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Graphic Design. Recommended Practices(2) ... Describe the use of graphic design best practices on this page. Main Pages/Components ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Design

  • Describe the most common types of web site
  • Utilize guidelines for web site navigation design
  • Apply guidelines for web page design
  • Use guidelines for text usage on web pages
  • Describe guidelines for using graphics on web
  • Utilize guidelines for creating accessible web
  • Describe design principles
  • Describe web page design techniques
  • Apply best practices of web design

Why Design?
  • Tests of time to complete shopping tasks at
    several major on-line stores - number of clicks
    varied from 8 to 50 high abandonment rate on
    poor sites
  • Jakob Nielsen review of comparative tests on web
    sites - average 68 difference in task completion
  • Nielsen finds 135 improvement from redesign

Web Design Competing Concepts
Dueling Concepts
Artist Aesthetics Gallery
Scientist Organization Library
Site Development Stages
  • 1. Identify objectives, create design plan
  • 2. Generate content
  • 3. Organize content - clusters
  • 4. Transform content to pages with graphic design
  • 5. Test and iterate

Overall Design Is Related to the Site Purpose
Consider the target audience of these sites.
  • Convey image or impression
  • Meet people
  • Raise money/donations
  • Entertain an audience
  • Promote myself
  • Teach people about a topic
  • Get famous
  • Tell a story
  • Convey information/access
  • employees, shareholders, customers
  • colleagues, public
  • Sell products
  • Advertise/market service
  • Recruit
  • Announce, survey
  • Nurture communities

Concept Summary- Objectives
  • What is the purpose/objective or goal of the
  • Who is your intended audience?

Some Design/ Usability Issues
  • Navigation
  • Text content
  • Graphic design
  • Structure
  • Links

Web SiteOrganization
  • Hierarchical
  • Linear
  • Random (sometimes called Web Organization)

  • Characterized by a clearly defined home page with
    links to major site sections
  • Often used for commercial and corporate web sites

Hierarchical Too Shallow
  • Be careful that the organization is not too
  • This provides many choices and could result in a
    confusing and less usable web site
  • Information Chunking
  • George A. Miller found that humans can store only
    five to nine chunks of information at a time in
    short-term memory -- the "seven plus or minus
    two" principle.
  • Many web designers try not to place more than
    nine major navigation links on a page or in a
    well-defined page area.

Hierarchical Too Deep
  • Be careful that the organization is not too deep.
  • This results in many clicks needed to drill
    down to the needed page.
  • User Interface Three Click Rule
  • A web page visitor should be able to get from any
    page on your site to any other page on your site
    with a maximum of three hyperlinks.

  • Used when the purpose of a site or series of
    pages on a site is to provide a tutorial, tour,
    or presentation that needs to be viewed in a
    sequential fashion.

  • Sometimes called Web Organization
  • Utilized there is no clear path through the site
  • May be used with artistic or concept sites
  • Generally not used for commercial web sites.

Web Site NavigationBest Practices(1)
  • Make your site easy to navigate
  • Provide clearly labeled navigation in the same
    location on each page
  • Most common across top or down left side
  • Provide breadcrumb navigation
  • Types of Navigation
  • Graphics-based
  • Text-based
  • Interactive NavigationTechnologies
  • Java Applet
  • Flash

Web Site NavigationBest Practices(2)
  • Accessibility Tip
  • When graphics, DHTML, a Java Applet, or Flash is
    used for the main navigation of a web site,
    provide clear text-based links on the bottom of
    each page.

Web Site NavigationBest Practices(3)
  • Use a Table of Contents (with links to other
    parts of the page) for long pages.
  • Consider breaking long pages in to multiple
    shorter pages using Linear Organization.
  • Large sites may benefit from a site map or site
    search feature

Design Principles
  • Repetition
  • Repeat visual elements throughout design
  • Contrast
  • Add visual excitement and draw attention
  • Proximity
  • Group related items
  • Alignment
  • Align elements to create visual unity

Web Page DesignBest Practices
  • Page layout design
  • Text design
  • Graphic design
  • Accessibility considerations

Web Page DesignLoad Time
  • Watch the load time of your pages
  • Try to limit web page document and associated
    media to under 60K on the home page

Web Page DesignTarget Audience
  • Design for your target audience
  • Appropriate reading level of text
  • Appropriate use of color
  • Appropriate use of animation

