Learning to Reduce Recidivism: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Learning to Reduce Recidivism: PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 21af18-MzUwM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Learning to Reduce Recidivism:

Description:

Similar to percentage enrolled prior to loss of Pell Grants ... Funding by Enrollment. Barriers to Access. Inadequate funding. IYO restrictions. Limited funds ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:792
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: jeannereb
Learn more at: http://www.jjay.cuny.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Learning to Reduce Recidivism:


1
  • Learning to Reduce Recidivism
  • A 50-state analysis of postsecondary education
    policy
  • Wendy Erisman
  • Institute for Higher Education Policy
  • Washington, DC


2
Part of Larger Research Agenda
  • To look at subgroups facing unique barriers to
    accessing higher education
  • Disabled Students
  • Foster Youth
  • Immigrant Students
  • Working Poor
  • Rural Students
  • LGBT Students

3
Prisoners in the U.S.
  • 1.5 million adults incarcerated in state and
    federal prisons as of December 2004
  • Prisoners are disproportionately
  • Male
  • Racial/ethnic minorities
  • Impoverished
  • Group that has been poorly served by educational
    system

4
Educational Attainment of Prisoners
5
Why Offer Higher Education to Prisoners?
  • Fewer disciplinary problems
  • Improved self-esteem and critical thinking
  • Can become role models for their children
  • Increased employment prospects
  • Reduced recidivism

6
Higher Education and Recidivism
  • More than half of released prisoners return to
    prison within 3 years
  • Studies show that taking college classes while in
    prison reduces recidivism by 46 on average
  • Reduced recidivism lowers incarceration costs
  • 30 billion annually as of 2001

7
Research Questions
  • What is the current status of higher education in
    American prisons?
  • What barriers are preventing prisoners from
    gaining access to higher education?
  • What innovative efforts are helping prisoners
    gain access to higher education?

8
Methods
  • Quantitative
  • Survey of correctional education administrators
  • 45 states and Federal Bureau of Prisons responded
  • 90 response rate
  • Qualitative
  • Open-Ended Survey Question
  • Follow-Up Telephone Interviews
  • Review of Incarcerated Youth Offender Reports
  • Focus Group with Prisoners in Virginia

9
Status of Higher Education in American Prisons
2003-04
  • 44 of 46 responding prison systems offered some
    higher education for inmates
  • At least 85,491 prisoners took college classes
    during 2003-04
  • 5 of total prison population
  • 11 of prisoners with GED or high school diploma
  • Similar to percentage enrolled prior to loss of
    Pell Grants in 1994

10
Uneven Participation
  • 15 prison systems
  • Incarcerated 66 of all prisoners
  • Enrolled 89 of inmate-students
  • Granted 96 of degrees and certificates
  • Key factor
  • Strong institutional and state support for
    correctional education

11
Higher Enrollment Prison Systems
12
Average Enrollment 2003-04
13
Degree and Certificate Programs 2003-04
14
Completions 2003-04
15
Vocational Education
  • 62 of prisoners taking classes for college
    credit were enrolled in vocational programs
  • 92 of those who earned a credential in 2003-04
    earned a vocational certificate

16
Eligibility Factors
17
Sources of Instruction
18
Means of Instruction
19
Funding Sources
  • Federal Incarcerated Youth Offender Grants (IYO)
  • State Appropriations
  • Inmate Self-Payment
  • State Grants for Low-Income Students
  • Scholarships/Donations

20
Funding by Enrollment
21
Barriers to Access
  • Inadequate funding
  • IYO restrictions
  • Limited funds
  • Per student spending cap
  • Age limit
  • Lack of support from state officials
  • Inmate self-funding impractical

22
Barriers to Access
  • Poor academic preparation
  • Logistical problems
  • Security protocols
  • Remote locations
  • Difficulties hiring/retaining instructors
  • Prison overcrowding
  • Involuntary transfer of inmates

23
Barriers to Access
  • Structural/organizational barriers
  • Staff resentment
  • Obstructive policies
  • Competing priorities
  • Lack of public support

24
Innovative Programs Texas
  • Legislature required that prisoners reimburse
    state for educational costs
  • Repayment after release
  • Payment plan negotiated with parole officer
  • Over 1.1 million repaid

25
Innovative Programs Minnesota
  • Lost all state funding for academic higher
    education programs
  • Created private foundation to raise funds
  • Board includes Commissioner of Corrections and a
    community college president
  • Funds raised go to consortium of colleges that
    provide classes in state prisons

26
Innovative Programs New Mexico
  • Small prison system/large area
  • Web-based distance education via secure
    connection from single university to multiple
    prisons
  • All state prisons have computer labs and offer
    the same classes
  • Each prison also has a trained coordinator to
    assist inmate-students

27
Innovative Programs North Carolina
  • High enrollments/high completions
  • Partnership between corrections and community
    college system
  • Shared costs
  • Steering committee meets regularly
  • Matrix based on length of average sentence
    determines which facilities offer which programs

28
Policy Recommendations
  • Additional funding is needed
  • Reinstate Pell Grants for inmates
  • Expand IYO program and raise age limit
  • Increase state appropriations
  • Ensure that state colleges and universities
    receive formula funding
  • Make inmates eligible for state grants
  • Seek additional private resources

29
Policy Recommendations
  • State-level support is essential
  • Encourage close relationships among key state
    agencies
  • Build partnerships with colleges/universities
  • Develop supportive state/institutional policies
  • Policymakers and public need education
  • Publicize successful outcomes
  • Emphasize inmate accountability

30
  • Learning to Reduce Recidivism
  • A 50-state analysis of postsecondary education
    policy
  • Funded by the Ford Foundation
  • Report available for download at
  • http//www.ihep.org
About PowerShow.com