.

78
Understanding By Design
  • Advocates identifying assessments and then basing
    the instruction on the assessment (teaching to
    the test).
  • Concept of Enduring Understandings Assessments
    must be rich in these.
  • Formative Evaluations
  • Thoughtful alignment among standards, assessments
    and strategies.

79
Essential Questions
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

80
Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

81
Insights from Kohn
  • Main reason we should grade to provide useful
    feedback to students.
  • Letter grades alone do not provide useful
    feedback.
  • Most focused on I or II. Should be on III (or II
    if not just for grade).
  • Should focus our grading/feedback on answering
    question, What information can I provide to help
    the student learn and move closer to proficiency?

82
Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

83
Multiple Purposes
  • What are the purposes for assessment?
  • How are they used?
  • Who uses them?
  • What can they do?

84
How Are They Used?
  • Progress of groups of students
  • Effectiveness of instruction
  • Quality of school processes
  • Developmental level of individuals
  • Diagnostic, formative, summative
  • Instructional strategies
  • Pace
  • Remediation/ enrichment
  • Differentiated instruction
  • Staff development
  • Standardization of practice across teachers
  • Next lesson
  • Next grade
  • Standardized testing
  • Lifelong learning

85
Who Uses Them?
Adapted from SERVE/Bay District Schools,
Examining Grading and Reporting, 2000
86
What Can They Do?
Diagnostic
Formative
Summative
  • Identify starting or restarting points for
    instruction
  • Formal or informal
  • Monitor student learning toward standards
  • Provide students with specific feedback
  • Evaluate achievement of standards
  • High stakes

Pretests Skills inventories
Research proposal Journal Literature
circles Independent reading conferences
Final exam Assessment portfolio Standardized CRT
87
Formative Assessment Research Findings (Black
Wiliam)
  • Strengthening formative assessments produces
    significant learning gains. This was true in
    studies of ages 5-21 and in multiple countries.
  • Formative yields especially good results with low
    achievers
  • Although formative has a much greater impact on
    learning than summative, almost all our political
    and financial capital goes to summative.

88
Formative Assessment Research Findings (Black
William), cont.
  • Feedback on tests, seatwork, and homework should
    give each pupil guidance on how to improve, and
    each pupil must be given help and an opportunity
    to work on the improvement
  • Self-assessment is an essential component
    students must be trained so they understand the
    main purposes of they are learning and thereby
    grasp what they need to do to achieve
  • Using formative assessment is hard to learn
    teachers need training and support to learn

89
Formative Assessment Research Findings, cont.
(Stiggins)
  • Look for teachers who
  • Set and communicate achievement targets in
    advance
  • Transform targets into appropriate assessment
    exercises
  • Use frequent, descriptive value-neutral
    feedback to build confidence
  • Adjust instruction based on results
  • Promote regular student self-assessment
  • Actively involve students in communi-cating
    status with teachers and parents

90
Main Purpose
  • What is the main purpose that should drive
    classroom assessment?

To improve learning for all students
91
Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

92
Assessment Methods
Selected Response Items
Constructed Responses
Products
Performances
  • Multiple Choice
  • True-False
  • Matching
  • Fill in the Blank
  • Short answer
  • Diagram
  • Web
  • Concept Map
  • Flowchart
  • Graph
  • Table
  • Matrix
  • Illustra- tion
  • Essay
  • Research paper
  • Journal
  • Report
  • Story/play
  • Poem
  • Portfolio
  • Art exhibit
  • Project
  • Model
  • Videotape
  • Spread-sheet
  • Oral pre-sentation
  • Dance/ movement
  • Demon-stration
  • Athletic contest
  • Dramatic reading
  • Enactment
  • Debate
  • Recital

93
Selecting Assessment Methods
  • Essential questions
  • What is healthy eating?
  • What is the moral of the Holocaust?
  • How do we use sarcasm, irony and satire to
    communicate without saying what we mean?
  • Is U.S. history a history of progress?

94
Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

95
Change
  • We know how to make changes. What we need to do
    is learn how to make improvements, not just
    changes.

96
Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

97
Clapping Hands Purposes
  • To develop guidelines for best practices in
    performance assessment
  • To explore the impact of assessment practices on
    students

NOTE The Clapping Hands Activity was developed
by the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory
for Improving Classroom Assessment A Toolkit
for Professional Developers, published in 1998
98
Clapping Institute Criteria
  • Volume
  • Appropriateness
  • Creativity

99
Clapping Institute Award Certificate for
______________ For Volume, Appropriateness and
Creativity
100
Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

101
How Much Evidence is Enough?
Observation of Process
Triangulation Look for Trends Look for
Patterns Look for Redundancy
Talk Dialogue
Collection of Products
Based on Anne Daviss work
102
Some Supervision Strategies
  • Data Analysis
  • Curriculum Prioritization
  • Cognitive Coaching
  • Critical Friends Group/Tuning Protocol
  • Standards in Practice (SIP) Process
  • Action Research Groups
  • Vertical Team Articulation
  • 30-minute Meeting
  • Japanese Lesson Study
  • Guided Reflection Protocol
  • Clinical Supervision Model

103
30-minute Meeting
  • Reflect on the problem identified in your school
    or district.
  • Choose group facilitator.
  • Choose group recorder
  • In 3 columns list, why (driving and opposing
    forces), what (leaders role) and how
    (strategies).

