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Globalization in Multimedia Development

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... produce Japanese, Korean, Spanish or German version website sometime after you ... Yahoo customized it's website into 23 locates ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Globalization in Multimedia Development


1
Globalization in Multimedia Development
2
Globalization in Multimedia Development
  • The development of W W W led to rise of the
    concept of global village, which the whole
    world links together by the internet.
  • This concept is still far from the reality.
  • Issues raised languages cultural difference
    made things complex, especially websites.

3
  • Globalization becomes one of the practices to
    solve the problems
  • The term Globalization means differently when
    refers to business, politics, culture and many
    other aspects.
  • In multimedia development, globalization is
    generalized as the process of adaptation.

4
  • Web sites and other multimedia applications, are
    adapted linguistically and functionally.
  • The expected result is to deliver contents to
    more than one groups of audience with different
    language preferences.
  • The process of Globalization usually involves 2
    main elements
  • Internationalization
  • Localization

5
Internationalization
  • Internationalization(i18n) is the process of
    designing a software or Web application to handle
    different linguistic and cultural conventions
    without additional engineering.
    internationalization involves
  • design of the User Interface (UI) is flexible and
    neutral
  • separation of language and cultural data from the
    source code.
  • relevant character set
  • regional standards
  • text embedded in graphics is localizable.

6
Internationalization
  • Ideally, internationalization should take place
    during the very early stage of project
    development
  • Thus, reduces time and cost along the way when
    more versions are required to be produced to
    fulfill the international expansion needs
  • Your client may ask you to produce Japanese,
    Korean, Spanish or German version website
    sometime after you set up a local version
    website.
  • Without thinking of internationalization,
    eventually, you may found difficulties to adapt
    the original version in both technical aspect and
    content translation.

7
Localization
  • Localization (L10N) is the process of adapting a
    website to the requirements of a target locale.
    It refers to the translation of strings within
    the Web site so that the user sees the correct
    language.
  • A locale refers to a set of standards, rules and
    data specific to a language and geographical
    area. E.g., a French Unicode Locale will include
    regional definitions for currency, the Euro
    symbol, date, time, numerical notation and text
    messages. An Asian Locale (e.g. a Chinese
    locale), will also include input methods and
    dictionary editing definitions.

8
Localization
  • UI design
  • Localize all content, readable messages, icons,
    buttons in the target user's language (both
    written and non-written).
  • We also need to consider
  • Text space extra space may added to dialog
    boxes, control buttons, menu, etc.
  • Cultural-dependent or ambiguous symbols body
    parts (e.g., hand gestures), religious symbols,
    graphics with more than one meaning and cultural-
    specific symbols. As they may lead to
    misunderstandings in cross-cultural situation, we
    have to use them carefully.

9
Localization
  • Character set
  • A character set is the mapping of the characters
    of a script into a set of binary codes.
  • In order to represent a language, an appropriate
    character set support is needed.
  • For English, ASCII character set should be
    enough, but not those European languages require
    accented characters.
  • Therefore, specific character sets are developed
  • Double-byte character set (DBCS) is a codeset
    that uses one or two bytes. It is used for Asian
    languages such as Japanese, Chinese, and Korean
  • Unicode is a universal character 16-bit codeset.
    It includes most alphabetic characters and
    symbols used in nearly every language.

10
Case Study 1
  • Nike
  • Nikes business covers over 140 countries.
  • Its website offers 13 languages.
  • The website design not only translate text into
    different languages, but also adapt design ideas
    considering the cultural context.
  • http//www.nike.com
  • Even this is a comparatively successful example
    of web globalization, there are still lots of
    languages cultures need attention Russia,
    Middle East, Sweden, Hebrew, etc.

11
Overview of internet users
12
  • The Internet was designed to be global, but not
    necessarily multilingual.
  • When it was originally developed, its primary
    purpose was to enable English speakers to
    communicate with other English speakers
  • As soon as the internet became a global
    phenomenon, non-English speakers began using the
    Internet to communicate in their own languages.
  • The research firm IDC projects by 2003, 36 of
    all Internet users will prefer to use a language
    other than English,
  • A multilingual web site becomes main focus in the
    creative and production process.

