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Title: BIBL 6023 Introduction to the Apostolic Age

BIBL 6023 Introduction to the Apostolic Age
  • The Letters and Theology of the Apostle Paul
    Part One

Pauls Early LettersThessaloniansCorinthians
Background Paul visited the city in 50 CE. We
have Lukes account in Acts 1719. First place
of major ministry since leaving Philippi in the
north. Silas (Silvanus) and Timothy were Pauls
companions. For three successive Sabbaths Paul
preached the Gospel and attempted to persuade the
synagogue congregation that Jesus was the
Messiah, as proven by his crucifixion and
resurrection. Some believed, some did not, Paul
and company were driven out of the city, after
enjoying the hospitality of a man named Jason for
a few weeks more, and harassed from city to city
down the eastern coast of Greece. Later Paul sent
Timothy back to the infant church at Thessalonica
to inquire as to their welfare. Timothy returned
with an encouraging report, in response of which
Paul penned the letter we call 1 Thessalonians
(cf. 1110). However, according to chapter 2,
Pauls integrity has been called into question
and so this is another major reason for his
Papyrus fragments?65 PSI XIV.1373
?65 preserves 1 Thess 1321 (left) and 2613
(right). It dates to the middle of the third
century. PSI Papiri Società Italiana (Florence).
recto verso
Magdalen College, Oxfordms. Greek 9
1 Thessalonians 1 folio 210r 2
Thessalonians 1 folio 213r
Structure and Content 1 Thessalonians
Outline 1 Thessalonians may be outlined as
follows 11 Greeting 1210 Thanksgiving for
their faith 2116 Paul defends his
character 217310 Narrative of events since
leaving Thessalonica 31113 Paul prays for their
speedy reunion 4112 Paul exhorts them to holy
living and brotherly love 413511 Teaching
concerning the return of Christ 51328 General
exhortations, prayer, greeting, benediction
2 Thessalonians
Background Although by no means certain, it is
probable that 2 Thessalonians was written a few
months after 1 Thessalonians. Pauls teaching in
the first letter that the Day of the Lord would
come suddenly had in all likelihood led to the
belief that the Lords return would be immediate,
without any preceding signs. This wrong idea Paul
corrects in his second letter. He also takes the
occasion to exhort the busybodies and unruly
in the church. Outline 2 Thessalonians may be
outlined as follows 112 Greeting
1312 Thanksgiving and Encouragement
2112 Further Instructions on the Day of the
Lord 21335 More Thanksgiving and
Encouragement 3615 The Need for
Discipline 31618 Prayer, final Greeting, and
Finding Thessalonica on the map
A non-Pauline interpolation? On the authenticity
of 1 Thess 21316and the question of early
Some scholars have contended that a later scribe
inserted 21316 into its present context in
Pauls first letter to the Thessalonians. For
example, Pearson detects an allusion in v. 16c
(Wrath has overtaken them to the uttermost) to
the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE. Boers
agrees with Pearson, suggesting that the argument
of the letter flows more smoothly if 21316 is
omitted. However, Pauls language seems to be
stereotypical, as seen in the parallel in T. Levi
611 but the wrath of Lord came upon them
(people of Shechem) to the uttermost. It has
been suggested that Paul has referred to the
massacre in the Temple precincts in 49 CE (cf.
Josephus, J.W. 2.12.1 224227 Ant. 20.5.3
105112 lust for revolution . . . twenty
thousand perished) and perhaps also to the
expulsion of the Jewish people from Rome that
same year (cf. Suetonius, Claudius
25.4). Bibliography H. Boers, The Form-Critical
Study of Pauls Letters 1 Thessalonians as a
Case Study, NTS 22 (197576) 14058 B. A.
Pearson, 1 Thessalonians 21316 A
Deutero-Pauline Interpolation, HTR 64 (1971)
7994 Neil Elliott, The Apostle Pauls
Self-Presentation as Anti-Imperial Performance,
in Richard A. Horsley (ed.), Paul and the Roman
imperial order (Harrisburg Trinity Press
International, 2004) 6788. Elliott argues that 1
Thess 21316 is directed against pro-Roman
Pauls Eschatology
  • 1 Thess 110 to wait for his Son from heaven
  • 1 Thess 313 without blame . . . at the coming
    of our Lord Jesus with all his saints
  • 1 Thess 41318 the dead in Christ rise first
  • 1 Thess 5111 You are not in darkness, that the
    day should overtake you as a thief
  • 1 Thess 523 without blame at the coming of our
    Lord Jesus Christ
  • 2 Thess 2112 with regard to the coming of our
    Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together to

