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Zoology : Introduction to Animals (Ch.27)

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Zoology : Introduction to Animals (Ch.27) Zoology is the study of animals. ... Your zoology journal should have the following in it: Symmetry Activity(pg.599) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Zoology : Introduction to Animals (Ch.27)


1
Zoology Introduction to Animals (Ch.27)
  • Zoology is the study of animals. This includes
    the study of the following characteristics of
    animals
  • Structure/function
  • Classification
  • Lifestyle

2
General Features of Animals
  • Animals exhibit the following features
  • Heterotrophy Tissues
  • Mobility Absence of cell wall
  • Multicellularity
  • Diploidy
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Blastula formation

3
Animal Features
  • Heterotrophy animals cant make their own food,
    and must obtain their food
  • Mobility animals have the ability to move
  • Multicellularity animals are composed of many
    cells
  • Diploidy adults have two copies of each
    chromosome

4
Animal Features
  • Sexual reproduction animals reproduce sexually,
    egg cell and sperm cell
  • Absence of a Cell Wall animal cells lack a cell
    wall
  • Blastula formation after fertilization the
    zygote produced from the sperm and egg forms a
    hollow ball of cells (blastula)

5
Animal Cell Specialization
  • Most animals reproduce sexually with an egg and a
    sperm uniting to form a zygote.
  • This zygote cell then divides into solid ball of
    cells (morula) and then a hollow ball (blastula)

morula
blastula
6
Animal Cell Specialization
  • Cells in the morula have the ability to change
    into specialized cells for the animal. ( Hair
    cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, etc.)
  • These original cells capable of being specialized
    cells are called stem cells.

7
Animal Cell Specialization
  • As a result of the DNA in the cells, animals show
    a wide variety of differences.
  • The development of the animal through its genetic
    code and environment shapes the animals anatomy
    and behavior.

8
Animal Embryonic Development
  • Upon fertilization of an animal egg by a sperm, a
    zygote is formed. The chromosomes in the egg and
    the chromosomes in the sperm combine to form a
    diploid (2) set of chromosomes containing genes
    for the zygotes development

9
Embryonic Development
  • Once a zygote is formed, it appears that genes
    found in the egg control the development of the
    zygote into a blastula.
  • Studies have shown that proteins produced by
    genes from the egg determine the initial
    differentiation of cells into specialized body
    parts.

10
Embryonic Development
  • There are typically four stages of embryonic
    development
  • Cleavage
  • Patterning
  • Differentiation
  • Growth

11
Embryonic Development
  • Cleavage the process of the zygote dividing,
    dividing again, and at different rates at each
    end of the cell to produce a ball of
    approximately a thousand cells.(blastula)

12
Embryonic Development
  • Patterning In this stage cells organize
    themselves into layers and masses. This process
    is called gastrulation

13
Embryonic Development
  • During gastrulation the embryo conains different
    layers.
  • Endoderm inside
  • Ectoderm outside
  • Mesoderm middle
  • These layers will develop into specialized animal
    organs and areas

14
Embryonic Development
  • Differentiation the third stage of embryonic
    development includes the division of cells to
    form specialized structures such as nerve cells,
    blood cells, skin cells, etc.

15
Embryonic Development
  • Growth the final stage of embryo development
    results in division of specialized cells to
    produce organs, organ systems, and the animal.

16
Embryonic Development
  • Studies have shown that proteins built by the
    eggs genes determine the steps of development.
  • In some studies it was found that the addition of
    a protein during the patterning stage will cause
    an animal to have two heads, two tails, no skin,
    etc.

2- headed tadpole as a result of protein given
blastula
Normal tadpole at same stage.
17
Animal Embryonic Development
  • In most all animals the four stages described are
    observed in their development.

18
Sea Urchin Embryonic Development
  • Picture A represents a zygote, and picture F a
    late stage blastula.

19
Animations/Photos of Different Animal Embryonic
Development
  • http//www.luc.edu/depts/biology/dev/devm.htm

20
Animal Features
  • Tissues animal cells are organized into tissues
  • Example of tissues muscle tissue, skin tissue,
    nerve tissue, etc.

