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Backyard Fruit Production

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Bulletin 591. 'Growing and Using Fruit at Home' $3.25 plus tax. ... Do not replant strawberries where disease has been a problem for at least 2 years. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Backyard Fruit Production


1
Backyard Fruit Production
David L. Marrison, OSU AG NR Agent
2
Why have fruit in the backyard?
  • It is yummy!
  • You can pick your favorite.
  • Can add beauty to landscape.
  • Allows you to learn more about new
  • bugs and diseases!

3
Objectives
  • To learn about the basics for
  • backyard fruit production.
  • To lean how soil, climate,
  • fertilization, pruning, insects
  • diseases affect fruit production.
  • Learn what resources are
  • available for your help!

4
Selected literature for backyard fruit production
and plant health management
  • Bulletin 436. Ohio Strawberry Manual 5.00 plus
    tax.
  • Bulletin 591. Growing and Using Fruit at Home
    3.25 plus tax.
  • Bulletin 780. Controlling Diseases and Insects
    in Home Fruit Planting 3.50 plus tax.
  • Bulletin 782. Brambles Production Management and
    Marketing. 6.50 plus tax.
  • Bulletin 815. Grapes Production, Management and
    Marketing 7.75 plus tax.
  • Bulletin 861. Midwest Small Fruit Pest
    Management Handbook

5
  • To get more information about plant diseases
    visit the websites below.
  • http//www.ag.ohio-state.edu/plantdoc/extension.p
    hp
  • http//www.ohioline.ag.ohio-state.edu

6
Soil pH
  • Scale is 1 to 14.
  • Measure of degree of acidity or
  • alkalinity of the soil.
  • Acid or sour soils are between
  • and 6.9.
  • Neutral is 7.
  • Soils from 7.1 to 14 are basic or sweet.

7
pH of everyday products
  • Battery Acid
  • Lemon Juice
  • Pepsi
  • Rain
  • Distilled Water
  • Baking Soda
  • Ammonia
  • Bleach

8
pH of everyday products
  • Battery Acid-1
  • Lemon Juice-2
  • Vinegar-3
  • Pepsi-4
  • Rain-5.8
  • Distilled Water-7
  • Baking Soda-8.2
  • Ammonia-11
  • Bleach-12

9
Soil pH
  • Nutrients become less available at pH extremes.
  • Knowing plants knowing pH success
  • Tree fruits small fruits like pH of 5.5-6.5
  • Strawberries need pH of 5.8-6.5
  • Grapes like pH of 5.0-6.0
  • Blackberries Raspberries like pH of 5.8-6.5
  • Blueberries need an acid pH of 4.0-5.2

10
Plant Nutrition
  • Refers to the availability and type of basic
    chemicals in the plant.

11
Plant Fertilization
  • Is the process of adding nutrients to the soil or
    leaves so that they can be utilized by the plant.

12
What are the Major Nutrients that Plants Need?
  • Remember that plants like to eat at C. Hopkns
    Café while reading a magazine.
  • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Potassium,
    Nitrogen, Sulfur, Calcium, Iron, and Magnesium.

13
Micro-Nutrients
  • Boron, Copper, Chlorine, Iron, Manganese,
    Molybdenum, and Zinc.

14
Dont GuessSoil Test
  • Soil tests will let you know what nutrients are
    available as well as the pH.
  • Many labs available for testing-9.00/test.

15
Site Selection
  • Soils
  • Well drained
  • Fertile
  • Slope and Air Drainage
  • Frost pockets
  • Sunlight

16
Fruit Tree Management
17
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18
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19
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20
Pruning Tree Fruits
  • Should not be a good shade tree.
  • Prune late in dormant season.
  • Make all cuts just beyond a bud or branch.
  • Spread pruning over a few years for out of
    control trees-Rule of 1/3.