Web Page DesignColors Animation
  • Use colors and animation that appeal to your
    target audience
  • Kids
  • Bright, colorful, tons of animation
  • Generation X,Y,Z,etc.
  • Dark, often low contrast, more subtle animation
  • Everyone
  • Good contrast between background and text
  • Easy to read
  • Avoid animation if it makes the page load too
  • Accessibility Tip Many individuals are unable to
    distinguish between certain colors.
  • See http//

Web Page Design Browser Compatibility
  • Web pages do NOT look the same in all the major
  • Test with current and recent versions of
  • Internet Explorer
  • Firefox, Mozilla
  • Opera
  • Mac versions
  • Design to look best in one browser and degrade
    gracefully (look OK) in others

Web Page Design Screen Resolution
  • Test at various screen resolutions
  • Most widely used 1024x768 and 800x600
  • Design to look good at various screen
  • ....Page content goes here. The table may be
    given either a percentage width or an exact width
    using pixels.

Web Page DesignPage Layout(1)
  • Place the most important information "above the
  • Use adequate "white" or blank space
  • Use an interesting page layout

This is usable, but a little boring. See the next
slide for improvements in page layout.
Web Page DesignPage Layout(2)
  • Better

Columns make the page more interesting and its
easier to read this way.
Columns of different widths interspersed with
graphics and headings create the most
interesting, easy to read page.
Page Layout Design Techniques
  • Ice Design
  • AKA rigid or fixed design
  • Fixed-width table usually at left margin
  • Jello Design
  • Page content typically centered and often
    configured with a table of percentage width
  • Liquid Design
  • Page expands to fill the browser at all
    resolutions. Often configured with a table width
    of 100
  • New Trend Use CSS to configure liquid design
    page layout (see Chapter 10)

  • List the four basic principles of design. View
    the home page of your school and describe how
    each principle is applied.
  • View http//, http//www.mugglenet.
    com/, and http//
    et/. Describe the target audience for each site.
    How do their designs differ? Do the sites meet
    the needs of their target audiences?

  • 3. View your favorite web site (or a URL provided
    by your instructor).
  • Maximize and resize the browser window.
  • Decide whether the site uses ice, jello, or
    liquid design.
  • Adjust the screen resolution on your monitor
    (Start Control Panel Display Settings) to
    a different resolution than you normally use.
  • Does the site look similar or very different?
  • List two recommendations for improving the design
    of the site.

Text Content
  • Attention spans are short on the web - users want
    instant gratification, and reading is 25 slower
    on screen than on paper
  • So
  • People tend to skim web pages, just read headers,
    highlights, selected paragraphs
  • Therefore
  • Tune your writing style to this reality
  • J. Nielsen column on writing for WWW

Text DesignBest Practices
  • Avoid long blocks of text
  • Use bullet points
  • Use short paragraphs

Journalists Use Inverted Pyramid
Text DesignEasy to Read Text (1)
  • Use common fonts
  • Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, Times New Roman
  • Use appropriate text size Normal, 12 pt,
  • Use strong contrast between text background
  • Use columns instead of large areas of horizontal

Text DesignEasy to Read Text (2)
  • Bold text as needed
  • Avoid click here
  • Hyperlink key words or phrases, not entire
  • Separate text with white space or empty
  • Chek yur spellin (Check your spelling)

Graphic DesignBest Practices(1)
  • Be careful with large graphics!
  • Remember 60k recommendation
  • Use the alt attribute to supply descriptive
    alternate text
  • Be sure your message gets across even if images
    are not displayed.
  • If using images for navigation provide plain text
    links at the bottom of the page.
  • Use animation only if it make the page more
    effective and provide a text description.

Graphic DesignRecommended Practices(2)
  • Choose colors on the web palette if consistency
    across older Windows/Mac platforms is needed
  • Use anti-aliased text in images
  • Use only necessary images
  • Reuse images
  • Keep images as small as possible
  • If there are a large number of images, or the
    page is dependent on them consider creating a
    special text-only version of the page.

Designing for Accessibility(1)Quick Checklist
Courtesy of W3C
  • Images animations.
  • Use the alt attribute to describe the function of
    each visual.
  • Image maps.
  • Use the client-side map and text for hotspots.
  • Multimedia.
  • Provide captioning and transcripts of audio, and
    descriptions of video.

Designing for Accessibility(2)Quick Checklist
Courtesy of W3C
  • Hypertext links.
  • Use text that makes sense when read out of
    context. For example, avoid "click here."
  • Page organization.
  • Use headings, lists, and consistent structure.
    Use Cascading Style Sheets for layout and style
    where possible.
  • Graphs charts.
  • Summarize or use the longdesc attribute.

