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History and Theory of European Integration

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The Eftan enlargements and its ... Chapter 7, chapter 13, chapter 16; ... New institutionalism. Policy networks. Actor based models. JEAN MONNET European Module ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History and Theory of European Integration


1
History and Theory of European Integration
  • Marina V. Larionova

2
Lecture 8
  • The Ever Enlarging European Union
  • (1993-1999)

3
Contents
  • The Eftan enlargements and its implications.
  • From Maastricht to Amsterdam, from the TEU to the
    Amsterdam treaty, issues and outcomes.

4
Recommended Readings
  • Dinan Desmond (1999) Ever Closer Union. An
    Introduction to European Integration. Second
    edition. The European Union Series. Palgrave.
    Chapter 7, chapter 13, chapter 16
  • Dinan Desmond (1999) Treaty Change in the
    European Union the Amsterdam Experience.
    Developments in the European Union, Cram L.,
    Dinan D. and Neill Nugent (eds), Macmillan press
    Ltd., 1999
  • L.Tsoukalis. The Economic and Monetary Union
    The Primacy of High Politics (1996). The European
    Union. Readings on the Theory and Practice of
    European Integration, Nelsen B.F. and Alexander C
    G. Stubb (eds.), Palgrave, 1998.

5
European Economic Area
  • a new form of structured partnership with common
    decision making and administrative institutions?
  • Jacques Delors, speech to the EP, January 17, 1989

6
EFTA members
  • Austria
  • Finland
  • Iceland
  • Liechtenstein
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • EEA a means to enter the single market

7
Negotiating the Agreement
  • A joint EC-EFTA steering group - January 1989
  • Launch of negotiations mid 1990
  • Acquis communautaire on internal market
  • The fundamental objectives
  • free movement of goods
  • free movement of persons
  • freedom to provide services
  • free movement of capital
  • Contentious issues
  • Fishing grounds
  • Alpine transit
  • EFTA countries contribution to the EC cohesion
    funds
  • Decision shaping versus decision making
  • EC-EFTA Court

8
The institutions
  • EEA Council of Ministers
  • EEA Joint Committee
  • EEA Joint Parliamentary Committee
  • EEA Consultative Committee
  • EFTA Court cooperation with the EU Court of
    Justice
  • May 2, 1992 signing the Agreement a step
    towards the EU membership

9
Negotiating the Accession
  • Accession applications
  • July, 1989 Austria
  • June 1991 Sweden
  • March 1992 - Finland
  • May 1992 Switzerland
  • November 1992 Norway

10
June 1992 Lisbon Council
  • Widening and deepening
  • Completion of the TEU ratification process
  • Neutral countries political commitment to CFSP
  • December 1992 Edinburgh Council
  • Decision to start negotiations after TEU
    ratification

11
June 1993 Copenhagen Council
  • Negotiations completion target deadline of
    January 1995
  • End of negotiations - March 1, 1994
  • EP vote May 1994

12
Contentious issues
  • Derogation periods from the acquis communautaire
  • Social policy / structural funds
  • Energy and environment
  • Agriculture and fisheries
  • Decision making
  • Re weighting the QMV system
  • Number of commissioners
  • Number of representatives in the EU Parliament

13
Ioannina Compromise
  • Blocking minority 23 to 25
  • Qualified majority 65
  • If members of the Council representing a
    total of 23 to 25 votes indicate their intention
    to oppose the adoption by the Council of a
    decision by a qualified majority, the Council
    will do all within its power to reach, within a
    reasonable time a satisfactory solution that can
    be adopted by at least 65 votes

14
The Fifteen62 votes with the blocking minority
of 29.9
15
1994 Accession referendum results
  • Austria 66, 6 per cent in favor
  • Finland 56, 9 per cent in favor
  • Sweden 52 percent in favor
  • Norway 47. 5 in favor