See FactSheet 1150
21
Apple Insects Diseases
  • Growers may encounter problems with apple
    scab, cedar apple rust, powdery mildew, sooty
    blotch, fly speck, black rot, white rot and fire
    blight.
  • Bugs such as codling moth, apple maggot, rosy
    apple aphid, San Jose Scale, and leafrollers.

22
Apple Insect Pests
Codling Moth
Apple Maggot
Plum Curculio (weevil)
23
Apple Insect Pests
Codling Moth
Apple Maggot
Plum Curculio (weevil)
24
Early Season Diseases of Apple
  • Apple scab
  • Cedar apple rust
  • Powdery mildew
  • These diseases develop in the orchard between bud
    break and early to mid summer.
  • Control measures for these diseases need to be
    conducted during this period.

25
Apple Scab
26
Cedar-Apple Rust
27
Powdery Mildew
28
Management of Early Season Apple Diseases
  • Free water (wet conditions) is required for most
    fungal pathogens to infect plants. Any practice
    that promotes faster drying of fruit and foliage
    is beneficial for disease control.
  • Site selection
  • Select a site with good air movement all-day sun
    light, and good soil drainage.
  • Do not plant trees in shaded areas.

29
Management of Early Season Apple Diseases
  • Canopy management
  • Control timing and amount of nitrogen fertilizer
    to prevent excessive growth.
  • Prune out and destroy all dead or diseased shoots
    and limbs while trees are dormant (mid-March is
    usually a good time).
  • Prune healthy growth to improve air movement and
    sunlight penetration, to minimize shading and
    decrease drying time of leaves and fruit during
    the growing season.

30
Management of Early Season Apple Diseases
  • Sanitation
  • Apple scab-Rake and destroy fallen leaves
    including those from nearby crabapple, before
    growth starts in the spring.
  • Cedar-apple rust-Remove nearby infected cedars or
    junipers. If infected plants are not removed,
    remove all galls in winter or early spring before
    sporehornes form.
  • These sanitation measures will reduce the number
    of spores that can initiate these diseases.
  • Fungicides
  • On susceptible varieties, fungicides may be
    required to obtain an acceptable level of disease
    control.

31
Management of Early Season Apple Diseases
  • Use of disease resistant apple varieties
  • Several apple varieties have high level of
    resistance to apple scab, cedar-apple rust and
    powdery mildew. The following varieties have good
    resistance to all three diseases and are ideal
    for backyard production. Using these cultivars
    should eliminate the need for fungicides to
    control the early season disease complex.
  • Early season varieties Redfree, Prima, Jonafree,
    Sir Prize
  • Mid-season varieties Novamac, Liberty, Freedom
  • Late-season varieties Enterprise, Goldrush
  • Other disease resistant varieties are available.

32
Late Season or Summer Diseases of Apple
  • Sooty blotch
  • Fly speck
  • Black rot
  • White rot
  • These diseases develop in the orchard from
    shortly after petal fall through harvest
    therefore, they are often referred to as summer
    diseases.
  • Control measures for these diseases need to be
    conducted during this period.

33
Sooty Blotch and Fly Speck
34
Black Rot and Frogeye Leaf Spot
35
White Rot
36
Management of Summer Diseases(Sooty blotch,
Fly speck, Black rot, and White rot)
  • Free water (wet conditions) is required for these
    fungal pathogens to infect plants. Any practice
    that promotes faster drying of fruit and foliage
    is beneficial for disease control.
  • Site selection
  • Select a site with good air movement all-day sun
    light, and good soil drainage.
  • Do not plant trees in shaded areas.

37
Management of Summer Diseases
  • Canopy management
  • Control timing and amount of nitrogen fertilizer
    to prevent excessive growth.
  • Prune trees annually during the dormant season
    (mid-March is usually a good time). Opening up to
    tree canopy results in improved air movement and
    sunlight penetration . This reduces shading and
    decreases drying time of fruit and foliage.
  • Remove wild hosts
  • Remove and destroy nearby wild or neglected
    apple trees. Wild brambles (raspberry and
    blackberry) serve as a reservoir for sooty blotch
    and fly speck and should be removed.