An interpretation
Context Somehow a rumor has started to the
effect that the Day of the Lord had already
arrived and that the End was near. It is likely
that this popular view lay behind most of the
unruliness (cf. 2 Thess 31112 1 Thess
41112). Pauls Correction Three recognizable
events to signal the coming Day 1. The
occurrence of the apostasy (23) what does
this word mean? 2. The revelation of the man
of lawlessness (23) who is he? 3. The
removal of the restrainer (27) to what does
this refer? Pauls Argument None of these things
has happened, so the Day has not arrived as
rumored. What about the relation of the Rapture
to Jesus Coming? Two points 1. When Jesus
comes u(pe\r thj parousi/aj tou kuri/ou h(mwn
0Ihsou Xristou, he gathers his Church (21)
2. When Jesus comes th e0pifanei/a thj
parousi/aj au)tou, he slays the lawless one
(28) 3. Since all agree that the lawless one
is slain at the end of the period of tribulation
(however it is to be described and how long it
may be) it would seem most logical that Paul is
here teaching that Jesus gathers the Church at
the end of the period of wrath, not before or
A New Study
  • Both letters derive from Paul, with the second
    letter functioning as an addendum to the first
  • Someone declared that the Lord had returned,
    perhaps claiming to have seen a letter from Paul,
    to that effect.