16
Lessons from the third enlargement negotiations
  • Enhancing tendency for variable geometry
  • Acute need for institutional reform
  • IGC is indispensable to carry out reforms
    that will allow us to admit new members without
    risk to them or us
  • Carlos Westendorp
  • Danger of revoking existing agreements on claims
    that enlargement threatens national interests of
    the old member states

17
IGC to be convened as mandated by the TEU
  • Principles
  • Thorough preparation
  • Transparency
  • Public opinion involvement

18
Reflection group
  • Composition
  • Member states representatives
  • Commission representative (Macelino Oreja)
  • Two EP representatives following the Corfu
    Council June 1994 decision
  • The incursion of supranationalism into an
    avowedly intergovernmental process reflects the
    blending of supranationalism and
    intergovernmentalism throughout the EU system. It
    also casts doubt on the liberal intergovernmental
    view of treaty change, which dismisses the
    importance of supranational actors in shaping
    large interstate bargains.
  • Desmond Dinan

19
Points of departure for negotiations
  • EC report
  • Openness
  • Legitimacy
  • Simplification of procedures
  • Effectiveness of operations
  • Bringing the EU closer to its citizens
  • EP report
  • Revision of the TEU architecture / abolishing the
    three pillar structure
  • Extension of the co-decision and assent
    procedures
  • Council report
  • Court of Justice report
  • Court of Auditors report
  • Lamers-Schauble paper on flexibility

20
Mandate and Procedure
  • the IGC preparation
  • forming the agenda
  • identifying areas for reform
  • identifying areas of likely agreement
  • commenting on divergence of positions
  • June 1995 Messina meeting of Foreign Ministers
    launch of the Reflection Group
  • Regular meetings
  • December 1995 Madrid Council report
  • Improving EU efficiency and accountability
  • Improving the ability to act internationally
  • Making EU relevant to the citizens

21
Factors of pressure
  • The Balkans crisis
  • The Prospect of Eastern Enlargement
  • Economic recession and divergence of the member
    states policies
  • EMU criteria to be met by a small group
  • Need for flexible Treaty provisions to integrate
    further on a new basis
  • Christian Democratic Union / Christian Social
    Union Group Reflections on European Policy
  • The existing hard core of countries oriented to
    grater integration and closer cooperation must be
    further strengthened
  • Coherence and consistency combined with
    elasticity and flexibility
  • Test of commitment to European integration for
    Britain
  • Italian German relations strained further
  • Majors Europe a la carte versus the two tier
    concept

22
Key issues
  • Flexibility
  • Institutional reform
  • CFSP reform
  • Free movement of people

23
March 29, 1996, launch of IGC in Turin
Participants
  • Commission without a right of veto
  • EP to be briefed and consulted
  • Member states key actors
  • Germany - Helmut Kohl
  • France - Chirac Jospin
  • The UK - Major to be replaced by Blair after May
    1997 elections
  • Three Presidencies
  • Italian - focused on domestic reform
  • Irish preparing the first draft based on
    successive approximations
  • Dutch shadowed by the TEU experience

24
IGC issues Enhanced cooperation Flexibility
  • To be developed within the EU institutional
    framework as outlined in Kohl-Chirac letter in
    December 1996
  • To be applied to the EU as a whole for member
    states wishing to cooperate more closely
  • To proceed subject to a Council decision with the
    right of member - states to block the use of
    flexibility principle

25
Common Foreign and Security Policy
  • CFSP unit for analysis and planning
  • High Representative authority designation to the
    Council Secretary General
  • Introduction of constructive abstentionism
  • Agreement to the possibility of integration of
    the WEU into the EU should the EC so decide
  • Inclusion of the peacekeeping, humanitarian,
    rescue and related operations into the Treaty