38
Management of Summer Diseases
  • Sanitation Black rot and White rot
  • Prune out and destroy all dead wood, cankers, and
    black rot mummies.
  • Fungicides
  • Especially if fruit rots are a problem,
    fungicides may be required to obtain an
    acceptable level of disease control.
  • Special Note Since sooty blotch and fly speck
    are superficial and rarely affect fruit quality,
    removal of the fungus by washing, rubbing, or
    pealing fruit results in fruit that is acceptable
    for cooking or eating fresh.

39
Other important Diseases of ApplePhytophthora
Crown and Root Rot
  • Symptoms
  • Above ground
  • Infected trees may decline slowly over one or
    more years, or they may collapse and die rapidly.
  • On declining trees, leaves are small and
    chlorotic (yellow) when compared to leaves on
    healthy trees.
  • On trees that decline gradually, a reddish or
    purple discoloration of the leaves often occurs
    in autumn, while leaves on healthy trees remain
    green.

40
Phytophthora Crown and Root Rot
  • Symptoms
  • Below ground
  • A diagnostic reddish-brown discoloration of the
    inner bark and wood can be observed on the crown
    or main roots of infected plants.
  • A sharp line separates the reddish-brown
    (diseased) and white (healthy) portion of the
    crown.

41
Phytophthora Crown and Root Rot
  • Disease development
  • Caused by several species of the fungus
    Phytophthora.
  • The fungus overwinters and persists in soil for
    many years.
  • The fungus requires extremely wet or saturated
    soils in order to infect and cause significant
    damage thus good soil drainage is important for
    control.
  • When soils are saturated, the fungus produces
    spores, called zoospores. Zoospores use flagella
    to swim to susceptible plant tissue where they
    cause infection.
  • The longer the period or periods of soil
    saturation, the greater the risk of infection.
  • Some species may also be introduced to the
    orchard on contaminated planting stock or through
    movement of contaminated soil.

42
Management of Phytophthora Crown and Root Rot
  • Proper site selection
  • Plant in well-drained soil.
  • Select a site that does not have a previous
    history of problems with collar rot.
  • Use disease resistant rootstocks
  • Pears are resistant to collar rot.
  • Collar rot resistance in various apple
    rootstocks
  • ResistantM-2, M-4, M-9, Ottawa
  • Moderately resistant.M-7, M-11
  • Susceptible.M-26, MM-106
  • Highly susceptible..MM-104

43
Fire Blight of apple and pears
44
Management of fire blight
  • Pruning
  • Prune out blighted twigs and cankers during the
    dormant season. This may decrease the pathogen
    inoculum level for the following season.
  • If blighted twigs are pruned out during summer,
    cuts should be made l2 to l5 inches below
    diseased wood and pruning tools should be
    disinfected by dipping in a 210 solution of
    household bleach in water after each cut.
  • Proper fertilization
  • Excessive nitrogen fertilizer and heavy pruning
    will promote vigorous growth of succulent tissue
    which is more susceptible to fire blight. Avoid
    excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer and apply
    fertilizer only in the spring.
  • Control insects
  • Sucking insects create wounds through which fire
    blight bacteria can enter.

45
Management of fire blight
  • Use resistant varieties

Pears Resistant Ayers Kieffer, Magness,
Moonglow, Potomac, Honeysweet, Harrow Sweet,
Horrow Delight, Monterey, Tyson Moderately
resistant Dawn, Douglas, Garber, Seckel,
Spartlett, Luscious, Lincoln, Harvest Quenn,
Worden Seckel Highly Susceptible Aurora,
Barlett, Bosc, Clapp, Fovarite, Red Barlett,
Reimer Red, Starkrimson
  • Apple
  • Moderately resistant Jonafree, Melrose,
    Northwestern Greenings, Nova, Easygro, Prima,
    Priscilla, Quinte, Red Delicious, Redfree, Sir
    Prize, Winesap.
  • Moderately susceptible Dutches, Empire, Golden
    Delicious, Haralson, Jonagold, Jonamac,
    Jerseymac, Liberty. McIntosh, Minjon, Northern
    Spy, Novamac, Spartan
  • Highly susceptible Beacon, Cortland, Fuji, Gala,
    Granny Smith, Idared, Jonathan, Lodi, Monroe,
    Mutsa (Crispin), Paulared, Roma, Beauty, Wayne,
    Wealthy, Yellow Transparent.