Introduction Paul reached Corinth in 50 CE,
during his second missionary journey. He stayed
in the city for 18 months (Acts 1811,18),
receiving divine instruction (Acts 18910). The
city was notorious for its sinful lifestyle. In
fact, the word corinthianize was coined to
convey the idea of perverting something. It was
an affluent city and was strategically located,
linking northern and southern Greece. Unlike the
Judaizing problem that Paul has to face, at
Corinth the problem concerned fierce rivalries
and the quest for wisdom. The church contained
wealthy people, poor people, a few Jews, and many
ex-pagans who brought into the church their
former religious practices and beliefs. These
practices and beliefs prompted most of the
problems that Paul found necessary to address in
his letters. It is likely that Paul wrote no
fewer than four letters to this church, although
only two are now found in the New Testament.
Pauls second and fourth letters to the
Corinthians are probably what we call first and
second Corinthians in the New Testament.
Finding Corinth on the Map
Pauls related to Corinth as follows
1. The report of an incestuous relationship in
the church prompts Paul to write a letter (1 Cor
59), which is now lost. 2. Next, information
reaches Paul through the household of Chloe that
things are not going well at Corinth (1 Cor
111). 3. Paul sends Timothy and Erastus to
Macedonia and intimates that Timothy may come as
far as Corinth (Acts 1922 1 Cor 417 1610).
4. Shortly thereafter Paul gets a letter from
Corinth, brought probably by Stephanas,
Fortunatus, and Achaicus (1 Cor 1617). 5. Paul
writes our canonical 1 Corinthians which he
assumes will reach its destination before Timothy
gets to Corinth (1 Cor 16910). 6. News of
fresh difficulties reach Paul either through
Timothy or in some other way (2 Cor 10710
1123 121617). 7. Paul makes a hasty trip to
Corinth from Ephesus (2 Cor 131 cf. 21
121421). 8. Paul sends Titus with a severe
letter (2 Cor 239 7812). Some think that
parts of this letter may now be 2 Corinthians
1013. If not, then this letter is lost. 9.
Paul goes from Ephesus to Troas and then on into
Macedonia where he meets Titus (2 Cor 21213
76-16). 10. Paul writes 2 Corinthians and
sends it by Titus and two others (2 Cor
81624). 11. Paul himself arrives in Corinth
(Acts 1921 203).
Papyrus fragments
?46 (Chester Beatty) pros karinqious a begins
about two thirds down.
?15 (P.Oxy. 1008), showing 1 Cor 73384.
Introduction to 1 Corinthians
The major reason that Paul wrote 1 Corinthians
was not so much to clear up questions that were
raised from his first (and lost) letter, but to
deal with the problem of division in the church.
In Pauls mind this division was evidence of
carnality (334). The division was primarily
inspired out of misguided senses of loyalty to
various apostolic figures Paul, Apollos,
Cephas (Peter), and even Christ. The chief
problem seems to center on a rivalry between Paul
and Apollos, who had followed Paul to Corinth.
According to Acts 182428 Apollos was a learned
and eloquent man. According to 1 Corinthians 12
some of the Corinthians thought of themselves as
wise, no doubt with the wisdom imparted either
from Apollos or from special revelations of
Christ himself. It is possible that some of the
Corinthians thought of Paul as a second-rate
apostle in comparison to the eloquent Apollos.
Others may have considered Paul second-rate in
comparison to Peter (Cephas) because he had not
been one of the original Twelve Apostles. To this
Paul responds by reminding the Corinthians of the
gospels simplicity. He also warns Apollos, and
any other who would labor in the gospel ministry,
that ones works will be tested, probably in
terms of the trials and persecutions of life that
often attend a life that is faithful to Christ.
Major issue Wisdom and Gospel
110421 Divisions in the Church 11017 Rival
Factions 118216 Gods Wisdom 31421 Gods
Servants Evidently the church at Corinth was
plagued by rivalry between Pauline loyalists and
Apollonian loyalists. The latter probably viewed
their hero as well educated and articulate (cf.
Acts 1824 Apollos . . . eloquent man . . .
mighty in the scriptures 1 Cor 21 I did not
come with superiority of speech). Pauls attack
on wisdom is masterful. Observe the many
references to Scripture (mostly concerned with
Another major issuespiritual gifts
  • All do not have gifts of healing, do they? All
    do not speak with tongues, do they? All do not
    interpret, do they? But earnestly desire the
    greater gifts. And I will show you a still more
    excellent way (1 Cor 123031). excellent way
    love (chap. 13)
  • Pursue love, yet desire earnestly spiritual
    gifts, but especially that you may prophesy. . .
    . Therefore, my brothers, desire earnestly to
    prophesy, and do not forbid to speak in tongues.
    But let all things be done properly and in an
    orderly manner (1 Cor 141, 3940).

