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Destruction of ecology


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Title: Destruction of ecology

Destruction of ecology
At all stages of their development people was
closely linked to the surrounding world. But
since there high industry society, a dangerous
human interference in nature has increased
dramatically widened the scope of this
intervention, it has become richer and now
threatens to become a global threat to mankind.
The charge of renewable raw materials increases,
more and more arable land is out of the economy,
so they built cities and factories. The man had
to intervene more and more in the economy
biosphere the part of our world, in which there
is life. Biosphere Earth is undergoing
incremental human impacts. Its possible to
allocate some of the most significant processes,
all of which did not improve the ecological
situation in the world. The most extensive
and significant chemical pollution is alien to
the nature of the chemical substances. Among them
gaseous and aerosol pollutants industrial and
domestic origin. Progression and the accumulation
of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Further
development of this process will intensify
unwanted upward trend in mean annual temperature
on the planet. It is a matter of concern to
environmentalists and the continued pollution of
the oceans oil and oil products, recently reached
the 1/5 of its total surface. Oil pollution of
such size could cause significant violations gas
and water exchange between the atmosphere and
hydrosphere. There is no doubt the importance of
chemistry and soil contamination by pesticides
and increased acidity, leading to the
disintegration of the ecosystem. In general, all
factors considered, which can be attributed to
polluting effects, have an appreciable effect on
the processes occurring in the biosphere.
Chemical pollution of the biosphere.
Mankind pollutes the atmosphere already
millennia, but the consequences of the use of
fire, they have enjoyed period were negligible.
We have to a accept the fact that smoke hampered
breathing, and that the black soot feel cover. On
the ceiling and walls of the home. Heat was
obtained for the person is more important than
clean air and unfinished walls of the cave. This
is a primary air pollution problem is not
represented, because when people lived in small
groups, occupying unlimited extensive pristine
natural environment. And even a large
concentration of people in the relatively small
area, as it was in classical antiquity, have not
been accompanied by serious consequences. That
was until the beginning of the nineteenth
century. Only in the last hundred years of
industry bestowed upon us such production
processes, the effects of which first people
could not even imagine. Having city-millionaires,
the growth which couldnt be stopped. All of this
is the result of great inventions and the
conquests rights. Basically, there are three
major sources of atmosphere pollution industry,
household boilers, transport. The main source
of pollution on the planet fire is thermal power
plants, metallurgical and chemical plants,
boilers installed, consuming more than 70 of
annual production of solid and liquid fuels.
  • The main harmful impurities fire origin are
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • b) Sulfur trioxide.
  • c) Sulfurous anhydride.
  • d) Hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide.
  • e) Oxide nitrogen.
  • f) The compounds of fluorine.
  • g) The compounds of chlorine.