26
Institutional and decision making reform
  • Re weighting of votes in the Council and
    introduction of the double majority principle
  • Extension of the QMV within the first pillar to
    research and development policies
  • Extension of the QMV into visa and asylum policy
    areas blocked by Kohl
  • The Commission size and number of commissioners
    per country
  • Compromise
  • Delay till the next enlargement
  • Limit the number of commissioners to one per
    member state
  • Re weight the votes in the Council to compensate
    for loss of influence in the Commission
  • EP
  • Consultation procedure
  • Co-decision right of veto by absolute majority
    of the total membership
  • Assent
  • 700 members

27
Area of freedom, security and justice
  • Free Movement of People brought into the EU
    framework
  • Immigration and asylum policy transferred to the
    first pillar
  • Schengen acquis
  • a protocol to the Treaty
  • to be communitized within five years
  • provision for a European Council unanimous
    decision to remove internal border controls and
    establish common procedures for external controls
    by May 2004
  • Irish and British opt out

28
Subsidiarity
  • Edinburgh Council subsidiarity protocol
    incorporated into the Treaty
  • decisions must be taken as closely as
    possible to the citizens. Greater unity can be
    achieved without excessive centralization. It is
    for each member state to decide how its powers
    should be exercised domestically.
  • The Community can only act where member states
    have given it power to do so in the treaties.
    Action at the Community level should happen only
    when proper and necessarySubsidiarity or
    nearness is essential if the Community is to
    develop with the support of its citizens.

29
Transparency clause
  • right of access for all citizens of the Union
    and any natural or legal person residing or
    having a registered office in a member state to
    the EP, Commission and Council of Ministers
    documents.

30
Treaty of Amsterdam signed on October, 2, 1997
  • Provision for an IGC to be convened at least a
    year before the EU exceeds 20 members for
    comprehensive review of institutional and
    decision making provisions.
  • Came into force on May 1999 after a smooth
    ratification

31
Main failures
  • Institutional reform
  • Safeguards on the Flexibility principle clause
  • Closeness to the citizens challenge of
    comprehension
  • Four parts
  • Amendments
  • Simplifications
  • 13 protocols
  • 50 declarations
  • it is impossible to replace the EUs founding
    Treaties with a new, streamlined set of
    objectives, guiding principles and institutions
    however intellectually alluring the prospect
    would be.
  • Desmond Dinan

32
Annex Structure of the Treaty
  • The Amsterdam Treaty consists of
  • three parts
  • an annex
  • thirteen protocols
  • The Intergovernmental Conference also adopted
  • fifty-one declarations, annexed to the Final Act
  • It also noted a further
  • eight declarations by various Member States,
    annexed to the Final Act.

33
The first part covers the substantive amendments
and comprises five articles
  • Article 1 contains the amendments made to the
    Treaty on European Union
  • Article 2 contains the amendments to the Treaty
    establishing the European Community
  • Article 3 contains the amendments to the Treaty
    establishing the European Coal and Steel
    Community
  • Article 4 contains the amendments to the Treaty
    establishing the European Atomic Energy
    Community
  • Article 5 contains the amendments to the Act
    annexed to the Council Decision of 20 September
    1976 on the election of representatives to the
    European Parliament by direct universal suffrage.

34
The second part
  • The second part of the Treaty - Articles 6 to 11
  • deals with the simplification of the treaties
    establishing the three European Communities and
    their annexes and protocols, with a view to
    deleting lapsed clauses and adapting the text of
    certain provisions accordingly (Articles 6, 7 and
    8).
  • provides for the repeal of the Convention of 25
    March 1957 on certain institutions common to the
    European Communities and the merger Treaty of 8
    April 1965 (Article 9).
  • clarifies that this simplification exercise does
    not alter the legal effects of the texts or the
    acts in force adopted on the basis of them
    (Article 10).
  • specifies that the Court of Justice is competent
    to interpret the provisions of this part of the
    Treaty (Article 11).