One more major issuethe resurrection
15158 The Resurrection The Essential
Element 15111 The Resurrection of Christ
Affirmed 151234 The Resurrection of Christians
Assured 153558 The Nature of the Resurrection
Body Special problem What is the meaning of v.
29? Mormons engage in proxy baptism, on behalf
of the dead. Is this what Paul is talking about?
Baptism for the DeadA new suggestion
Although 1 Cor 1529 (Otherwise what are they to
do, who have themselves baptized on account of
the dead? If the dead are not really raised, why
are they baptized on account of them?) has
received a vast amount of attention in the
biblical academy, there is no scholarly consensus
as to its meaning. In order to break the current
impasse, this volume reviews and critiques the
over forty different interpretations of 1529,
then examines the verse anew in terms of its
literary, historical, and theological contexts
within the writings of Paul. On the basis of this
study, Hull concludes that 1 Cor 1529 is a dual
rhetorical question in which Paul holds up one
group within the Corinthian community as a
laudable example for the entire community.
Specifically, those who have themselves baptized
are undergoing the rite of baptism because of
their steadfast faith in the resurrection of
Christ and, concomitantly, of Christians. They
undergo the rite of baptism on account of the
deadon account of the fact that the dead are
destined for lifeand thus shame the arrogance
and ignorance of those among the Corinthians who
deny the resurrection (1 Cor 1512). Baptism on
Account of the Dead (1 Cor 1529) An Act of
Faith in the Resurrection. By Michael F. Hull,
Professor of Sacred Scripture at St. Josephs
Seminary in Yonkers, New York (Academia Biblica
Leiden Brill, 2005).
2 Corinthians
Background and Occasion of 2 Corinthians 2
Corinthians was written approximately one year
after 1 Corinthians. The letter is intensely
personal, its doctrine being limited to 5110
(on the resurrection) and chaps. 89 (on giving).
Paul is expressing his personal feelings to his
Corinthian converts. Pauls sincere testimony
exposes the sham apostles who are motivated out
of greed. Special Problem 2 Corinthians
presents interpreters with a special problemthat
of its composition. Because of the abrupt shift
from chapter 9 to 10, and because of the
difference in contents and theme between chaps
19 and 1013 some think that two Corinthian
letters have been combined. Also noteworthy is
the abrupt shift found in going from 21213 to
75. Could the intervening material in 21574
be from yet another Corinthian letter?
New Study
  • 2 Corinthians is not an amalgam of letter
  • The letter parallels the genre of ancient
    apology, as seen in Socrates, Isocrates, and

?46 incipit of pros korinqious b
Major issue
31716 Pauls Ministry 3118 Old and New
Covenants 4115 Human Weakness and Divine
Glory 416510 Earthly Decline and Heavenly
Renewal 511610 The Ministry of
Reconciliation 61171 Avoid Ungodly
Attachments 7216 Pauls Confidence in the
Corinthians Specific Passages for
Study 31218 The Veil of Moses and the
presence of the Spirit. Jewish exegesis as found
in the Targum (Exod 343234). Lord Yahweh.
Lit. turning has become interpreted as turning
in the sense of repenting.
Another major issueAscent into the Third
My glory is incomparable and besides me no one
is exalted . . . for I reside in heaven . . . I
am counted among the gods and my dwelling is in
the holy congregation my desire is not according
to the flesh . . . Who is comparable to me in my
glory? . . . Who will attack me when I open my
mouth? And who can . . . ? 4Q491c frag. 11 col. 1
  • Merkabah Mysticism
  • 4Q491c Hymn of Exaltation

