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Grant Writing Essentials

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Title: Grant Writing Essentials


1
Grant Writing Essentials
  • Lori-Anne Williams

2
Learning Objectives
  • Students will learn how to write a grant
    proposal including
  • Understanding terms used in the grant writing
    field
  • The contents of a typical proposal and budget
  • How to adapt a typical proposal outline to the
    funding needs of their organization
  • What supplementary materials to attach to a
    proposal.

3
Learning Objectives (cont.)
  • Students will learn how to select appropriate
    prospective funders
  • How to organize a grant search
  • How to use resources in a Foundation Center
    Cooperating Collection
  • How to read entries in a foundation directory or
    on a Web site
  • How to read a funders guidelines
  • How to approach funding organizations (e-mail,
    phone, online, mail)
  • How funders process proposals

4
Introductions
  • Name
  • Job/Organization
  • Grant writing experience
  • Why this course? Why now?
  • Expectations about the class

5
All about funders
  • Types of funders
  • Types of grants
  • Whats great about Minnesota
  • Foundation directories
  • Online searches
  • Reading guidelines

6
Coming to Terms
  • Governing Board
  • Staff Direction
  • Grant Administrators
  • Program Officers
  • Peer Review
  • Panels

7
Funding Agency Structures
8
Government Agency Structure
9
Private Foundations
  • 80 of Minnesota Foundations
  • Established by an individual, a group of
    individuals, or a family.
  • Family foundations (McKnight)
  • Run by donor and/or donors family
  • Independent foundations (Bush)
  • Few family members involved

10
Community Foundations
  • Publicly supported through donations
  • For the benefit of a geographic area or special
    interest
  • Raise money as well as give it away
  • Have both unrestricted and designated funds
  • Saint Paul Foundation
  • Huss Foundation, designated fund

11
Corporations
  • Corporate Foundations
  • Separate 501(c)
  • Endowed foundations
  • Based on annual profits
  • Corporate Giving Programs
  • Straight from company
  • Often from community relations
  • Cargill - has a Foundation and Corporate Giving
  • _____________________
  • Why does a corporation provide funding?

12
Corporations (cont.)
  • Corporate Sponsorship
  • Usually from the marketing budget
  • Corporation gets something back Visibility
  • Guthrie performances, public broadcasting, events
  • Employee matching grants
  • Common for higher education
  • Some companies match many types of organizations
  • Some companies match volunteer hours (IBM)

13
Who do you know?
  • Where do you work?
  • Where does your family work?
  • Where do your friends/neighbors work?
  • How can you tap into your network?

Many corporations deem employee volunteerism
and/or support important when making
philanthropic funding decisions
14
Government Grants
  • Federal grants.gov
  • Play with searches, get updates, take online
    training
  • State Register - MN Communications
  • http//www.comm.media.state.mn.us/bookstore/state_
    register.asp
  • Get to know your agency.
  • Counties
  • Cities

15
  • Find Grant Opportunities
  • Basic Search
  • Browse by Category
  • Browse by Agency
  • Advanced Search
  • Email Subscription
  • Get Registered
  • Apply for Grants
  • Track Your Application
  • Applicant Resources
  • Search FAQs, User
  • APPLICANT SYSTEM-TO-SYSTEM
  • FOR GRANTORS
  • ABOUT GRANTS.GOV
  • HELP
  • CONTACT US
  • SITE MAP

16
New this Week
17
State Register
18
Other Sources
  • Churches
  • Diocese, national giving, congregational
  • Civic Organizations
  • Rotary, VFW, Lions Club
  • Usually fund local activities
  • No overall directory of civic organizations, try
    Chamber of Commerce.

19
General Operating
  • Genop is your whole mission - all that you do.
  • Example Crimea River Council
  • Three programs River clean-up, Environmental
    education, and public policy
  • One genop grant could fund any part of their
    activities.
  • Example Prisoner Exchange Network (PEN)
  • Only activity is transportation to/from prisons.

20
Program Support
  • Program or project support focuses on one aspect
    of your work
  • Example Crimea River Council
  • Has school-based mentoring and off-site
    recreational activities for teens
  • Receives funding from Great Big Foundation for
    mentoring program in the Minneapolis schools.
  • Many funding agencies prefer NEW programs or
    projects, some will fund ongoing programs.

