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8086 Addressing Modes

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Example. Find the physical address in the interrupt vector table associated with ... Physical Address: 00048H ( 48 through 4BH are set aside for CS & IP) b) 8 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 8086 Addressing Modes


1
ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS
Session 24 Prof. Venkataramaiah. P. P HEAD
Department of Instrumentation Technology Medica
l Electronics M.S.Ramaiah Institute of
Technology, Bangalore
2
Topics to be covered
  • Session 24
  • 22/11/2005 Interrupt Processing,

  • Interrupt Vector table,
  • Hardware Interrupts.
  • Session 25
  • 23/11/2005 Expanding the Interrupt

  • Structure
  • Session 26
  • 25/11/2005 Interrupt Applications

3
INTERRUPT
The meaning of interrupts is to break the
sequence of operation.While the cpu is executing
a program,on interrupt breaks the normal
sequence of execution of instructions, diverts
its execution to some other program called
Interrupt Service Routine (ISR).After executing
ISR , the control is transferred back again to
the main program.
4
Purpose of Interrupts
Interrupts are particularly useful when
interfacing I/O devices that provide or require
data at relatively low data transfer rate.
5
Interrupt Sources
  • Hardware Interrupts (External Interrupts)
  • ex NMI, INTR
  • Software Interrupts (Internal Interrupts and
    Instructions)
  • ex INT n (Software Instructions)

6
8086 Interrupt Response
ISR procedure PUSH registers - - - POP registers
Mainline Program
PUSH Flags CLEAR IF , TF PUSH CS PUSH
IP FETCH ISR ADDRESS
POP IP POP CS POP FLAGS
IRET
7
  • It decrements SP by 2 and pushes the
  • flag register on the stack.
  • 2. Disables INTR by clearing the IF.
  • 3. It resets the TF in the flag Register.
  • It decrements SP by 2 and pushes CS on the stack.
  • It decrements SP by 2 and pushes IP on the stack.
  • 6. Fetch the ISR address from the interrupt
    vector table.

8
Interrupt Vector Table
9
(No Transcript)
10
Interrupt Vector Table
  • INT Number Physical Address
  • INT 00 00000
  • INT 01 00004
  • INT 02 00008
  • INT FF 003FC

11
Example
  • Find the physical address in the interrupt vector
    table associated with
  • INT 12H b) INT 8H
  • Solution a) 12H 4 48H
  • Physical Address 00048H ( 48 through 4BH are
    set aside for CS IP)
  • b) 8 4 20H
  • Memory Address 00020H

12
Difference between INT and CALL instructions
13
(No Transcript)
14
Functions associated with INT00 to INT04
(Exceptions)
  • INT 00 (divide error)
  • INT00 is invoked by the microprocessor whenever
    there is an attempt to divide a number by zero
  • ISR is responsible for displaying the message
    Divide Error on the screen

15
  • Ex1 Mov AL,82H AL 82
  • SUB CL,CL CL00
  • DIV CL 82/0 undefined result
  • EX2 Mov AX,0 FFFFH AX FFFFH
  • Mov BL,2 BL02
  • DIV BL 65,535/2 32767 larger than 255
    maximum capacity of AL

16
INT 01
  • For single stepping the trap flag must be 1
  • After execution of each instruction, 8086
    automatically jumps to 00004H to fetch 4 bytes
    for CS IP of the ISR
  • The job of ISR is to dump the registers on to the
    screen

17
Resetting TF (TF 0)
  • First method
  • PUSH F
  • POP AX
  • AND AX, 1111 1110 1111 1111 B
  • PUSH AX
  • POP F

18
  • Second method
  • PUSH F
  • MOV BP,SP
  • AND 0(BP), OFE FFH
  • POP F

19
Setting TF (TF 1)
  • Use OR instruction in place of AND
    instruction.
  • PUSH F
  • POP AX
  • OR AX, 0000 0001 0000 0000 B
  • PUSH AX
  • POP F

20
INT 02 (Non maskable Interrupt)
When ever NMI pin of the 8086 is activated by a
high signal (5v), the CPU Jumps to physical
memory location 00008 to fetch CSIP of the ISR
assocaiated with NMI
21
INT 03 (break point)
  • A break point is used to examine the cpu and
    memory after the execution of a group of
    Instructions.
  • It is one byte instruction whereas other
    instructions of the form INT nn are 2 byte
    instructions.

22
INT 04 ( Signed number
overflow)
  • There is an instruction associated with this INT
    0 (interrupt on overflow).
  • If INT 0 is placed after a signed number
    arithmetic as IMUL or ADD the CPU will activate
    INT 04 if 0F 1.
  • In case where 0F 0 , the INT 0 is not executed
    but is bypassed and acts as a NOP.