I know a man . . . caught up to the third heaven
. . . and he heard unutterable things, which one
is not permitted to speak (2 Cor 1214).
More Studies in Corinthians
Grant is a well known, aged veteran Adams and
Horrell have assembled classic essays, old and
Pauls Soteriological LettersGalatiansRomans
Galatians among the papyri
?46 (Chester Beatty III), dates to c. 200. At
right we have final page of Pauls letter pros
Finding Galatia on the Map
Pauls relations with the Galatians
Background There are two major questions
concerning historical background that the
interpreter of Galatians must face (1) Is
Galatians addressed to churches in northern Asia
Minor (where the original Galatian kingdom had
been established) or to southern Asia Minor,
which the Roman Empire called Galatia and which
Paul and Barnabas visited on their first
missionary journey (Acts 1311428)? (2) Against
which of the two Jerusalem councils should
Galatians be read, that of Acts 11 or that of
Acts 15? In answer to these questions I would
propose this reconstruction of events 1. By a
vision and first-hand experience Peter learns
that the Gentiles may be saved, as evidenced by
the outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon Cornelius
and his household, and that this salvation is
possible apart from becoming Jewish proselytes
(Acts 10). 2. Peter reports this fact to the
church of Jerusalem (Acts 11118). Because of
his testimony the church agrees that even
Gentiles may be saved and so admitted into the
Church. Persecution scatters the Church far and
wide, to such cities as Antioch to the north
(Acts 111920Lukes way of showing how human
opposition often advanced Gods work). contd
3. Because of these scattered believers
preaching in Antioch many come to faith (Acts
112021). When word of this reaches Jerusalem,
they send Barnabas (Acts 1122) who witnessed all
that was happening (Acts 112324). 4. Because
of this fruitful ministry, and the need for more
workers, Barnabas leaves Antioch to find Saul
(Paul) of Tarsus (Acts 1125). 5. Barnabas
brings Saul (Paul) to Antioch, and for one year
ministered to the Gentiles (Acts 1126). 6.
Agabus prophesied a coming famine and so the
believers (called Christians there for the first
time) of Antioch take a collection and send it
with Barnabas and Saul to be given to the poor of
Jerusalem (Acts 112730). Titus, a Gentile,
accompanied them and was not compelled to become
a Jewish proselyte (Gal 23). During this visit,
according to Gal 213, 610, Pauls apostleship
and ministry to the Gentiles were accepted. This
probably took place in the year 46 CE. 7.
Barnabas and Paul leave Jerusalem, taking along
John Mark (cousin of Barnabas), and return to
Antioch (Acts 1225). 8. According to Gal
21114 Peter (Cephas) visited the believers in
Antioch and was initially willing to eat with the
Gentiles, but when Jewish Christians from
Jerusalem came up for a visit Peter withdrew from
them (Gal 212) causing others, including
Barnabas himself, to withdraw from the Gentiles
(Gal 213). This action Paul condemned (Gal
21421) in no uncertain terms. contd
9. Shortly after, Paul and Barnabas embark on
their first missionary journey, a journey which
takes them to southern Asia Minor (Acts 1314).
During this journey Paul is stoned (1419), which
may account for his reference to bearing on his
body the brand-marks of Jesus (Gal 617). 10.
Not far behind in their wake, Christian Jews
visited the very places where Paul had been,
advocating that the Gentile believers become
proselytes in order to become more complete in
the faith (Gal 1610 315 417 57, 12
61213). From what we are able to infer from
Galatians it would appear that these Jewish
Christians, sometimes called Judaizers,
challenged Pauls apostleship and authority
(perhaps by saying that he had not been discipled
by Jesus himself, as had Peter and the others)
and challenged Pauls concept of a Gospel of
grace apart from the Law. 11. When Paul hears
of this he writes the Letter to the Galatians. In
it he shows that his apostleship is from Christ
himself (Gal 11) and that all that he knows of
the Gospel was given to himself through a
revelation of Christ and not by agency of man
(Gal 11117). He also notes that his gospel was
reviewed by the pillars of the Jerusalem church
and was found to be orthodox (Gal 2110).
Pauls argument against salvation by works of
law (erga novmou)
16221 The Authority of Pauls
Gospel 1610 No other Gospel 11117 Pauls
Gospel was Divinely Revealed 11824 Paul did
not seek Human Approval 2110 The Priority of
the Authority of the Gospel 21114 Paul rebukes