21
Types of Projects
  • Planning grants
  • Start-up grants
  • Management or technical assistance
  • Facilities and equipment
  • Capital grants
  • Endowment grants

22
Minnesota Resources
  • Minnesota Council on Foundations
  • Minnesota Council of Nonprofits
  • Management Assistance Project for Nonprofits
  • Charities Review Council
  • Nonprofit Assistance Fund
  • Universities and Colleges
  • More at www.loriannewilliams.com/links.html

23
National Sources of Contributions
Corporations (12.7 billion)
Bequests (22.9 billion)
4.3
7.8
Foundations(36.5 billion)
12.4
Individuals(222.9 billion)
75.6
Total giving295.02 billion
Source Giving USA 2007 data of 2006 giving
24
Minnesota v. National
  • Total Giving
  • 1. New York
  • 2. California
  • 3. New Jersey
  • 4. Pennsylvania
  • 5. Washington
  • 6. Texas
  • 7. Michigan
  • 8. Illinois
  • 9. Florida
  • 10. Ohio
  • 15. Minnesota
  • Population
  • 1. California
  • 2. Texas
  • 3. New York
  • 4. Florida
  • 5. Illinois
  • 6. Pennsylvania
  • 7. Ohio
  • 8. Michigan
  • 9. Georgia
  • 10. North Carolina
  • 21. Minnesota
  • Giving Per Capita
  • 1. District of Columbia
  • 2. Delaware
  • 3. New Jersey
  • 4. New York
  • 5. Washington
  • 6. Connecticut
  • 7. Indiana
  • 8. Pennsylvania
  • 9. Missouri
  • 10. Arkansas
  • 13. Minnesota

Sources 2005 Census estimate and The Foundation
Yearbook, 2007 edition
25
Minnesota Giving
3
8
  • Individual giving 4.1 billion
  • Foundation and corporate 1.02 billion
  • Private 466 million
  • Corporate 424 million
  • Community132 million

9
80
Based on 2005 giving. Source Minnesota Council
on Foundations, 2007
26
Minnesota Grantmaking Snapshot
PERCENTAGE OF FOUNDATIONS
PERCENTAGE OF GRANTS PAID
6
13
9
46
41
85
Private Corporate
Community
Based on 2005 giving. Source Minnesota Council
on Foundations, 2007
27
Grantmaking at a Glance
GRANTS PAID (in millions)
2005 1.02 billion
Based on 2005 giving. Source Minnesota Council
on Foundations, 2007
28
Giving in Minnesota
  • 100 largest grantmakers
  • 52 private foundations
  • 34 corporate grantmakers
  • 14 community foundations
  • 7 of all foundations and corporations make 78
    of grants

Private Corporate Community
29
Grants by Geographic Service Area
42
33

11
14
Based on 2005 giving. Source Minnesota Council
on Foundations, 2007
30
Grants by Support Type

3
7
25
14
51
Based on 2005 giving. Source Minnesota Council
on Foundations, 2007
31
Trends for the Future
  • Impact of economy recession?
  • Duration will have an impact on asset growth,
    profitability and individual giving
  • Impact of government priorities and funding
  • Increasing demands for philanthropy to fill gaps
  • Increased attention from government on oversight,
    regulation and potential legislation
  • Increased competition for limited funds

32
National Sources of Contributions
Corporations (12.7 billion)
Bequests (22.9 billion)
4.3
7.8
Foundations(36.5 billion)
12.4
Individuals(222.9 billion)
75.6
Total giving295.02 billion
Source Giving USA 2007 data of 2006 giving
33
Sampling of Research Resources
  • Minnesota Council on Foundations
    www.mcf.org/grantsource www.mcf.org/mngrants/tour
  • Minnesota Council of Nonprofits Philanthropy
    Leadership Breakfast Series www.mncn.org
  • GuideStar www.guidestar.org
  • Foundation Center foundationcenter.org/findfunder
    s

34
National Resources
  • GuideStar Select Premium (enhanced online
    searchable database) www.guidestar.org - click
    products
  • Foundation Directory Online (national online
    searchable database) fconline.fdncenter.org
  • Foundation Center Print and CD-ROM Directories
    foundationcenter.org/findfunders/fundingsources/pr
    intcd.html

35
Finding Funders
  • Minnesota Guide to Grantmakers
  • Foundation Center Cooperating Collections
  • Online information
  • MN Grantmakers Online (Fee)
  • Foundation Search (Fee)
  • Foundation Directory Online (Fee)
  • Others Access Philanthropy, GrantSpy, etc. (see
    list)

