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Title: Terrorism

Terrorism Force Protection
Freedom and fear are at warEither you are with
us, or you are with the terrorists. President
George W. Bush 20 September, 2001
  • History
  • Definitions
  • Impact of Terrorism
  • Objective of Terrorism
  • Tactics of Terrorism
  • Effects of Terrorism on National Security
  • Force Protection

  • Found as early as biblical times
  • Jewish and Palestinian groups opposed Roman rule
    in 66-73 A.D.
  • Word terrorism has roots in French Reign of
  • 1773-1794, Jacobins under leadership of
    Maximilien Robespierre
  • Huge explosion in incidents of terrorism in
    latter part of 20th century

al-Qaeda vs. U.S.
  • 1996 Osama bin Laden issues declaration of war
    Declaration of War Against the Americans
    Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places
  • 1998 Osama bin Laden issues another Fatwaduty
    to kill Americans anytime, anywhere
  • 1998 Coordinated bombings of U.S. Embassies in
    Nairobi, Kenya and Dar el Salaam, Tanzania
  • 2000 USS Cole attacked by suicide bombers while
    refueling in Yemen
  • 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks
  • 2002 Diplomat Laurence Foley murdered in Jordan
  • 2005 Bombings at 3 American owned hotels in
    Amman, Jordan

  • 22 United States Code 2656d(f)
  • the term terrorism means premeditated,
    politically motivated violence perpetrated
    against noncombatant targets by subnational
    groups or clandestine agents

  • Walter Laqueur
  • Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use
    of force to achieve a political objective when
    innocent people are targeted.

  • The calculated use of violence or threat of
    violence to inculcate fear intended to coerce or
    to intimidate governments or societies in pursuit
    of goals that are generally political, religious
    or idelogical.
  • Joint Publication 3-07.2, Joint Tactics,
    Techniques, and Procedures for Antiterrorism

  • Domestic Terrorism
  • Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a
    country against their fellow citizens
  • Includes acts against citizens of a second
    country when they are in the host country, and
    not the principal or intended target

Domestic Terrorism
  • Oklahoma City bombing of Murrah Federal building
    on 19 April 1995 killed 168 people and injured
    hundreds of others.
  • Centennial Olympic Park bombing on 26 July 1996
    in Atlanta, Georgia killed 2 and injured 111.

Domestic Terrorism
  • Tokyo subway sarin gas attack on 20 March 1995 by
    the Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth) cult killed 12
    and injured approximately 6,000.
  • Bali Nightclub Bombings on 12 October 2002 by the
    Jemaah Islamiah organization killed 202 people
    and injured 209.

  • International terrorism
  • Terrorism in which planning and execution of the
    terrorist act transcends national boundaries

International Terrorism
  • Bombing of Le Belle Disco in West Berlin on 5
    April 1986, sponsored by Libya, killing 3 and
    injuring more than 100.
  • Pan Am Flight 103 bombing over Lockerbie,
    Scotland on 21 December 1988 by Libyan agents
    killed 270.

International Terrorism
  • First World Trade Center Attack on 26 February
    1993 Islamic terrorists detonated a truck bomb
    under the towers killing six and damaging the
  • American Airlines Flight 63 attempted shoe
    bombing by Islamic fundamentalist Richard Reid
    on 22 December 2002.

International Terrorism
  • September 11 Attacks
  • Perpetrated by al-Qaeda
  • Two jets crashed into the World
  • Trade Centers killing 2,752
  • One jet crashed into the
  • Pentagon killing 189
  • - One jet crashed in PA killing 45

  • Terror Threat
  • The impact on the actual victim of the terrorist
    attack is often secondary to the emotional or
    psychological impact on an audience far larger
    than the victims
  • The true target of the terrorist is society as a

  • Objectives
  • Attract attention for groups cause
  • Demonstrate groups power
  • Show the existing governments lack of power
  • Extract revenge
  • Obtain logistical support
  • Cause a government to overreact

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Assassination The killing of
  • prominent persons and
  • symbolic enemies or traitors
  • who defect from the group.
  • On 6 October 1981, Egyptian President
  • Sadat was assassinated during an
  • military parade by army members who
  • were part of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad
  • On 4 November 1995, Israeli Prime
  • Minister Rabin was assassinated after
  • attending a rally by a right-wing activist

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Arson
  • Less dramatic than most tactics
  • Low risk
  • Low level of technical knowledge
  • Often associated with environmental
  • terrorists
  • 1 August 2003 Biggest act of eco-
  • terrorism in U.S. history was a fire set by
  • the Earth Liberation Front that
  • destroyed a 50 million apartment
  • complex just outside San Diego