46
Using Fungicides For Apple Disease Control
  • Fungicides are very important for disease control
    in commercial apple production, and may be
    required in backyard apple production if highly
    susceptible varieties are grown however, the
    emphasis for disease control in backyard apple
    production should be placed on the use of disease
    resistance and the various cultural practices
    previously mentioned.

47
Using Fungicides For Apple Disease Control
  • If diseases such as apple scab, cedar-apple rust,
    powdery mildew or fruit rots become established
    in the planting, fungicides may be required in
    order to obtain acceptable fruit quality.
  • There are a few fungicides available for
    homeowners that should be useful in backyard
    apple plantings.

48
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49
Wisdom from Will Rogers
  • There are three kinds of men. The ones that
    learn by reading. The few that learn by
    observation. The rest of them have to pee on the
    electric fence for themselves.

50
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51
Plant Management for Backyard Strawberry
Plantings
52
What is the difference between June-Bearing,
Everbearers, and Day Neutral Strawberries?
53
Management Keys for Strawberries
  • Plant in Full Sun.
  • Like loose fertile soil with high O.M.
  • Sensitive to excessive soil
  • moisture.
  • Avoid areas where potatoes,
  • tomatoes, or sod was grown recently.
  • Plant in spring.

54
Management Keys for Strawberries
  • Cover roots and ½ crown. Do not bend
  • roots horizontally.
  • Space June Bearers 12-24 apart in 36
  • rows. Day-Neutral 8-12 apart.
  • Plant in Full Sun.
  • Remove flower stalks of June Bearers
  • in Year 1.

55
Planting Procedure for Strawberries
56
Management Keys for Strawberries
  • May have to irrigateneed 1 inch/week.
  • Renovate after 3 harvest seasons.
  • Control disease insect problems.
  • Use winter mulch.

57
Strawberry Insects Diseases
  • Growers may encounter problems with leaf spot,
    leaf scorch, leaf blight, powdery mildew, red
    stele fungus, verticillium wilt, black root-rot,
    gray mold, leather rot.
  • Bugs such as meadow spittlebug, strawberry sap
    beetle, strawberry clipper, and tarnished plant
    bug, slugs, and mites.

58
Strawberry Pests
Strawberry Weevil
Strawberry Sap Beetle
Tarnished Plant Bug
Slug
59
Common Diseases on Fruit
  • Gray mold (Botrytis fruit rot)

Leather rot
Pathogen Botrytis cinerea
Pathogen Phytophthora cactorum
60
Gray mold
  • Symptoms
  • gray, dusty-looking fungal growth on ripening
    berries

Early (left) and late (right) stages of botrytis
fruit rot on strawberry.
61
Leather rot
  • Symptoms
  • On green fruit, brown, firm spots develop. The
    entire berry may be discolored (brown).
  • On ripe fruit, light to dark purple or brown
    areas develop. These areas are generally dull in
    color.
  • Infected fruit have a distinctive bitter taste
    and unpleasant odor.

62
Management of fruit rot diseases
Free water (wet conditions) is required for most
fungal pathogens to infect fruit. Any practice
that promotes faster drying of fruit and foliage
is beneficial for disease control.
63
Management of fruit rot diseases
  • Site selection
  • Select a site with good air movement and sun
    exposure (promote faster drying).
  • Canopy control
  • Control timing and amount of nitrogen fertilizer
    to prevent excessive growth.
  • Control weeds
  • weeds decrease air circulation.
  • controlling weeds promotes faster drying of fruit
    and foliage.
  • Mulch
  • Use a layer of straw mulch to create a barrier
    between fruit and soil.