36
Searching
  • Determine suitability
  • Geography
  • Area of Interest
  • Type of funding
  • Make sure you are what the funder is looking
    for

Determine feasibility Deadlines Recent
grants Contacts, Staff and Board Make sure this
funder is right for you
37
Finding out about funders
  • Websites
  • Printed reports
  • Ask your peers, your board, your neighbors
  • Read annual reports (and your program at the
    theater!)
  • Google, Wikipedia - be careful

38
The 990PF
  • Tax forms available online
  • Part III - Statement of Accomplishments
  • IV - Assets
  • V - Officers
  • XV - 2 Do they accept proposals?
  • VI - 3 List of grants made (often attached)
  • http//www.guidestar.org/help/tutorial/

39
Research made simple
  • Use directories and databases to make a long list
    of prospects
  • Study the prospects for limitations, giving
    patterns, geography, and focus
  • Read the guidelines. Read them again.
  • Contact the best prospects - ask specific
    questions about guidelines.

40
Letters of Inquiry
  • This is the first impression!
  • Keep it short but check the guidelines for
    information on content and length.
  • If you have a connection, mention
  • Previous grants
  • Personal contacts
  • Your job is to help the Foundation meet their
    goals and fulfill their mission.

41
Cover Letters
  • Introduces the grant package
  • Include summary of project and how it fits their
    goals
  • Ask for money!
  • Keep it short (check guidelines).
  • If you have a prior connection, mention it.
  • Your job is to help the Foundation meet their
    goals and fulfill their mission.

42
Proposal Writing
  • Tips
  • Follow the guidelines
  • Find a good writer
  • Be clear and concise
  • Its all right to have some passion!

43
Proposal Outline
  • Introduction
  • Organization Description
  • Situation Description
  • Project Description
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Activities
  • Evaluation
  • Sustainability
  • Budget
  • Attachments

44
Cover Form
  • Asks for basic information
  • Have a very short description of your proposal
    ready (75 words)
  • Know your EIN and Legislative District
  • Complete as much of the Common Grant form as you
    can, save as a reference.

45
Introduction
  • AKA Executive Summary, Abstract
  • State your key information
  • Problem
  • Solution
  • Funding Requirements (ask for money)
  • Why you are best suited for this work
  • The reader should be tantalized
  • Do this last (that works for me)

46
Organization Description
  • History
  • Mission, Vision, Values
  • Leadership
  • Why YOU are most qualified to do this work
  • Where are you on your strategic plan?

47
Situation Description
  • AKA Need Statement, Problem
  • Gather statistics, research and proof
  • Needs assessments, surveys, focus groups,
    interviews, usage, media coverage, demographics,
    government reports, projections for the future
  • Authoritative
  • Important to include your CONSTITUENTS as part of
    this section

48
Situation Description (cont.)
  • Keep it real poverty cant be solved by one
    grant, but instances of poverty in a given area
    might be
  • Give the reader hope -- your organization is
    ready to tackle this problem (and fix something!)
  • Determine if you are doing something NEW, or
    replicating a best practice

49
Making the problem relevant
  • Anecdotes - yank the heartstrings, the funny
    bone, make them think.
  • Use real examples (not real names)
  • Use quotes from beneficiaries
  • This is what the proposal is about addressing a
    need. The proposal is NOT about your need for
    dollars.

50
Tell me your problems
51
The Work Plan
  • Chart, graph it, sketch it, write it.
  • Brainstorm with others
  • You may not use every detail, but the richness of
    your thinking will come through in the grant
    proposal.

52
Project Description
  • What is your goal?
  • Hint it should relate to the need!
  • What will it take to reach your goal?
  • Activities
  • Staffing and administration
  • What will success look like?
  • What happens after the grant?

53
Goals Objectives
54
Objectives
  • Must be measurable
  • Use a variety of objectives, but only those you
    think you will accomplish
  • Each objective should move you toward your goal,
    which will help you address the situation or
    problem you stated.

55
Types of Objectives
  • Types of objectives The Kitty-Cat Project
  • Behavioral Action
  • 80 of cats will learn to use the litterbox
  • Performance Within a time frame
  • 77 will pass the basic grooming skills test by
    Friday
  • Process Process is an end in itself
  • Trainers will document which methods work best
    with different kitty breeds
  • Product Tangible item will result
  • We will produce a manual to assist others in
    training their kittens.