  • Vail, Colorado The arson attack at a Colorado
    ski resort October 19, 1998, was apparently
    carried out by members of the so-called Earth
    Liberation Front.
  • Destroyed a ski patrol headquarters building, a
    skier shelter, a mountaintop restaurant and
    several chairlifts
  • Caused some 12 million in damage
  • Set to protest the Vail ski resort's 880-acre

  • The improvised explosive device (IED) or Bomb is
    the terrorists weapon of choice.
  • Inexpensive to produce
  • Various detonation techniques available, may be a
    low risk to the perpetrator.
  • Suicidal bombing cannot be overlooked.
  • Other advantages include their attention-getting
    capacity-ability to control casualties through
    time of detonation and placement of the device.
  • Easily deniable should the action produce
    undesirable results.
  • From 1983 through 1996, approximately half of all
    recorded terrorist incidents involved explosives.

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Bombing the improvised
  • explosive device (IED) is the
  • terrorists weapon of choice.
  • 7 July 2005, London bombings were a
  • series of coordinated three suicide
  • bombings that struck public transport
  • system killing 56 and injuring 700
  • 25 June 1996, Hezbollah exploded a
  • fuel truck packed with 3,000-5,000 lbs of
  • explosives at the Khobar Towers in
  • Dhahran, Saudi Arabia 20 killed and 372
  • wounded

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Bombing the improvised explosive
  • device (IED) is the terrorists weapon
  • of choice.
  • 23 October 1983, terrorists using a truck
  • bomb destroyed the Marine barracks in
  • Beirut, Lebanon. 245 killed and 146
  • wounded
  • 12 October 2000, suicide attack on the
  • Navy destroyer USS Cole in the port of
  • Aden in Yemen. 17 sailors, 39 injured

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Bombing the improvised explosive
  • device (IED) is the terrorists weapon
  • of choice.
  • 7 August 1998, bombs exploded almost
  • simultaneously at the U.S. Embassy
  • buildings in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar Es
  • Salaam, Tanzania
  • - Killed 153 and left over 4,500 injured
  • - Severely damaged both installations

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Hostage Taking an overt
  • seizure of individuals with the
  • intent of gaining publicity or
  • other concessions in return for
  • release of the hostage.
  • On 1 Sep 2004, Chechen terrorists took
  • hundreds of school children and adults
  • hostage in Beslan, Russia 331 civilians
  • were killed, 186 of them children
  • On 4 Nov 1979, student militants
  • stormed the U.S. Embassy in Teheran,
  • Iran and held 66 American diplomats and
  • Marines hostage for 444 days.

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Kidnapping a covert seizure
  • of one or more specific person
  • in order to extract specific
  • demands.
  • On 23 October 2002, the Revolutionary
  • Armed Forces of Colombia took Íngrid
  • Betancourt, a Colombian senator while
  • campaigning for president still missing
  • On 17 December 1981, U.S. Army
  • General James Dozier was kidnapped in
  • Milan by Red Brigade terrorists Italian
  • counter terrorist squads subsequently
  • rescued him on January 28, 1982

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Hijacking or Skyjacking is
  • normally carried out to produce
  • a spectacular hostage situation
  • Although trains, buses, and ships have
  • been hijacked, aircraft are the preferred
  • because of their greater mobility
  • 14 June 1985, TWA Flight 847 was
  • hijacked by Lebanese terrorists en route
  • from Athens to Rome
  • Robert Stethem, a United States Navy
  • diver and steelworker, was killed
  • Three of the alleged hijackers are on
  • the FBI Most Wanted Terrorists list

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Seizure usually involves a
  • building or object that has value
  • in the eyes of the audience
  • 20 November 1979, 250 Sunni Muslim
  • militants occupied Mecca's Masjid al Haram
  • mosque 250 killed and 600 wounded
  • 1786-1787, Shays' Rebellion shut down the
  • unpopular debtors' courts in Massachusetts
  • - 4 rebels killed
  • - Key event leading to Constitutional
  • Convention

Raids or Attacks on Facilities
  • Armed attacks on facilities are usually
    undertaken for one of three purposes
  • To gain access to radio or television broadcast
    capabilities in order to make a statement
  • To demonstrate the governments inability to
    secure critical facilities or national symbols
  • To acquire resources (e.g., robbery of a bank or

  • During the 1970s, the Symbionese Liberation Army
    conducted a 22-month reign of terror in
    California during which time 2 people were
    murdered and 3 others were wounded.
  • Gained most of their notoriety by kidnapping
    newspaper heiress Patty Hearst
  • Majority of their crimes, which they financed by
    robbing banks, involved bombings.