64
Management of fruit rot diseases
  • Irrigation
  • Irrigate early in the day, so plants dry faster.
  • Handling
  • Pick fruit carefully, avoid bruising
  • Process and or refrigerate fruit immediately
    after harvest.
  • Renovation
  • Remove old leaves and diseased plant parts after
    harvest.

65
Common diseases on leaves
  • Leaf spot

Leaf scorch
Leaf blight
66
Management of strawberry leaf diseases
  • Use disease free planting stock
  • Use resistant varieties
  • Proper site selection
  • Choose a site with good air circulation and sun
    exposure (promotes faster drying).
  • Weed control
  • Weeds decrease air circulation.
  • Controlling weeds reduces drying time of the
    plants.
  • Remove old foliage just after harvest
    (renovation)
  • helps to reduce pathogen populations.

67
Common Diseases Attacking Roots
  • Verticillium wilt

Red stele
Black root rot
68
Red stele
healthy
diseased
69
Management of root diseases
  • Use healthy planting stock
  • Use resistant varieties
  • Proper site selection
  • Plant in well-drained soil
  • Select a site that does not have a previous
    history of problems with any of the root
    diseases.
  • Rotation
  • Do not replant strawberries where disease has
    been a problem for at least 2 years.
  • Control weeds

70
Using Fungicides For Strawberry Disease Control
  • Fungicides can be important in commercial
    strawberry plantings however, fungicides are
    generally not recommended for backyard
    strawberry production.
  • Effective fungicides registered for use on
    strawberry are usually very difficult or
    impossible for backyard growers to obtain.
  • If not used properly, they are generally not
    effective.

71
Emphasis for disease control in backyard
strawberry plantings should be placed on
  • Use of the various cultural practices for disease
    control mentioned previously.
  • Use of disease resistant varieties.

72
  • The most effective method for controlling most
    strawberry diseases is the use of varieties with
    good disease resistance.

73
Several strawberry varieties have resistance to
many of the common strawberry diseases. The
following are some common varieties with multiple
disease resistance.
74
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75
  • How long a minute is depends on what side of the
    bathroom door you are on.

76
  • Post Spacing 21 ft 24 ft 28 ft
  • Vines Between Post
  • 6 ft - 4
    -
  • 7 ft 3 -
    4
  • 8 ft - 3
    -
  • Vine vigor determines vine spacing in the row,
    and thereby
  • affects post spacing. Do not exceed 30 ft between
    post.
  • Equipment size, degree of side slope training
    system
  • often determines the spacing between rows.
  • Vine
  • Spacing

77
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78
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79
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80
Geneva Double Curtain System Suitable for high
vigor vines. Minimum row width for this system
should be 10 feet.
81
Styles of trellis
Double Curtain
Single curtain
82
High Cordon System (Single Curtain, Bi-lateral
Cordon) Suited for American and many
French-American hybrid cultivars with a trailing
/ drooping growth habit
Single curtain
83
6-Cane Kniffen System with wires at 2.5, 4 and 6
feet Suitable for low vigor cultivars
84
Umbrella Kniffen System Suited for American
cultivars requiring pruning to long canes.
Requires extra labor to tie canes to lower wires
85
Grape Management
86
Grape Management
  • May be of American, European, or French hybrid
    types.
  • Plant grapevines in spring.
  • Site Selection for grapes is KEY.
  • Takes 3 years to establish planting.
  • Place 8 feet apart on trellis, 4 on arbor.
  • Many different methods of training grapes on
    trellis.

87
Grape Management
  • Annual pruning in dormant season a must.---refer
    to Bulletin 815.
  • Purchase stock from nurseries or commercial
    propagators.
  • Commercially grown in 9 foot rows with 8 feet
    between plants.