Human Skin tissue layers
21
Body Symmetry
  • Animals have a body plan or shape.
  • Sponges have the simplest body plan. Sponges have
    an irregular or asymmetrical.
  • Other animals have a form of symmetry to their
    bodies

Sponge asymmetrical body plan
22
Body Symmetry
  • Radial Symmetry some animals have body parts
    arranged around a central axis. Some aquatic
    animals show this symmetry.
  • Ex) sea anemone, jellyfish, etc.

23
Body Symmetry
  • Bilateral symmetry a body plan of all other
    animals which show distinct right and left
    halves.
  • Cephalization having nerves, brain at one end
    of the body

24
Symmetry Activity
  • Pair up with a classmate and in your journal do
    the quick lab on page 599 to practice the type
    of symmetry animals have.

25
Internal Body Cavity
  • Animals with bilateral symmetry have one of three
    basic body plans
  • Acoelomate animals with no body cavity.
  • Pseudocoelomate animals with a falsebody
    cavity
  • Coelomate animals with a body cavity within the
    mesoderm.

26
Body Segmentation
  • Segmented animals have similar units called
    segments.
  • Then kingdom Animalia contains about 35 major
    divisions or phyla.
  • Phylogenetic tree a branching diagram to show
    animal relationships based upon the anatomy of
    living animals

27
End of Section 1
  • In your journal do the section 1 review. (Pg.
    603)

28
Section 2 Animal Body Systems
  • Animals need to perform specific functions for
    survival. The major functions they need are
  • Digestion, respiration, circulation, conduction
    of nerve impulses, support, and excretion

29
Digestion
  • Animals need to acquire energy through food.
  • Most animals digest or break down their food
    within a digestive cavity or system.
  • Enzymes play an important role in the digestion
    of food.
  • Simple animals have a gastrovascular cavity,
    while others have a digestive tract.

30
Respiration
  • Repiration is the uptake of oxygen and the
    release of carbon dioxide gas.
  • Simple animals achieve this through diffusion,
    while other animals achieve this with gills, or
    lungs.

31
Circulation
  • Many materials must be transported to and from
    the cells of animals. Two types of circulatory
    systems achieve this
  • Open circulatory system and closed circulatory
    systems.
  • Open a heart pumps blood into the body cavity
  • Closed heart pumps blood through blood vessels

32
Conduction of Nerve Impulses
  • Animals have nerve cells (neurons) which carry
    messages which allow for coordination of the
    body. (senses)
  • Simple animals contain ganglia which are a
    cluster of neurons.
  • Other animals have brains to coordinate all
    sensory information

33
Support
  • Animals achieve support by the following
  • Hydrostatic skeleton consists of water under
    pressure in a cavity
  • Exoskeleton rigid external skeleton
  • Endoskeleton hard material bone embedded
    within an animal

34
Reproductive Strategies
  • Two types of reproduction Asexual and sexual
  • Asexual reproduction that doesnt involve the
    fusion of two gametes.
  • Sexual a new individual is formed by the union
    of gamestes.

35
Reproductive Strategies
  • Some animals are hermaphrodites. This means they
    have both testes and ovaries, and can produce
    both types of gametes (sperm and eggs)
  • Ex. slugs, some fishes, and earthworms

36
Fertilization
  • Animals may have external fertilization or
    internal fertilization.
  • External sperm fertilizes the egg outside of
    the body
  • Internal sperm and egg union occurs within the
    females body

37
Ch. 27 Assignment
  • Using the internet and other resources choose 1
    animal to research. For your animal explain how
    they achieve the following six important
    functions
  • Digestion, respiration, circulation, conduction
    of nerve impulses, support, excretion, and
    reproduction

38
Ch. 27 Review
  • In your journal answer the following questions
    found on page 612,613.
  • Using Key Terms
  • Understanding Key Ideas 6-12
  • Critical Thinking 17

39
Ch. 27 Journal Summary
  • Your zoology journal should have the following in
    it
  • Symmetry Activity(pg.599)
  • Section review Qs (pg 603)
  • Ch. 27 Activity animal functions.
  • Ch. 27 Review
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