56
Activities or Methods
  • Steps or activities you will undertake to
    complete each objective.
  • Who, what, where, when, how
  • Timeline
  • Staffing
  • Locations
  • Logistics

57
  • Tell me your goals.

58
Break What Impacts Funding?
59
Evaluation
  • How will you measure your objectives?
  • What mechanisms will be used?
  • Surveys
  • Observations
  • Tests
  • Who will do the evaluation?
  • Will beneficiaries be involved?

60
Evaluation (continued)
  • What does the funder want to know?
  • How can you lay the evaluation plan out -- so
    that you can follow up on your reports!
  • W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Toolkit
    www.wkkf.org
  • Seriously. www.wkkf.org

61
Logic Models
62
Logic Models
  • Have been in use since 1960s in business.
  • Being utilized in most United Way proposals.
  • A good planning tool for the entire organization
    or specific programs
  • Another way to look at evaluation

63
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64
Inputs
  • Staff
  • Supplies
  • Space
  • Time
  • Equipment
  • The things you need to do the work you do.

65
Outputs
  • What do we do
  • Conduct classes, workshops
  • Serve meals
  • Provide counseling
  • Usually represented by numbers
  • classes, students
  • meals served
  • Hours of counseling.

66
Outcomes
  • Short term changes in knowledge
  • Medium term changes in action/behavior
  • Long term changes in conditions
  • Indicators what shows us these changes?

67
Sustaining the Project
  • Long-term financial viability
  • Are you building constituent capacity so that
    this program wont be needed?
  • Are there earned income streams?
  • Do you have an individual donor base?
  • Special events?
  • What resources can you use to leverage additional
    funding?

68
Budget Basics
  • What will the activities and the evaluation cost?
  • What sources of income can you count on during
    the project?
  • What costs will increase during the grant period?
  • Your budget should tell a story make sure its
    the same story youre telling in the other
    sections

69
Income
  • Support
  • Government grants
  • Foundations
  • Corporations
  • United Way or other federated campaigns
  • Individual contributions
  • Fundraising events and products

70
Income
  • Support (cont.)
  • Membership income
  • In-kind support
  • Investment income
  • Revenue
  • Government contracts
  • Earned income
  • Other (specify)

71
Expenses
  • Salaries
  • Benefits
  • Consultants and professional fees
  • Travel
  • Equipment
  • Supplies
  • Printing and copying
  • Telephone and fax Postage and delivery
  • Rent and utilities
  • In-kind expenses
  • Depreciation
  • Other (specify)

72
Program/Direct Costs
  • Program Staff
  • Benefits
  • Supplies
  • Program-related gatherings
  • Space for program activities (direct)
  • Marketing and promotions

73
Indirect Costs (FA)
  • Administrative staff
  • Benefits
  • Equipment
  • Fundraising Costs
  • Legal fees
  • Rent
  • Maintenance
  • Utilities
  • Audit/Accounting
  • Board-related costs

Many funding agencies will allow a percentage of
indirect costs. Check guidelines or check with
your program officer.
74
Fund Accounting
75
Personnel
76
Fringe
77
Supplementary Material
  • Budget Narratives
  • Follow guidelines on this - otherwise your budget
    should be self-explanatory
  • Should show your math
  • Give context and detail to your budget.

78
Appendices
  • Partner agreements, descriptions
  • Organization History
  • Letters of agreement
  • Letters of commitment
  • Letters of support
  • Brochure/video (see guidelines!)
  • Financials
  • Balance Sheet
  • Audit
  • Organizational budget
  • Project Budget
  • Board List
  • Staff Bios/Résumés
  • Donors past, current and projected

79
Planning for Grant Seeking
  • The Grants Calendar
  • Plan to start courting donors 6 months before
    you submit a proposal.
  • Review Grants Calendar with your Board and Staff
    -- are there connections?
  • Be aware of big due dates plan work accordingly!

80
Communication with Funders
  • Follow guidelines
  • Some Foundations dont have staff
  • Call, e-mail -- CORRESPOND
  • Ask questions up front, dont make assumptions
  • Know their timeline for turnaround
  • Call AFTER you get an answer!

81
The Grants Profession
  • Staff writers
  • Freelance writers
  • Networking
  • Certification

82
Getting Grant Savvy
  • Reviewing grants
  • Metropolitan Regional Arts Council
  • Minnesota Humanities Center
  • State Grants (State Register)
  • Professional development
  • MN Council on Foundations, MN Council of
    Nonprofits, and of course, St. Thomas.
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