35
The third part
  • The third part - Articles 12 to 15 - contains the
    general and final provisions of the Treaty
  • Article 12 relates to the renumbering of the
    provisions of the Treaty on European Union and
    the Treaty establishing the European Community
  • Article 13 specifies that the Treaty is concluded
    for an unlimited period
  • Article 14 deals with ratification and entry into
    force
  • Article 15 lists the different language versions.

36
Annex
  • The annex to the Treaty contains the tables of
    equivalence for the renumbering of provisions of
    the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty
    establishing the European Community.

37
13 protocols
  • Protocol on Article 17 (ex Article J.7) of the EU
    Treaty, dealing with the Western European Union
    and the progressive framing of a common defence
    policy
  • Protocol integrating the Schengen acquis into the
    framework of the European Union
  • Protocol on the application of certain aspects of
    Article 14 (ex Article 7a) of the Treaty
    establishing the European Community to the United
    Kingdom and to Ireland
  • Protocol on the position of the United Kingdom
    and Ireland in relation to the new Title of the
    Treaty establishing the European Community on
    "visas, asylum, immigration and other policies
    related to free movement of persons"
  • Protocol on the position of Denmark in relation
    to the new Title of the Treaty establishing the
    European Community on "visas, asylum, immigration
    and other policies related to free movement of
    persons" and to certain aspect of the common
    foreign and security policy

38
Protocols
  • Protocol on asylum for nationals of Member States
    of the European Union
  • Protocol on the application of the principles of
    subsidiarity and proportionality
  • Protocol on external relations of the Member
    States with regard to the crossing of external
    borders
  • Protocol on the system of public broadcasting in
    the Member States
  • Protocol on protection and welfare of animals
  • Protocol on the institutions with the prospect
    of enlargement
  • Protocol on the location of the seats of the
    institutions and of certain bodies and
    departments of the European Communities and of
    Europol
  • Protocol on the role of national Parliaments in
    the European Union.

39
Lecture 9 Theorizing the new Europe
  • Changing Context of European Integration, the old
    and new paradigms and theoretical synthesis.
  • Multi level governance
  • New institutionalism
  • Policy networks
  • Actor based models

40
Readings for the lecture
  • Rosamond Ben. (2000) Theories of European
    Integration. The European Union Series. Palgrave
    chapter 5
  • Pierson P. The Path to European Integration A
    Historical Institutional Analysis (1996). The
    European Union. Readings on the Theory and
    Practice of European Integration, Nelsen B.F. and
    Alexander C G. Stubb (eds.), Palgrave, 1998
  • Marks G., Hooge L., Blank K. European Integration
    from the 1980s State-Centric v. Multi-Level
    Governance (1996). The European Union. Readings
    on the Theory and Practice of European
    Integration, Nelsen B.F. and Alexander C G.
    Stubb (eds.), Palgrave, 1998
  • Nugent N. Decision-Making in Developments in the
    European Union, edited by Cram L., Dinan D. and
    Nugent N., Macmillan Press Ltd, 1999.

41
Lecture 10 Theorizing the new Europe
  • New (liberal) intergovenmentalism.
  • Two level games, influence of domestic policies.

42
Readings for the lecture
  • Rosamond Ben. (2000) Theories of European
    Integration. The European Union Series. Palgrave
    chapter 6
  • Moravcsik A. Negotiating the Single European Act
    National Interest and Conventional Statecraft in
    the European Community (1991). The European
    Union. Readings on the Theory and Practice of
    European Integration, Nelsen B.F. and Alexander C
    G. Stubb (eds.), Palgrave, 1998
  • Hix S. The Study of the European Community The
    Challenge to Comparative Politics (1994). The
    European Union. Readings on the Theory and
    Practice of European Integration, Nelsen B.F. and
    Alexander C G. Stubb (eds.), Palgrave, 1998
  • Schimmelfennig F. Liberal Intergovernmentalism
    (2004) in European Integration Theory. Wiener A.
    and Diez Th. (eds). Oxford.

43
  • Thank you!
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