13
  • Case Study 2
  • McDonalds
  • McDonald's has restaurant locations in 118
    countries
  • The global website offers around 40 choices of
    locations/countries
  • http//www.mcdonalds.com
  • But the Gateway (homepage) contains lots of menus
    and messages in English.
  • What if viewers from Saudi Arabia only know
    Arabic languages, or people from Greece only know
    Greek? They can't even get into the part in their
    own languages in the very beginning.

14
  • How to prepare a global website
  • A globalized website usually contains an
    internationalized master or template design, a
    homepage or gateway leading to several localized
    versions.
  • Text in graphics
  • If possible, the use of text in graphics is
    discouraged.
  • Some localizable graphics consist of text on top
    of some graphic design.
  • Keep a well-documented, layered source file with
    details of the fonts and colors used.
  • Keep in mind that text within the graphic is
    probably longer for localized languages than for
    English so allow room for the text to expand.
  • As an alternative, use the graphic as a
    background and position the text on top of it.

15
  • Symbols and other design elements
  • When designing the website, try to avoid
    culture-dependent symbols that are not clear to
    an international audience.
  • There are also many symbols that may have
    different meanings in different cultures. If
    there are any questions regarding the hidden
    meaning of some symbols, it is better to use
    words instead.
  • As a general rule, the following should be
    avoided in any graphics used
  • Graphics with multiple meanings
  • Religious symbols such as stars, crosses etc.
  • Hand gestures or body parts
  • Shapes that are tied to culture (e.g. stop signs,
    sports, mailboxes etc.)

16
  • Locale-specific contentSome of the items would
    need to be changed
  • Date formats (including calendar settings and
    day/month names)
  • Time formats (12-hour vs. 24-hour clock etc.)
  • Currency formats and other monetary-related
    information (tax rate, postage, etc.)
  • Number formats (decimal separator, thousand
    separator etc.)
  • Fonts (names, sizes etc.)
  • For fonts, it is best practice to use Cascading
    Style Sheets (CSS) whenever possible. CSS allows
    fonts to be changed for all the pages in one
    place, and there will be fewer tags within the
    codes.

17
  • Address formats (postal codes, states etc.)
  • Name formats (first name middle name last
    name vs. surname name)
  • Telephone number formats
  • Units of measure
  • Paper sizes
  • Sorting rules (different alphabetical orders,
    stroke counts, etc.)

18
  • Sort order
  • Sort order is not the same for all languages,
    particularly for languages that do not use the
    Western alphabet.
  • In Swedish, for example, some extended characters
    (e.g. å) get sorted after the letter Z.
  • In many Asian writings, characters are comprised
    by brushstrokes.
  • We need to find a way to automatically sort the
    items, or allow the local end-user to personally
    sort the list.
  • To build an internationalized sorting system is
    still a very difficult task.

19
  • Data
  • When localizing a site, one of the first
    decisions to make is what character encoding to
    use.
  • It is necessary to ensure that the data displays
    correctly to the end user
  • Any data sent to and from a form or database
    maintains data integrity.
  • Web site components could include databases, form
    elements, objects, JavaScript, DHTML, ActiveX
    controls, etc.
  • Each component should be considered carefully.
  • If the HTML has been encoded natively, how will
    the data be transformed so that the user can read
    it on the Web site?
  • It may be necessary to use Unicode.
  • XML is also a format to handle this situation.

20
  • Code content
  • If there is localizable text within the Code tier
    of the site, ensure that it is commented as much
    as possible.
  • Localizers, the person who translate the text
    content from source language into target
    language. They are usually good in translation
    skills, but not programming skills.
  • The easier it is for the localizer to identify
    the localizable text, the better.
  • If the Web site contains scripting that needs to
    be localized, hire a localizer with sufficient
    experience so theres less chance of
    accidentally changes the script of the Web
    site.Web resources - the REZ fileA solution
    for localizable text in code can be done in REZ
    file.Essentially, translatable text is placed
    in a text file that is included in the
    server-side scripting file.
  • A statement like

21
  • Code content
  • The basic format of these REZ files istype
    id quoted text
  • type is optional
  • id is a programmer's identifier
  • quoted text is either single or double quoted
    text for translation
  • the REZ files are kept in a text folder off the
    main website folders.