88
Grape Insects Diseases
  • Growers may encounter problems with black
    rot, downy mildew, powdery mildew, phomopsis cane
    and leaf spot, and botrytis bunch rot.
  • Bugs such as grape berry moth, Japanese
    beetle, grape flea beetle, European red mite,
    grape phylloxera, and grape root borer.
  • New grape pestyes, the Asian Lady Beetle!

89
Grape Insect Pests
Grape Berry Moth
Grape Flea Beetle
Japanese Beetle
Grape root borer
Phylloxera
90
Grape Insect Pests
Grape Berry Moth
Grape Flea Beetle
Japanese Beetle
Grape root borer
Phylloxera
91
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92
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93
Black rot
94
Downy mildew
95
Powdery mildew
96
Phomopsis cane and leaf spot
97
Botrytis bunch rot
98
Management of leaf and fruit rot diseases of
grape(Black rot, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew,
Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, Bortytis bunch rot)
  • Free water (wet conditions) is required for most
    fungal pathogens (except Powdery mildew) to
    infect plants. Any practice that promotes faster
    drying of fruit and foliage is beneficial for
    disease control.
  • Many cultural disease control methods are aimed
    at promoting faster drying of plant parts.

99
Management of leaf and fruit rot diseases of
grape
  • Site selection
  • Plants grapes in sunny, open areas that allow
    good air movement.
  • Do not plant in shaded areas
  • Maintain good weed control beneath vines
  • weeds can reduce air movement and result in
    slower drying time.
  • Proper pruning practices,
  • opens the canopy for increased sunlight
    penetration
  • creates good air circulation for faster drying.
  • Sanitation
  • Destroy fruit mummies and remove all diseased
    plant parts during dormant pruning, or early in
    the spring before bud break.

100
Management of leaf and fruit rot diseases of grape
  • Use of disease resistance varieties
  • Unfortunately, the grape varieties that are
    commonly grown in the midwest do not have good
    resistance to most diseases. Disease management
    for grapes depends mostly on the cultural
    practices previously mentioned, and the use of
    fungicides (chemical control) if necessary.

101
Using Fungicides For Grape Disease Control
  • Fungicides are very important for disease control
    in commercial grape production, and can be useful
    in backyard grape vineyards however, the
    emphasis for disease control in backyard
    vineyards should be placed on the use of the
    various cultural practices previously mentioned.
  • Effective fungicides are usually difficult or
    impossible for backyard growers to obtain.
  • If not used properly, they are generally not
    effective.

102
Using Fungicides For Grape Disease Control
  • If diseases such as black rot or downy mildew
    become established in the vineyard, fungicides
    may be required in order to clean up the
    planting.
  • There are a few fungicides available for
    homeowners that should be useful in backyard
    vineyards.

103
  • For backyard growers that do wish to use
    fungicides in the disease management program,
    fungicide recommendations are available for
    grapes in Bulletin 780 Controlling Disease and
    insects In Home Fruit Planting.

104
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105
Raspberry and Blackberry Plantings
106
Raspberry Management
  • Classified by fruit color and/or fruiting habit.
    Red, black, purple, yellow.
  • Black Raspberry is the most popular.
  • Red is first to ripen followed by black, purple,
    and yellow cultivars.
  • Reds are hardier.
  • Can be summer bearing or everbearing.
  • See factsheet 1421 and Bulletin 782.

107
Raspberry Management
  • Like sandy loam soils with high O.M.
  • Need open site with 6-8 hours of sun.
  • Avoid planting within 300 feet of any wild
    blackberry or blackberries and where tomatoes,
    potatoes or eggplants have grown.
  • Plant in spring.

108
Raspberry Management
  • Primocane-are first year canes.
  • Floricanes2nd year fruiting canes.
  • Prune summer reds twice a year-in spring and
    after harvest.
  • Can prune everbearing to fruit once or twice a
    year.