23
Example
Mov AL , 64 Mov BL , 64 ADD AL ,
BL INT 0 0F 1
  • INT 0 causes the cpu to perform INT 04 and
    jumps to physical location 00010H of the vector
    table to get the CS IP of the ISR

24
ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS
Session 25 Prof. Venkataramaiah. P. P HEAD
Department of Instrumentation Technology Medica
l Electronics M.S.Ramaiah Institute of
Technology, Bangalore
25
HARDWARE INTERRUPTS
  • NMI Non maskable interrupts
  • INTR Interrupt request

Edge triggered Input
NMI INTR INTA 8086
Level triggered Input
Response to INTR input
26
Hardware Interrupts
NMI TYPE 2 Interrupt INTR Between 20H and FFH
27
Interrupt priority structure
  • Interrupt Priority
  • Divide Error, INT(n),INTO Highest
  • NMI
  • INTR
  • Single Step Lowest

28
University Questions
  • Aug 2005 CSE/ISE (VTU)
  • Explain the sequence of operation follow after
    the execution of INTR interrupt. Write timing
    diagram.
  • What do you mean by interrupt priorities? List
    out interrupt priorities in 8086.

29
University Questions
  • Feb 2005 EC/TC (VTU)
  • On receiving a hardware interrupt, the 8086
    processor pushes the flag to the stack and clears
    the TF and IF before doing any further operation.
    Explain why this is required. (6 marks)
  • Even though interrupt service routine is similar
    to any procedure routine from the last
    instruction of interrupt routine is IRET which is
    coded differently from the RET instruction of the
    subroutine return. Explain the reasons for this
    separate IRET instruction (4 marks)

30
University Questions
  • Aug 2005 EC/TC (VTU)
  • What is an Interrupt Vector? Explain in detail
    the events that occur when a real mode interrupt
    becomes active. (6marks)
  • Feb 2005 IT (VTU)
  • Describe the software and hardware interrupts of
    8086. (8 marks)

31
Important Questions
  • What are the sources of Interrupts in 8086?
  • What is Interrupt vector table?
  • Briefly describe the conditions which cause the
    8086 to perform each of the following types of
    Interrupts
  • Type 0 , Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4
  • What do you mean by Interrupt priorities?
  • State the Interrupt priorities of 8086.

32
Applications of NMI Power failure detection
circuit
7414
5 v
NMI
74LS122 Monoshot
33
  • The output of the isolator is shaped by Schmit
    trigger inverter that provides a 50Hz pulse to
    the trigger Input of monoshot.
  • The value of R C are chosen so that pulse width
    of 2 AC I/P periods.
  • 74LS122s retriggarable as long as a.c power is
    applied Q 1, Q 0
  • If the AC power fails, no trigger pulses to
    monoshot hence Q 0, Q 1interrupting the
    microprocessor

34
  • The ISR stores the contents of all internal
    registers and other ddc into a battery-backed up
    memory
  • The filter capacitor (normally high), the voltage
    decays exponentially provides energy for the
    memory after the AC power ceases.

35
INTR and INTA
  • Interrupt request input (INTR) is level
    sensitive, it must be held at logic 1 level until
    it is recognized.
  • The microprocessor responds to the INTR input by
    pulsing INTA output in anticipation of receiving
    an interrupt vector type number as data bus (D7
    D0)

36
INTR LOCK INTA D7-D0
Vector number
Interrupt type is inserted in the second pulse
INTA
37
Minimum mode
  • IO/M 0
  • I/O operation during the INTA bus cycle
  • LOCK 0 To avoid BIU from accepting a hold
    request between two INTA cycles

38
Maximum mode
  • Status lines s0 and s2 will enable INTA via 8288
  • Lock 0 from T2 of first cycle until T2 of the
    second cycle to prevent the 8086 from accepting
    RQ/GT input

39
Using a 3 state buffer for INTA
D7-D0 (low data byte)
8086 INTR INTA
74LS244 1G 2G
10 K
5v
.
…
Pull up resistors
Switch open 1 Switch closed 0
Switches
S0
S7
S6
40
  • Microprocessor outputs INTA that is used to
    enable 74LS244
  • The octal buffer applies the interrupt vector
    type number to the data bus in response to INTA
  • The vector type number is easily changed with the
    DIP switches.

41
Making the INTR input Edge-trigger
5v
Reset
42
  • RESET signal initially clears the flip-flop so
    that no interrupts requested when the system is
    powered
  • Clock input becomes an edge-triggered interrupt
    request input
  • Clear I/P is used to clear the request when the
    INTA is output by the microprocessor

43
Expanding the Interrupt structure
  • Using 74LS244 to expand

D7 D0 8086 INTA INTR
8
74LS244 1G 2G
5v
VCC
10K
..
IR0
IR1



IR7
44
  • If any of the IR input becomes a logic 0, then
    the output of the NAND gate goes to logic 1 and
    requests an interrupt through INTR input.

45
Bit D7 1
46
HARDWARE INTERRUPT APPLICATIONS
ASCII Keyboard
5v
Keyboard data
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