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World Calendars

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Title: World Calendars


1
World Calendars
2
Jewish/Hebrew Calendar
  • Based on three astronomical phenomena
  • Rotation of Earth about its axis (about a day)
  • Revolution of the moon about the Earth (a month)
  • Revolution of the Earth about the sun (a year)
  • Months are either 29 or 30 days, corresponding to
    the 29 ½ day lunar cycle
  • Years are either 12 or 13 months, corresponding
    to the 12.4 month solar cycle
  • First lunar month begins when the first sliver of
    moon becomes visible after the dark of the moon

3
How do we fix the calendar drift?
  • Because a 12 month calendar does not align with a
    12.4 month solar cycle an extra month must be
    added to the year every few years
  • Adar I (the extra month) is added in the 3rd,
    6th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and 19th years of the
    cycle
  • Current cycle began in Jewish year 5758 (year
    that began on October 2, 1997)
  • In addition to this drift it must be assured that
    Yom Kippur not fall adjacent to Shabbat

4
  • Month Number of days
  • Nisan (MarchApril) 30
  • Iyar (AprilMay) 29
  • Sivan (MayJune) 30
  • Tammuz (JuneJuly) 29
  • Av (JulyAug.) 30
  • Elul (Aug.Sept.) 29
  • Tishri (Sept.Oct.) 30
  • Heshvan (Oct.Nov.) 29 in some years 30
  • Kislev (Nov.Dec.) 29 in some years 30
  • Tevet (Dec.Jan.) 29
  • Shevat (Jan.Feb.) 30
  • Adar (Feb.March) 29 in some years30
  • Adar Sheni 29 (intercalary month   in leap
    year only) 

5
Before fixed calendar
  • Before Hillel II established a fixed calendar
    based on mathematical and astronomical
    calculation eyewitnesses testified to having seen
    the new crescent moon and the main Jewish court
    decided if an extra month was to be added
  • To notify other villages of the start of a new
    month signal fires were lit on the mountainside
  • This process was stopped when false fires began
    to be lit and a shaliach was sent instead but was
    not able to reach all communities outside of
    Israel in one day which led to some communities
    celebrating scriptural festivals for two days
    rather than one

6
Fun Facts about Jewish Calendar!
  • Date of Jewish holidays do not change from year
    to year on the Jewish calendar but they do shift
    on the Gregorian calendar
  • 12 month lunar calendar loses about 11 days every
    year
  • 13 month lunar calendar gains about 19 days every
    year
  • A year with 13 months is referred to as Shanah
    Meuberet which is literally a pregnant year

7
The Roman Calendar
  • A lunar calendar
  • First was invented by Romulus
  • Calendar contained 10 months with a total of 304
    Days

8
Calendar Months According to Romulus
  • Martius (31days)
  • Aprilis (30 days)
  • Maius (31 days)
  • Iunius (30 days)
  • Quintilis(31days)
  • Sextilis (30 days)
  • September (30 days)
  • October (31 days)
  • November (30 days)
  • December (30 days)

9
Calendar Reform
  • By Numa Pompilius
  • He changed the calendar to 355 days
  • He also reduced the months with 30 days to only
    have 29 days

10
Reformed Calendar Months
  • Martius (31)
  • Aprilis (29)
  • Maius (31)
  • Iunius (29)
  • Quintilis (31)
  • Sextilis (29)
  • September (29)
  • October (31)
  • November (29)
  • December (29)
  • Januarius (29)
  • Februarius (28)

11
Special Days in the Months
  • Kalends Was the 1st day of every month
  • Ides Occurred on the 15th day of every month
    that consisted of 31 days and the 13th day of all
    the other months
  • Nones Always occurred 9 days before the Ides, on
    either the 5th or 7th of the month

12
The Other Days in the Month
  • These dates were calculated by counting backwards
    inclusively from the previous special days
  • Example 2 September is considered 4 days before
    5 September

13
Examples
  • Kal. Sept.Kalends of September 1 September
  • a.d. IV Non. Sept.4 days before the Nones of
    September 2 September
  • Non. Sept. Nones of September 5 September
  • a.d.VIII Id. Sept.8 days before the Ides of
    September 6 September

14
Activity
  • Kal. Kalends Non. Nones
  • a.d. Day Before Id. Ides
  • What day is a.d. III Non. Sept.?
  • 3 days before the Nones of September 3 September
  • What day is a.d. VIII Id. Sept.?
  • 8 days before the Ides of September6 September