Designing for Accessibility(3)Quick Checklist
Courtesy of W3C
  • Scripts, applets, plug-ins.
  • Provide alternative content in case active
    features such as JavaScript, Java Applets, Flash
    are inaccessible or unsupported.
  • Frames.
  • Use the element and meaningful titles.
  • Tables.
  • Make line-by-line reading sensible. Summarize.

Designing for Accessibility(4)Quick Checklist
Courtesy of W3C
  • Check your work.
  • Validate. http//
  • Test for Accessiblity
  • Use tools, checklist, and guidelines at

Best Practices Checklist
  • Table 7.1 in your Textbookhttp//
  • Page Layout
  • Browser Compatibility
  • Navigation
  • Color and Graphics
  • Multimedia
  • Content Presentation
  • Functionality
  • Accessibility

  • View the home page of your school. Use the Best
    Practices Checklist (Table 7.1) to evaluate the
    page. Describe the results.
  • List three best practices of writing text for the
    Web. See your text for the rest of this question.
  • List three best practices of using graphics on
    web pages. View the home page of your school.
    Describe the use of graphic design best practices
    on this page.

Main Pages/Components
  • Entry Page (optional)
  • Home Page
  • Links
  • Search / Browse features

Entry Page(s)
  • Often large graphic or animation with single link
    to home page
  • To lure/entice viewer in

Content Pages
Entry Page
Site Map
Home Page
Exit Page
Entry Pages
  • When are they good?
  • Art/Media site versus a News/Shopping site
  • Typically go to a 2nd order style site.
  • Always provide Skip this introduction link to
    get past.

Home Page
  • Most important page at your site
  • Critical for image
  • Entices viewer to look at more
  • Could be a hybrid between an Entry and 2nd order
    or simply a 2nd order style.
  • Quick impact, easy navigation
  • Inportant info above the fold
  • If links are in images, have parallel text labels
    near page bottom

Home Page Evolution
  • Georgia Tech College of Computing

Ancient home page
Old home page
Currenthome page
  • Success of link -
  • can user predict where link will lead
  • Differentiation between links
  • Useful content at linked page
  • Link Style
  • Short (use whenever possible)
  • Products, Home, Blog, Gifts, etc.
  • Longer text explanations , possibly part of it
    not linked.
  • Current prices price for current tax year.
  • Avoid here, back
  • Media links link on thumbnail or title.

Link Issues
Embedded Links - Links set in surrounding text.
They can be harder for user to pick and use.
Wrapped Links - Confusing - 3 or 4 items??
Janus Twenty
Investment Company of America
Royce Premier
Too many on a page can be confusing and
take too long to parse
  • Problem with Image links - Dont change color
    to indicate
  • prior traversal
  • Within-page links
  • Can be confusing
  • Is this the same page or a differnet page?

Things to avoid
  • All capitals text
  • Scrolling horizontally
  • Teeny, tiny text size, especially in italics
  • Dead links
  • Telling the user how to set the browser
  • Poor contrast in text-to-background color
  • Large typeface (one without impact and contrast)
  • Animations that dont stop
  • Things that look like buttons but arent
  • Under construction notices
  • Neglecting ALT tags for images
  • Not denoting image sizes
  • Do-nothing home page
  • Changing color for the heck of it
  • Lack of mail to/feedback throughout site
  • Sites requiring advanced browser or plug in
  • Blink tags

Jeff Johnsons (author) Web Bloopers
  • Chapter 1 Content Bloopers
  • 1. Home page identity crisis. Home page doesnt
    clearly identify organization or its purpose.
  • 2. Confusing classifications. Content categories
    seem arbitrary or nonsensical.
  • 3. Unhelpful descriptions. Content descriptions
    do not support choosing among items.
  • 4. Conflicting content. Information in different
    parts of site disagrees.
  • 5. Outdated content. Content on site is
    out-of-date, but not clearly marked as archival.
  • 6. Missing or useless content. Information users
    need to accomplish goals is missing.
  • 7. Unfinished content. Blatantly incomplete areas
    of site.
  • Chapter 2 Task-Support Bloopers
  • 8. Redundant requests. Asking users for the same
    data repeatedly.
  • 9. Requiring unneeded data. Making users provide
    non-essential information.
  • 10. Pointless choice. Offering or requiring
    meaningless choices.
  • 11. Omitting important options. Choice excludes
    options some users need.
  • 12. Clueless back-end. Back-end lacks "common
    sense" data needed to support user tasks.
  • 13. Dead-end path Now you tell me! Allowing
    users to go down a path towards a goal before
    telling them it is unavailable.
  • 14. Agonizing task-flow. Accomplishing tasks
    requires many unnecessary, distracting steps.