Peter at Antioch 21521 Pauls Diatribe Christ
or the Law? 31431 Pauls Doctrinal
Argument 315 Appeal to history and
experience 369 The witness of
Abraham 31014 The Law condemns, but faith
gives life 31518 The Law cannot annul the
Promise 31929 The Law has functioned as a
Custodian 417 Analogy of the Heir 4811 The
bondage of custom and tradition 41220 Appeal
to First Love 42131 Allegory of Sarah and Hagar
Pauls argumentsteps 12
1. Pauls Defense of his Apostleship A major
purpose for writing Galatians was to defend his
personal integrity. Paul wishes to make it very
clear that his ministry was not motivated out of
an interest to please men (Gal 110) by preaching
an easy Gospel. Paul also wishes to make it
very clear that his Gospel was received by
revelation of Christ (Gal 11112) and that his
apostleship itself came from Christ himself (Gal
11). 2. The Gospel of Grace Paul wishes to
underscore the fact that the central issue of the
Christian faith is salvation by Gods grace
alone, the benefits of which are appropriated
through faith alone. How can the Galatians, who
began in grace, now continue in law (16 33
54)? The Law condemns, for it reveals Gods
goodness and mans sinfulness it can neither
justify nor save. Ritual acts and good works
offered as the basis for justification and
salvation militate against grace. No man can win
acceptance with God on terms other than Gods
grace freely given. Anything less amounts to a
denial of the completeness and finality of the
cross of Christ.
Pauls argumentsteps 34
3. Justification by Faith Faith on a humans
part is the only proper response to Gods
movement towards him in grace (216 324). Hence
the famous dictum of the Reformation sola
gratia, sola fidei (by grace alone, by faith
alone). These are the irreducible and crucial
elements of the Gospel. They are the hallmarks of
evangelical Christianity without which the Gospel
ceases to be of Christ (167). 4. The Fruit
of Grace and Faith The freedom of grace and
faith is not an invitation to false security or
to careless standards of living (51). The
Christian begins under grace, continues under
grace, and is never to be under the law. The
works of the flesh (which can never be restrained
or controlled by law) are plainly evident, but
the fruit of grace is the fruit of a
Spirit-possessed life (522). God vindicates His
grace and the life of faith in the proper use of
liberty by His children in Christ.
Paul and 4QMMT(miqs\at maesah ha-to?ra?h
some of the works of the Law)
Paul and 4QMMT contd
Paul has argued against no straw man, but against
religious folk who have enjoined the Galatian
Christians along the lines of what we see argued
in 4QMMT.
4QMMT (4Q398) jpg
4Q398 (one of the mss of MMT)
and it shall be reckoned to you as
righteousness, when you do what is just and good
before him, for your good and for Israel (lines
Kl bwl wnpl bwhw ryh Ktw(b hqdcl Kl
hbxnw l)rylw
Background and Purpose of Writing Paul did not
establish the church at Rome (11015 152022).
Tradition holds that Peter founded the church,
but although most agree that Peter eventually
came to Rome, he was not the founder of the
church there. How it was established remains a
mystery. Perhaps some of the Pentecostal
visitors from Rome (Acts 210) had something to
do with it. Paul probably wrote Romans in 55 CE,
just before he left for Jerusalem at the end of
his third missionary journey (Acts 201). Paul
wrote Romans in order (1) to announce his plans
of making a visit (11013) and (2) to explain
(i.e., defend) his gospel (11417). Major
Theme Paul wishes to stress that all of
humankind, both Jew and Gentile, must approach
God the same way, that is, through faith, for all
of mankind, both Jew and Gentile, stands
condemned before God as sinful. This approach to
God is made possible by the death, resurrection,
and intercession of Jesus Christ.
RomansMost significant book in history
Karl Barth
Martin Luther
Luthers Werke
Der Römerbrief
Romans among the papyri
?27 (P.Oxy. 1355), showing Rom 83393
?46 (Chester Beatty) c. 200
Recent finds
?118 (P.Köln 10311recto)
?113 (P.Oxy. 4497)
An outline of Romans pt. 1
1117 The Prologue 117 The
Address 1815 Thanksgiving and Pauls
Hope 11617 The Theme of the Gospel 118521 T
he Principles of the Gospel 11832 Gentile
Righteousness 21320 Jewish
Righteousness 32131 The Way of
Righteousness 4125 Abrahamic
Righteousness 5121 Believers Righteousness
Finding Rome on the Map
PrinciplesAll people are sinful
  • The sinfulness of humanity is seen in history.
  • Even the best of Gentile moralists and ethicists
    are sinful.
  • Even Jews, who have the Law, are sinners.