109
Pruning
110
Raspberry Management
  • Prune black and purple 3 times a year.
  • Cut laterals back to 8-10 in March, tip or head
    new canes when canes reach 24 (take top 3 inches
    of new shoots), then remove canes that produced
    fruits after harvest

111
Bramble Insects Diseases
  • Growers may encounter problems with mosaic
    virus, orange rust, anthracnose, cane blight,
    spur blight, crown or cane gall and verticillium
    wilt.
  • Bugs such as raspberry cane borer, raspberry
    fruitworm, red-necked cane borer, and Japanese
    Beetle.

112
Insect Pests of Brambles
Japanese Beetle
Picnic Beetle
Raspberry Fruitworm
Raspberry Crown Borer
113
Insect Pests of Brambles
Raspberry Fruitworm
Snowy Tree Cricket
114
Common Diseases on Fruit
  • Gray mold (Botrytis fruit rot)
  • Symptoms
  • One to several blossoms in a cluster may show
    blasting (browning and drying).
  • Berries eventually become covered by a grayish,
    dusty, or powdery growth of the fungus.

115
Gray mold
  • Disease Development
  • Caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea
  • Most infections occur during bloom however,
    symptoms are usually not observed until harvest.
  • Temperatures between 70 and 80 F and free
    moisture (water) on the foliage from rain, dew,
    fog, or irrigation are ideal conditions for
    disease development.
  • The disease is generally most severe in the
    interior areas of the plant canopy where humidity
    is higher and air movement is poor.

116
Management of gray mold
  • Free water (wet conditions) is required for most
    fungal pathogens to infect fruit. Any practice
    that promotes faster drying of fruit and foliage
    is beneficial for disease control.
  • Site selection
  • Select a site with good air movement and sun
    exposure (promote faster drying).
  • Canopy management
  • Prune to keep row width between 1 or 2 feet in
    order to encourage air movement and faster
    drying.
  • Control timing and amount of nitrogen fertilizer
    to prevent excessive growth.

117
Management of fruit rot diseases
  • Irrigation
  • If you use overhead irrigation irrigate early in
    the day, so that plants can dry faster.
  • Handling
  • Harvest mature fruit promptly to avoid letting
    berries become overripe
  • Pick fruit carefully, avoid bruising
  • Process and or refrigerate fruit immediately
    after harvest

118
Common cane diseases on brambles
  • Anthracnose

Cane blight
Spur blight
119
Symptoms of cane diseases
120
Management of brambles cane diseases
  • Use disease free planting stock
  • Proper site selection
  • Choose a site with good air circulation and sun
    exposure (promotes faster drying).
  • Pruning (sanitation)
  • Prune out all canes showing disease symptoms to
    reduce pathogen population
  • Remove infected canes from the planting
  • Canopy Management
  • Avoid over fertilization, especially with
    nitrogen
  • Prune to keep row width between 1 to 2 feet to
    encourage rapid drying.

121
Common Diseases Attacking Roots
  • Verticillium wilt

Phytophthora root rot
122
Verticillium wilt
  • Symptoms
  • Starting at the base of the cane and processing
    upward, leaves wilt, turn yellow, and drop.
  • Black raspberry and blackberry canes may exhibit
    a blue color or purple streaking from the soil
    line extending up infected canes to varying
    heights.

123
Verticillium wilt
  • Disease Development
  • Caused by the soil-borne fungus,
    Verticillium albo-atrum
  • The fungus can survive in soil for many years.
  • The fungus infects roots and plugs
    water-conducting tissues (xylem). This prevents
    the movement of water from the roots to the rest
    of the plant thus, the plant eventually wilts,
    and dies.
  • Disease is favored by wet and poorly drained
    soils.

124
Phytophthora root rot
  • Symptoms
  • Healthy canes may suddenly decline and collapse.
  • Leaves may initially take on a yellow, red, or
    orange color or may begin scorching along the
    edges.
  • Affected canes eventually wilt and die.
  • On the below-ground portion of the crown or large
    roots, a distinct line can generally be seen
    between healthy and infected tissues after
    scraping away the outer bark. Infected tissues
    are brown to brownish-red.