Jeff Johnsons Web Bloopers
  • Chapter 3 Navigation Bloopers
  • 15. Site reflects organization chart. Site
    structure reflects organizations structure or
  • 16. Numerous navigation schemes. Many ways to
    navigate, but no clear guidance.
  • 17. Deceptive duplicate links. Making users
    think "Do those go to the same place?".
  • 18. Not linking directly. Specific-looking links
    that go to generic pages or home pages.
  • 19. Lost in space Current page not indicated.
    Page doesnt clearly show where user is.
  • 20. The circle game Active link to here. Page
    has active link to itself.
  • 21. Missing links Its BACK or nothing. Page
    provides no navigation links.
  • Chapter 4 Form Bloopers
  • 22. Making people type. Using a text field for a
    choice setting.
  • 23. Intolerant data fields. Text field is too
    picky about how data must be typed.
  • 24. No defaults. Controls and form fields with no
    default value.
  • 25. Faulty defaults. Controls and form fields
    with the wrong default value.
  • 26. Compulsory clicking No default text input
    focus. Users cant just start typing.
  • 27. Lame label placement. Labels mis-aligned
    with, or too far from, data fields.
  • 28. Checkboxes or radiobuttons? Checkboxes
    misused as radiobuttons, or vice-versa.
  • 29. Looks editable but isnt. Using standard
    data-input controls for display-only data.
  • 30. Mysterious controls. Operation of controls is
    unclear due to poor labeling, poor layout, or
    uniqueness of controls.

Jeff Johnsons Web Bloopers
  • Chapter 6 Text Writing Bloopers
  • 41. Too much text. Overly-verbose instructions,
    messages, or link-labels.
  • 42. Speaking Geek. Computer jargon in error
    messages, commands, or instructions.
  • 43. Calling site visitors "user" . Using the
    computer jargon term "user" on a website.
  • 44. Insider jargon. Using the vocabulary of
    industry experts, rather than that of users.
  • 45. Variable vocabulary Different words for the
    same thing. Inconsistent terms.
  • 46. Inconsistent style. Text on site does not
    follow consistent style rules.
  • 47. Typos and grammos Sloppy writing. Failing to
    check and fix text before going live.
  • Chapter 5 Search Bloopers
  • 31. Baffling search controls. Search options
    require knowledge of computer or industry-insider
  • 32. Dueling search controls. Competing search
    boxes on page, with no guidance.
  • 33. Hits look alike. List of found items cannot
    be easily distinguished by scanning.
  • 34. Duplicate hits. List of found items contains
  • 35. Search myopia Missing relevant items. Items
    that should be found are not.
  • 36. Needle in a haystack Piles of irrelevant
    hits. Many items dont match search criteria.
  • 37. Hits sorted uselessly. Sort-order of found
    items doesnt support user tasks.
  • 38. Crazy search behavior. Modifying search
    criteria yields unexpected results.
  • 39. Search-terms not shown. Not showing what
    search terms produced these results.
  • 40. Number of hits not revealed. Not showing how
    many items were found.

Jeff Johnsons Web Bloopers
  • Chapter 7 Link Appearance Bloopers
  • 48. Links dont look like links. Links not marked
    well enough, so users miss them.
  • 49. Non-links look like links. Non-link text is
    underlined or non-link graphics look clickable.
  • 50. Bizarre buttons Click target smaller than it
    seems. Entire boxed area surrounding link label
    looks like part of button, but only label accepts
  • 51. Wrapped links How many? Multi-line text
  • 52. "Click here" Burying links in text.
    Important navigation links embedded in prose.
  • 53. Been there, done that? Cant tell. Traversed
    links not clearly marked.
  • Chapter 8 Graphic Design Layout Bloopers
  • 54. Tiny text. Text typeface too small for many
    users to read.
  • 55. Camouflaged text. Text contrasts poorly with
  • 56. Centering everything. Centering prose text,
    bullet items, controls, or data fields.
  • 57. Unobtrusive error messages. Error messages
    easy to miss due to poor placement.
  • 58. Shades of beige color differences too
    subtle. Relying on small color differences to
    convey important meaning.
  • 59. Dead or Alive? Active buttons look inactive.
    Buttons appear "grayed out" but arent.
  • 60. Terrible tabs. Navigation tabs dont look and
    act enough like real tabs.