15
Roman Days
  • Each day was divided into 24 hours
  • They went from sunrise to sunset
  • The length of the Roman hour varied according to
    the season they were in

16
Hours in the Day
  • Summer Solstice June 21
  • The amount of daylight is considerably longer
    than that of the night
  • The 12 hours for daylight were 1 hour and 16
    minutes long
  • Winter Solstice December 21
  • The daylight is much shorter than that of the
    night
  • The 12 daylight hours were only 44 minutes long

17
Hours of the Day
  • Only 2 days during the whole year when the Roman
    day contained hours of exactly 60 minutes
  • Vernal Equinox March 21
  • Autumnal Equinox September 21

18
Days of the Week
  • First the Romans used the ancient Market Week
  • In AD 321 used the astrological week that the
    Egyptians used
  • Contained 7 days
  • Belief Each day was ruled by a specific God
    after whom the sun, moon, and planets were named

19
The Astrological Week
  • Roman Day Modern Day
  • dies Saturni Saturday
  • (the day of saturn)
  • dies Solis Sunday
  • (Sun day)
  • dies Lunae Monday
  • (Moon day)
  • dies Martis Tuesday
  • (the day of Mars)
  • dies Mercuris Wednesday
  • (the day of Mercury)
  • dies Iovis Thursday
  • (the day of Jupiter)
  • dies Veneris Friday
  • (the day of Venus)

20
The Origination of the Muslim Calendar
  • The Muslim Calendar also known as the Hirja
    Calendar originated in July 16, 622 CE. This is
    the estimated date of Muhammads emigration to
    Yathrib (Mecca).
  • When Muhammad and his followers fled to Mecca,
    Isalm became an independent force from the old
    religion.
  • At this time there were many different calendar
    systems used throughout the Muslim countries.
    Once Muhammad had fled it was decided to make one
    unified system.

21
The Muslim Calendar
  • Known as the Hijra Calendar, the Muslim Calendar
    is a purely lunar Calendar.
  • It contains 12 months that are based on the
    motion of the moon.
  • There are 354 days in the Hirja Calendar, which
    makes their year 11 days shorter then the Western
    Calendar system.

22
Months of the Muslim Calendar
  • There are 12 months in the Muslim Calendar.
  • Each month has either 29 or 30 days. There is no
    discernible order.
  • The first day of each month was decided upon by
    the sighting of the lunar crescent shortly after
    sunset.
  • If the moon was not observed on the 29th day then
    the day that began as sunset was the 30th.
  • If the lunar crescent was visible then the day
    that began at sunset would be the 1st day of the
    nest month.
  • This such practice is still followed in a few
    parts of the world, like Pakistan and Jordan.
    However, in most Muslim countries astronomical
    rules are followed.

23
Names of the Muslim Months
  • Muharram ul Haram (or shortened to Muharram)
    ?????
  • Safar ???
  • Rabi-ul-Awwal (Rabi' I) ???? ?????
  • Rabi-ul-Akhir (or Rabi al-THaany) (Rabi' II)
    ???? ????? ?? ???? ??????
  • Jumaada-ul-Awwal (Jumaada I) ????? ?????
  • Jumaada-ul-Akhir (or Jumaada al-THaany) (Jumaada
    II) ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????
  • Rajab ???
  • Sha'aban ?????
  • Ramadan ?????
  • Shawwal ?????
  • Zil Khad ?? ?????? (or The al-Qidah)
  • Zil Hijjah ?? ????? (or The al-Hijjah)

24
Days of the Week
  • The Islamic week is derived from the Jewish week.
  • The days of the week coincide with the Sunday
    through Saturday planetary week.
  • The days begin at sunset compared to the
    Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the
    following midnight.

25
Names of the Days of the Week
  • yaum as-sabt ??? ???????? (sabbath day) (Urdu,
    ????)
  • yaum al-ahad ??? ????? (first day) (Urdu, ?????)
  • yaum al-ithnayn ??? ??????? (second day) (Urdu,
    ???)
  • yaum ath-thalatha' ??? ??????????? (third day)
    (Urdu, ????)
  • yaum al-arbaa' ??? ?????????? (fourth day)
    (Urdu, ???)
  • yaum al-khamis ??? ???????? (fifth day) (Urdu,
    ??????)
  • yaum al-juma ??? ????????? (gathering day)
    (Urdu, ????)