125
Phytophthora root rot
  • Disease development
  • caused by Phytophthora spp.
  • favored by high soil moisture (saturated soil)
    and cool temperatures.
  • infection can occur throughout the growing season
    if soil moisture conditions are favorable.
  • most destructive in heavy clay soils that are
    saturated with water during cool weather.

126
Management of root diseases
  • Use healthy planting stock
  • Proper site selection
  • Plant in well-drained soil
  • Select a site that does not have a previous
    history of problems with any of the root
    diseases.
  • Sanitation
  • Dig up diseased plants, including roots, and
    remove them from the planting.

127
Management of root diseases
  • Rotation
  • Do not replant brambles where disease has been a
    problem for at least 2 years.
  • Improve soil drainage
  • Any practice that improves soil drainage is
    beneficial to control.
  • Plant on raised beds
  • Tile planting areas.

128
Management of root diseases
  • Use resistant varieties for Phytophthora root rot
  • Phytophthora root rot is most destructive on red
    raspberries. Black raspberries are not immune but
    appear to be much more resistant than red
    raspberries. The disease is rare on blackberries.
    Although no red raspberry varieties are
    completely resistant, varieties vary greatly in
    their susceptibility. Choose red raspberry
    varieties with higher levels of resistance.

129
Diseases caused by rust fungi
  • Orange rust

Late leaf rust
130
Leaf late rust
131
Management of rust diseases
  • Use healthy planting stock
  • Site selection
  • Select a site with good air movement and sun
    exposure (promote faster drying).
  • Canopy control
  • Prune to keep row width between 1 or 2 feet in
    order to encourage air movement and faster
    drying.
  • Control timing and amount of nitrogen fertilizer
    to prevent excessive growth.
  • Sanitation
  • Remove and destroy infected plants including the
    roots (important for orange rust).
  • Destroy nearby wild brambles that serve as a
    reservoir for disease.

132
Management of rust diseases
  • Disease resistance
  • Orange rust
  • Red raspberries are immune (completely resistant)
  • There are no resistant black raspberry varieties.
  • Late leaf rust
  • Black raspberries and blackberries are immune.
  • No red raspberries varieties are resistant.

133
Using Fungicides For Brambles Disease Control
  • Fungicides can be important for disease control
    in commercial plantings however, fungicides are
    generally not recommended for use in backyard
    bramble plantings.
  • Effective fungicides are usually difficult or
    impossible for backyard growers to obtain.
  • If not used properly, they are generally not
    effective.

134
Emphasis for disease control in backyard
plantings should be placed on
  • Use of the various cultural practices for disease
    control mentioned previously.
  • Use of disease resistant varieties when possible.

135
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136
Selected literature for backyard fruit production
and plant health management
  • Bulletin 436. Ohio Strawberry Manual 5.00 plus
    tax.
  • Bulletin 591. Growing and Using Fruit at Home
    3.25 plus tax.
  • Bulletin 780. Controlling Diseases and Insects
    in Home Fruit Planting 3.50 plus tax.
  • Bulletin 782. Brambles Production Management and
    Marketing. 6.50 plus tax.
  • Bulletin 815. Grapes Production, Management and
    Marketing 7.75 plus tax.
  • Bulletin 861. Midwest Small Fruit Pest
    Management Handbook

137
  • To get more information about plant diseases
    visit the websites below.
  • http//www.ag.ohio-state.edu/plantdoc/extension.p
    hp
  • http//www.ohioline.ag.ohio-state.edu

138
Wisdom from Will Rogers
  • Never miss a good chance to shut up.

139
  • Disease Information Provided and Prepared by
  • Mike Ellis Professor and
    Extension Specialist
    and
    Omer Erincik
    Graduate Research Assistant
  • Department of Plant Pathology

    The Ohio State University
    OARDC/OSUE
    Wooster, OH, 44691
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