PrinciplesOnly the way of faith saves
  • Works of the flesh cannot save.
  • Salvation is obtained only through faith.
  • Abrahams faith provides the template for allJew
    and Gentile alike.

PrinciplesThe righteous act of Jesus saves all
  • All are under the sin of Adam. Adams one act of
    disobedience condemned all.
  • The righteous act of Jesus saves. His one act of
    obedience can (potentially) save all.

An outline of Romans pt. 2
6123 Ethical Problems raised by the
Gospel 6114 The charge of license 61523 The
charge of lawlessness 71839 The Christian
and the Law 716 Law is valid only in ones
lifetime 7725 Law and sin are not
identical 8139 Sin is vanquished by Christ
and the Spirit
PrinciplesGrace does not mean freedom to sin
  • Grace does not provide license to sin.
  • The believer is dead to sin, raised to new life
    in Jesus.
  • Sin nature, however, is still active, drawing
    believer away from righteousness.
  • The Spirit of God enables one to live pleasing to

An outline of Romans pt. 3
911136 The Problem of Jewish Rights and
Privilege with respect to the
Gentiles 9129 The absolute sovereignty of
God 9301021 Jewish responsibility in the
historical setting 11136 The merciful
purpose of God
PrinciplesSalvation of Gentiles provides no
grounds for boasting over Israel
  • Gods decision to save Gentiles is in keeping
    with his sovereignty.
  • Israel is in a state of unbelief at present, but
    someday all Israel will be saved.
  • Gentiles must appreciate the Jewish heritage.
  • Gods plan will be accomplished.

An outline of Romans pt. 4
1211513 Christianity in Practice 1212 Intro
duction 12321 Personal ethics 1317 Politica
l ethics 13814 Personal ethics
contd 1411513 The strong and the
weak 15141627 Epilogue 151421 Pauls
justification for writing 152233 Plans for
future journeys 16116 Greetings to friends in
Rome 161720 A final admonition 162123 Greeti
ngs from Corinthian brethren 162427 A
concluding doxology
PrinciplesCitizenship in heaven does not
eliminate responsibilities on earth
  • Personal ethics and responsibilities
  • Recognition of secular authority
  • Justice system (prison, capital punishment?)
  • Just war?

  • A living sacrifice
  • The role of government
  • Principles of conscience
  • Was Junia(s), an outstanding apostle, a woman?
    cf. Rom 167 and Eldon Jay Epp, Junia The First
    Woman Apostle (Fortress, 2005).

A living sacrifice . . .your rational service
  • I appeal to you therefore, brethren, by the
    mercies of God, to present your bodies as a
    living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God,
    which is your rational logikov" worship (Rom
  • On living and holy sacrifice, acceptable to
    God, see 1QS 945 an acceptable sacrifice for
    the land . . . and prayer, becomingas it
    werejustice itself, a sweet savor of
    righteousness and blameless behavior . . .
    (though physical sacrifice is still in view).
  • On rational (logikov") service, see T. Levi 36
    They present to the Lord a pleasing odor, a
    rational logikov" and bloodless oblation
    Philo, Special Laws 1.277 What is precious in
    the sight of God is not the number of victims
    sacrificed but the true purity of a rational
    logikov" spirit in him who makes the sacrifice.

Was Junia(s) a woman?
  • Greet Andronicus and Junias 0Iounian, my
    kinsmen and my fellow prisoners they are men of
    note among the apostles, and they were in Christ
    before me (Rom 167).
  • The accusative form iounian can be from either
    the masculine iounias ( 0Iouniaj) or the
    feminine iounia ( 0Iouni/a). A few ms,
    including ?46, read 0Iouli/an. But this reading
    probably reflects Rom 1615. Moreover, the
    masculine form 0Iouniaj is unattested, while
    many early church fathers thought the name was
    Junia and that this woman was the wife of
    Andronicus e.g., John Chrysostom states How
    great the wisdom of this woman that she was even
    deemed worthy of the apostles title (In ep. ad
    Romanos 31.2 PG 60.66970). In what sense could
    this couple be apostles? Evidently they
    numbered among the five hundred who saw the risen
    Lord (cf. 1 Cor 157).
  • If Junia was an apostle, what implications might
    this have for the question of ordination for

Recent Studies in Romans
Reasoner (Bethel College) shows how much of
modern interpretation was anticipated in the
studies of Origen, Augustine, Aquinas, Luther,
and Calvin. Moo (Wheaton College) measures the
older reformation understanding against the
newer understanding of Paul and the Jewish Law.
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