26
Important Dates
  • 1 Muharram (Islamic New Year)
  • 10 Muharram (Day of Ashurah, commemorates the
    deliverance of Moses and his people from
    Pharaoh2 it is also the anniversary of
    martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali), a tragic event to
    most Muslims, but especially important to Shia
  • 27 Rajab (Isra and Miraj)
  • 15 Shabaan (Shab-e-Br'aat)
  • 1 Ramadan (first day of fasting)
  • 27 Ramadan (Nuzul Al-Qur'an) (17 Ramadan in
    Malaysia)
  • Last 10 days of Ramadhan which include Laylat
    al-Qadr commemorates the night when all who
    repent are granted forgiveness.
  • 1 Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr)
  • 8-10 The al-Hijjah (the Hajj to Makkah)
  • 10 The al-Hijjah (Eid ul-Adha).

27
Conversions
  • Multiply the Muslim year number by 0.97, then add
    622 to get the Gregorian year number.
  • Example Muslim year 1228 x .97 1191.16 622
    1813.16, so the Muslim year of 1228 corresponds
    to 1813.
  • To convert from Gregorian year to Muslim year,
    subtract 622 from the Gregorian year and then
    multiply that result by 1.031
  • Example Gregorian year 1954-622 1332 x 1.031
    1373.29, so the year 1954 corresponds to the
    Muslim year 1374.

28
Interesting Facts About the Muslim Calendar
  • Muslim Calendar is still used in most countries
    around the Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia.
  • Some Muslim countries use the Gregorian Calendar
    for civil purposes and the Muslim Calendar only
    for observance of religious holidays.
  • In the ninth year after the Hirja, the
    intercalary month (leap month) was prohibited.
    They believed that since Allah only created 12
    months when he created the heavens and the earth
    that it would be unholy to add any more.
  • It has been predicted that the Muslim Calendar
    will coincide with the Gregorian Calendar in the
    year of 20874. This prediction shows that the
    first day of the 5th months will fall on the same
    day.

29
The Aztec Calendar
  • and the Aztec Calendar Stone

30
The Aztec Calendar
  • Aztec Calendar Stone
  • 3ft thick, 12ft diameter, weighs 24 metric ton.
  • Graphic representation of the Mexica Cosmos.
  • Also known as the Stone of the Fifth Sun
  • Still a mystery

31
The Aztec Calendar
  • Tonatuih-
  • Surrounded by four glyphs that represent the end
    of the prior solar eras or destruction of world.
  • Giants ruled the world- eaten by jaguars
  • God of the wind sent powerful hurricanes
  • Some say fiery rain/ others say volcanic eruption
  • Massive Flooding
  • Symbols are represented by ollin.
  • Predicted date of destruction for the Fifth Sun
    during this 4-ollin cycle.

32
The Aztec Calendar
  • Tonatuih cont.
  • Dots along the rim possibly represent patterned
    stars or constellations.
  • Outer rim shows 2 fire serpents meeting face to
    face.
  • Tails conjoined at top with symbol ritual date
    13- Reed.
  • Considered to represent creation, possibly
    corresponding to 1011 A. D.

33
The Aztec Calendar
  • Civil Calendar
  • 18 months, 20 days plus
  • Nemotemi which is the 5 days at the end of the
    solar year to equal 365 days.

34
The Aztec Calendar
  • Second Sacred Calendar Tonalpohualli
  • Each 24 hour cycle was designed by one of the 20
    day names plus the numbers 1-13.
  • The 20 day names are encircled around the sun
    stones center.
  • Probably adopted from the Mayan culture

35
The Aztec Calendar
  • Both calendars were combined to make a formula.
  • No one date would repeat for a period of 18,980
    days.
  • Last day of solar cycle and sacred cycle
    coincided every 52 years.
  • Celebrated every 52 years with a 12 day festival
    which brought the Mexicas into nearly perfect
    synchronization with the true cycles of the earth
    and sun.