104
Role of Leaders
105
Cognitive Coaching
  • www.cerra.org
  • State-wide initiative
  • Training offered
  • See information in packet
  • Group coaching activity

106
Guided Reflection Protocol
  • Reflection is the Heart of Practice!

107
Clinical Supervision
  • Supervision vs. evaluation
  • Sometimes the same not ideal, but reality
  • One on one/ face to face
  • Definitions in text

108
Nine characteristics
  • Technology for improving instruction
  • Deliberate intervention
  • Goal-oriented
  • Assumes a working relationship
  • Requires mutual trust and respect
  • Systematic
  • Bridges gap between real and ideal
  • Supervisor knows a lot about instruction and
    human interaction
  • Requires training

109
At the Heart of It
  • What do we do with the observation data?

110
Pre-Observation Conference
  • Determine reason for and purpose of observation
  • Determine focus
  • Determine observation method
  • Determine length and time of observation
  • Set post-observation conference date and time

111
Observation
  • Global vs. specific approach
  • Methods verbatim recording, note taking, use of
    instruments, charting
  • What approach will you use if the focus is
    classroom management? Higher order thinking
    skills? Global?

112
Post-Observation Conference
  • Hunter 6 types
  • Kyle 3 point outline
  • Directive control vs. directive information

113
Supervision Quotes
  • Unfortunately, principals are often as
    beleaguered and time-pressed as their central
    office colleagues and while it is increasingly
    fashionable to talk about the instructional
    leadership role of the principal, often that
    person is hard-pressed to do the job of
    supervision well.

114
Supervision Quotes
  • We have learned to challenge gifted students to
    encourage continuing growth, but often our gifted
    teachers are left to provide their own
    stimulation or to become bored and atrophied.
  • The instructional supervisor, contrasted with
    the administrative supervisor, cannot and should
    not thrust himself or herself on the teacher.

115
Supervision Quotes
  • If a school system is not able to cater to the
    supervisory needs of all teachers, it must do
    what school systems have always done set
    priorities and/or put our fires. Those that are
    most in need must be assured of help if for no
    other reason than the well-being of their
    students. A better solution would be sufficient
    funding for our schools so that adequate
    supervision can be made available to all who need
    and want it,

116
Why Not Today?
  • Ron Edmonds, the father of school effectiveness,
    said
  • We can, whenever and wherever we choose,
    successfully teach ALL children whose schooling
    is important to us we already know more than we
    need to do that.
  • In your group, develop a response to this
    statement. You have only 5 minutes to do this!

117
What we didnt get to do
  • Process the information
  • Read enough research on the topics
  • Practice a walk through observation
  • Talk about teacher evaluation
  • Look at a teachers planned unit to determine if
    Best Practice in Instruction and Assessment are
    being used
  • Learn about staff development as it relates to
    the supervisor
  • Learn about leading change as a supervisor
  • Meet one on one to talk about your goals as a
    supervisor

118
What we did get to do
  • Have meaningful dialogue about this program
    clear up misinformation and hopefully we all feel
    better about things now.
  • Open up a can of worms about Incompletes!!!
  • Get your internship questions answered and your
    placements set.
  • Delve deeply into the role of the supervisor,
    Best Practice in Instruction and Assessment and
    some models of supervision.
  • Get to know each other I really enjoyed that
    part.

119
What we still need to do
  • Paper rewrites due to me by March 11 at 500 pm
  • Clinical Supervision project due to me by March
    25 at 500 pm
  • Respond to serve list serv topics. I will send
    out one on Monday, March 7 and another on Monday,
    March 14. Please reply to all and respond
    thoughtfully.
  • Take Test 2
  • Complete online survey for me

120
Looking at the Work
  • Use your checklist.
  • Does the assignment match the standard?
  • Does the student work meet the standard?
  • What level is the assignment? The student work?
  • Was an appropriate strategy chosen? Was it used
    well?
  • Were there strategies for differentiation?
  • Were they effective?
  • Write an overall impression and suggestions for
    improvement.

121
Force Field Analysis
  • DRIVING FORCES
  • OPPOSING FORCES

122
Force Field Analysis
  • DRIVING FORCES
  • Being part of a team ?
  • Time, time, time! ?
  • Experiential prof. dev. ?
  • Regular team discussions ?
  • Permission to take risks ?
  • Collaboration ?
  • Shared leadership ?
  • Focus and vision ?
  • Effort encouraged ?
  • Mentors ?
  • Ownership ?
  • Incentives and recognition ?
  • Clinical supervision ?
  • Peer coaching ?
  • Critical friends groups ?
  • OPPOSING FORCES
  • ? Contradictory demands
  • ? Pressure from testing
  • ? Isolation
  • ? Feeling forced
  • ? Defensiveness
  • ? Initial excitement then let-down
  • ? Past flavors of the month
  • ? Micro-management
  • ? Mixed messages
  • ? Not enough time
  • ? Fear
  • ? Lack of resources

123
PDCA Cycle
Plan lessons Determine general strategies
Data analysis 30-minute meetings Talks with
students Calendarize essentials
Do
Plan
Check
Act
Provide tutorials and enrichment as needed
Frequently assess Meet to review Maintain
skills Principal monitors
From Davenport and Anderson, Closing the
Achievement Gap. 2002
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