22
  • Pre-translation testing
  • Pre-translation testing is the process of
    exercising the site's user interface,
    localizability, and site stability before
    localization.
  • This includes
  • Include some extended characters (e.g. é, ñ or ö)
    or Asian characters
  • Increase the length of the terms and paragraphs
  • During the design phase, run a prototype site to
    ensure that the design is flexible to be
    translated.
  • Test generated data or to ensure that the
    controls can display extended characters
    correctly.
  • Pre-translation testing can be run at different
    stages of the project
  • It is to identify and resolve international
    issues without wasting the time of the localizer
  • Pre-translation testing can also save money, and
    time to market by avoiding the need to fix bugs
    later in the project. This can also ensure the
    overall integrity of the website .
  • Pre-translation testing can't test everything.
  • Testing should be a continuous effort throughout
    the whole production process. There are always
    new issues for each localized version.

23
  • Yahoo customized its website into 23 locates
  • Each website offer totally different content, but
    under the same protocol.
  • http//hk.yahoo.com/

24
Localization kits
  • Why write localization kits?
  • To ensure that the Web site is localized
    correctly,
  • Provide instructions for the localizers, testers,
    and engineers.
  • Localizers need information on what to localize,
    for which audience they localize and, in most
    cases, what not to touch in the files.
  • Who to write the localization kits for?
  • localizers,
  • testers
  • engineers.
  • project program managers.
  • For example, Project managers will be interested
    in an overview, the number of files and the
    quantity of words to localize. Engineers would
    prefer the instructions to be to the point and in
    their lingo.

25
Localization kits
  • How to write localization kits
  • Prepare the project (internationalization)
  • Research specifications
  • Identify the scope (file list, word count etc.)
  • Identify the target audience
  • Write instructions for each specific group of
    people working on the project

26
  • Notes that help you to organize Localization kit
  • 1. Are you prepared to provide multilingual
    support?
  • If you set up a site in another language, you can
    expect to receive email queries and possibly
    phone calls from prospects and customers in that
    language. Will you be ready to handle them? You
    would at least want in place internal staff or
    distributors, or possibly an arrangement with an
    outside agency, to provide that language support.
  • 2. What language should you translate into?
  • If you're unsure of an area to target, one
    approach is to review your Web site use reports
    to determine whether a particular country or
    region represents a high number of visitors to
    your site.
  • 3. Multilingual sites might require specific
    programming requirements.
  • If you plan to support languages such as Japanese
    or Chinese, program in Unicode at the outset. The
    Unicode standard can support the scripts used by
    all languages. An additional feature of Unicode
    is that it supports languages that read from
    right to left, such as Hebrew and Arabic.

27
  • 4. If you offer several languages, permit users
    to select their language preference.
  • for example, "English" or "Deutsch."
  • Another approach is to configure your site so
    that the Web browser automatically detects what
    users have set as the default language in their
    Web configurations.
  • If the default language isn't available, the
    browser can display a message asking which other
    available language is preferred.
  • Even if your site automatically can determine the
    default language, its better you still provide
    the user a way to switch to another language.
  • 5. Page formats and content might vary from
    country to country.
  • How dates, time and numbers are displayed often
    varies from country to country. For example, the
    number 1,234.56 in the United States would be
    written as 1.234,56 in the Netherlands.
  • 6. Prepare to adapt the colors for your site.
  • Colors can take on a specific significance in
    different countries.

28
  • 7. You might need to reformat your navigation
    bars.
  • Certain languages, such as Spanish, often have
    words that are longer than their English
    equivalent. Thus, the size of the navigation bars
    -- the row of buttons or text that enables users
    to select specific pages on a Web site. The
    formatting for your site needs to be able to
    support those changes.
  • 8. Register with foreign search engines.
  • Sites such as Google and Yahoo offer search
    engines to seek out Internet pages or documents
    based on specified keywords. But if you want
    overseas customers to more readily find you Web
    site, then remember to register with local search
    engines, such as Siamguru.com for Thailand.
    Research available search engines in your target
    countries, and register your translated site.
  • 9. Test your Web site.
  • Test for usability before you launch your site,
    preferably working with locals in your targeted
    market.
  • Also test your site on a non-U.S. operating
    system, such as the Microsoft Windows versions
    for Chinese, France, etc.

29
Case Study 3
  • Hong Kong Tourist Board
  • Over 150 choices of location / residence. But not
    necessary in their particular official languages.
  • Content varies a bit according to different
    language versions.
  • http//www.discoverhongkong.com/
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