  • The objective in most sabotage incidents is to
    demonstrate how vulnerable society is to
    terrorist actions.
  • Industrialized societies are more vulnerable to
    sabotage than less highly developed societies.
  • Eco-Terrorists have long used sabotage as a form
    of attack.
  • Spiking trees (the process of placing a spike in
    a tree so that a logger will hit it when downing
    the tree)
  • Burning buildings under construction, such as the
    Vail, Colorado attack

Common Terrorist Tactics
  • Hoaxes Group that has established credibility
  • can employ a hoax with considerable success.
  • - Threat that causes diversion of resources
  • - False alarms dulls efficiency and readiness
  • - 11 October 2001 800 at Connecticut's
    Department of
  • Environmental Protection were
    kept out for 2 days after an
  • anthrax hoax. 40,000 to
    decontaminate 12 employees
  • with 1.5 million lost work.
  • - 17 October 2001 17 year-old brought an
  • containing white, powdery
    material to school. 3,000 were
  • held in lock-down for 90 minutes
    while 50 emergency
  • response personnel assessed the

Use of Technology
  • Infrastructure technologies provide attractive
    targets for terrorists who can apply a range of
    rudimentary and advanced attack techniques to
    disrupt or undermine confidence in a range of
  • National infrastructure, transportation,
    telecommunications, energy, banking, public
    health, and water supply are becoming
    increasingly dependent on computerized systems
    and linkages

Uncommon Terrorist Tactic
  • Environmental Destruction increasing
  • accessibility of sophisticated weapons and
  • explosives to terrorists has the potential to
  • threaten damage to the environment.
  • - Iraqi Armed Forces retreated from Kuwait
  • and practiced a scorched earth
    policy by
  • setting fire to oil wells in 1991
  • - Protection of oil wells was a key feature
  • of planning for the 2003 invasion
    of Iraq

Use of Special Weapons
  • Terrorists to date have used chemical weapons and
    there is potential for the use of both chemical
    and biological weapons in the future.
  • Relatively cheap and easy to make, could be used
    in place of conventional explosives in many
  • Sarin gas attack in March 1995 in the Tokyo
  • 2001 Anthrax attacks

Terrorisms Affect On National Security
  • Today, we face a new enemyone who wages a
    different kind of war
  • Asymmetric Warfare
  • As the single remaining large superpower, most of
    our enemies know that challenging the United
    States symmetrically carries too much
    risktherefore, they hit and rungenerally soft
  • U.S. Strategy

Counter Terrorism Policy National Security
  • Current U.S. policy on countering terrorism was
    first stated by the Reagan Administration and has
    been reaffirmed by every president since.
  • 1. The U.S. will make no concessions to
  • 2. The U.S. will treat terrorists as criminals
    and apply the rule of law
  • 3. The U.S. will apply maximum pressure on state
    sponsors of terrorism

  • The Clinton Administration added a corollary to
    these rules
  • 4. The U.S. will Help other governments improve
    their capabilities to combat terrorism.

Department of Homeland Security
  • Cabinet DepartmentMichael Chertoff
  • - Coordinates the response capabilities of
  • 22 governmental agencies
  • - Second only to the DoD in size, consisting of
  • 180,000 employees

Department of Homeland Security
  • Not a new concept
  • - Coastal forts
  • - National Airborne Operations Center
  • - Ballistic Missile Defense

U.S. Military Policy
  • U.S. forces will continue to perform our
    missions and
  • Force protection will be a major consideration
    in future actions.
  • The DOD program adheres to this policy while
    addressing acts of terrorism from two
  • - Counter-terrorism (offensive measures)
  • - Antiterrorism (defensive measures)

  • Examples of offensive measures taken to prevent,
    deter, and respond to terrorism.
  • - Operation El Dorado Canyon
  • - Operation Infinite Reach
  • - War on Terrorism
  • Article 51 of the UN Charter entitles a nation
    to defend itself against attack.

  • Defensive measures used to reduce the
    vulnerability of individuals and property to
    terrorist acts
  • Includes limited response and containment by
    local military forces
  • Setting new buildings back from roads and parking
  • Khobar Towers actions
  • Army limiting access to all of their CONUS
    postscompletely open in past
  • Counter and Anti terrorism both rely on intel

  • For our counter-terrorism and antiterrorism
    measures to be effective, we must have some idea
    of what particular terrorist groups are
    attempting to accomplish.
  • We gain this insight through an active
    counterintelligence program.

  • Force Protection
  • The use of forces to protect resources and
    personnel with thorough force protection

Force Protection
  • After the Khobar Towers bombing, the USAF
    relocated all of our forces in theater out of
    heavily populated areas to an isolated,
    defensible, base in the desert
  • After the USS Cole bombing, the U.S. Navy
    instituted plans to deploy a floating barrier
    around its warships in high risk areas

  • History
  • Definitions
  • Impact of Terrorism
  • Objective of Terrorism
  • Tactics of Terrorism
  • Effects of Terrorism on National Security
  • Force Protection

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