36
Activity for the Aztec Calendar
  • Website http//www.azteccalendar.com/calendar-calc
    ulator.html

37
The Chinese Calendar
  • Dates back thousands of years
  • Still in use today
  • Consists of 12 months, every few years a 13th
    month is added for a leap year

38
The Chinese Calendar and Moons
  • Based on the moon (a lunar calendar)
  • One year is 12 full moon cycles
  • The first of the month is the first day of a new
    moon

39
The Chinese Calendar Years
  • In China, the years are equal to our current year
    (ie. 2006) plus 2698.
  • 2006 2698 4704 is the current Chinese year.
  • In Taiwan, the years are equal to the current
    year minus 1911 (The year they separated from
    China)
  • 2006 1911 95 is the current Taiwanese year.

40
Chinese Zodiac
  • There are 12 animals starting with Rat that
    represent the years
  • Believed that our zodiac signs (Cancer, Aquarius,
    Ect.) are based off of these
  • Each animal has characteristics for the year.
  • Chinese instead of asking how old someone is,
    will ask what their animal sign is
  • 2006 is the year of the dog

41
Chinese Zodiac
42
Chinese New Year
  • January 29, 2006 was the first day of the Chinese
    new year
  • The Chinese New Year is between January-February
  • The Chinese New Year starts the second new moon
    after the winter solstice
  • The Chinese New Year ends on the full moon 15
    days later
  • The Seventh Day of the New Year was called
    "everybodys birthday" as everyone was considered
    one year older as of that date. (In traditional
    China, individual birthdays were not considered
    as important as the New Years date. Everyone
    added a year to his age at New Years time rather
    than at his birthday.)

43
Calendars out of this World
  • Imagine living on another planet. What would the
    basis for your calendar be?

44
(No Transcript)
45
Proposed Calendar for Mars
  • Calendar will indicate when to expect a season
    change.
  • Generic units of Martian time would be the same
    as Earth. (Month, week, and day)
  • Days are also divided into hours, minutes, and
    seconds.
  • The names for the days of the week are named with
    these heavenly objects in mind Earth, Saturn,
    Venus, Phobos, Deimos, Jupiter, and Sun.

46
  • Mars day is very close in length to Earths day.
  • The seven day week is very close in length to
    that of Earths.
  • The beginning and extent of the short periods is
    not the same because the two planets natural
    days are not synchronized.
  • One year on Mars is almost double the length of
    one on Earth. So 24 months have been assigned to
    the Martian calendar.
  • The months are named in to honor individuals who
    either participated in early space exploration or
    contributed to mankinds understanding of
    science. They are sequenced alphabetically to
    help with recall of order.

47
  • Our calendar can be broken down into halves and
    quarters. The Martian calendar can be broken down
    this way but can also be broken down into
    eighths.
  • An eighth of the Martian calendar is very close
    to the elapsed time to a quarter of an Earth
    year.
  • Most Martian calendar years have 669 days but
    others have 668.
  • Each new calendar year begins on the day of the
    vernal equinox.

48
(No Transcript)
49
If we were to start a human colony on Mars, how
would you design our calendar?
Mars Facts 1. Mars has a rotation rate such that
one day or sol (Martian day) equals 24.6 hours or
24 hours, 37 minutes. 2. Mars orbits the Sun in
687 Earth days or 670 Martian sols. 3. Mars tilts
towards the Sun at an angle of 25 degrees. Earth
has a similar tilt of 23.5 degrees. This tilt
causes seasons on both planets. 4. Mars has two
moons. Phobos travels around the planet twice in
one sol. Deimos travels around Mars once in one
sol.
50
References
  • http//www.roman-britain.org/calendar.htm
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_calendar
  • http//webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-future.h
    tml
  • http//mars.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/pdfs/marscalend
    arprojects.pdf
  • http//webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.
    html
  • http//i-cias.com/e.o/islam_cal.htm
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_calendar
  • http//www.jewfaq.org/calendar.htm
  • http//stardate.org/radio/program.php?fdetailid
    2002-01-21
  • http//www.mexconnect.com/mex_/mysfifthsun.html
  • http//www.fridgedoor.info/winter-celebrations/chi
    nese-zodiac.php
  • http//www.edinburgh.gov.uk/libraries/ethnicservic
    es/chinesenewyear/chinesenewyear.html
  • http//webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-chinese.
    html
  • http//www.c-c-c.org/chineseculture/zodiac/zodiac.
    html
  • http//www.delemme.com/ecalen.htm
  • http//www.chinapage.com/newyear.html
  • http//www.educ.uvic.ca/faculty/mroth/438/CHINA/ch
    inese_new_year.html
  • http//www.c-c-c.org/chineseculture/festival/newye
    ar/newyear.html
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