Carbon monoxide
The result of incomplete combustion of
carbonaceous substances. As it enters the air
from the burning of solid waste, with the exhaust
and industrial emissions. Every year, the gas
enters the atmosphere at least 1250 tons Carbon
monoxide is a compound reacts with the active
components of the atmosphere and contributes to
the temperature of the planet, and creating the
greenhouse effect. Carbon monoxide, with the
chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless,
and tasteless gas. It consists of one carbon atom
covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. There are 2
covalent bonds and a dative covalent bond between
the oxygen and carbon atom which comes from the
oxygen. Carbon monoxide is produced from the
partial combustion of carbon-containing
compounds, notably in internal-combustion
engines. Carbon monoxide forms in preference to
the more usual carbon dioxide when there is a
reduced availability of oxygen present during the
combustion process. Carbon monoxide has
significant fuel value, burning in air with a
characteristic blue flame, producing carbon
dioxide. Despite its serious toxicity, CO plays a
highly useful role in modern technology, being a
precursor to a myriad of products.
Carbon monoxide is used in modified
atmosphere packaging systems in the US, mainly
with fresh meat products such as beef and pork.
The CO combines with myoglobin to form
carboxymyoglobin, a bright cherry red pigment.
Carboxymyoglobin is more stable than the
oxygenated form of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, which
can become oxidized to the brown pigment,
metmyoglobin. This stable red colour can persist
much longer than in normally packaged meat,
giving the appearance of freshness. Typical
levels of CO used are 0.4 to 0.5. One
reaction in the body produces CO. Carbon monoxide
is produced naturally as a breakdown of heme
(which is one of hemoglobin moieties), a
substrate for the enzyme heme oxygenase. The
enzymatic reaction results in breakdown of heme
to CO, biliverdin and Fe3 radical. The
endogenously produced CO may have important
physiological roles in the body (eg as a
neurotransmitter or a blood vessels relaxant). In
addition CO regulates inflammatory reactions in a
manner that prevents the development of several
diseases such atherosclerosis or severe malaria.
Carbon monoxide was first prepared by the
French chemist de Lassone in 1776 by heating zinc
oxide with coke. He mistakenly concluded that the
gaseous product was hydrogen as it burned with a
blue flame. The gas was identified as a compound
containing carbon and oxygen by the English
chemist William Cumberland Cruikshank in the year
Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere
Sulfur trioxide
There were in the process of combustion
sulfur fuel or processing of ores (up to 170
million tons per year). Part of sulfur allocated
during combustion of organic residues in the
mining heaps. Only in the United States the total
number released sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere
stood at 65 of the global emissions. Sulfur
trioxide (also spelled sulfur trioxide) is the
chemical compound with the formula SO3. In the
gaseous form, this species is an important
pollutant, being the primary agent in acid rain.
It is prepared on massive scale as a precursor to
sulfuric acid. Gaseous SO3 is a trigonal
planar molecule of D3h symmetry, as predicted by
VSEPR theory. In terms of electron-counting
formalisms, the sulfur atom has an oxidation
state of 6, a formal charge of 0, and is
surrounded by 6 electron pairs. From the
perspective of molecular orbital theory, most of
these electron pairs are non-bonding in
character, as is typical for hypervalent
Sulfurous anhydride
Formed when sulfur dioxide oxidation. The end
product of the reaction is an aerosol or a
solution of sulfuric acid in rain water which
acidifies soil, the disease aggravates human
respiratory tract. Sulfuric acid aerosol fallout
from the smoke plumes chemical states with low
clouds and high humidity. Leaf plates plants that
grow at a distance of less than 11 km. from such
companies tend to be heavily littered with small
necrotic spots formed in the ground subsidence
droplets of sulfuric acid. Pyrometallurgical
enterprise color and steel, as well as thermal
power plants emit into the atmosphere each year,
tens of millions of tons of sulfuric anhydride.
Hydrogen sulfide Carbon disulfide
There are in the atmosphere separately or
together with other sulphur compounds. The main
sources of emissions are companies manufacturing
artificial fiber, sugar, coke, oil, as well as
oil fields. In the atmosphere by the interaction
with other pollutants are subjected to a slow
oxidation of sulfuric anhydride. Carbon
disulfide is a colorless, volatile liquid with
the formula CS2. The compound is used frequently
as a building block in organic chemistry as well
as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent.
It has an "ether-like" odor, but commercial
samples are typically contaminated with
foul-smelling impurities. It often results
from the bacterial break down of organic matter
in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and
sewers (anaerobic digestion). It also occurs in
volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters.
The odor of H2S is commonly misattributed to
elemental sulfur, which is in fact odorless.
Hydrogen sulfide has numerous names, some of
which are archaic
Oxide nitrogen
  • The main sources of emissions are companies
    that produce nitrogen fertilizers, nitric acid
    and nitrates, Aniline dyes, nitro, viscose silk,
    celluloid. Number oxides nitrogen entering the
    atmosphere at 20 million tons a year.
  • The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any
    binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or to a
    mixture of such compounds
  • Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide
  • Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), nitrogen(II, IV)
  • Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen(IV) oxide
  • Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), nitrogen(V) oxide
  • Chemical reactions that produce nitrogen
    oxides often produce several, the proportions
    depending on the specific reaction and
    conditions. This is one reason why secondary
    production of N2O is undesirable the other two
    stable oxides which are extremely toxic are
    liable to be produced.

The compounds of fluorine
The sources of pollution are the production
of aluminum, enamel, glass, ceramic, steel,
phosphate fertilizers. Fluoro substances in the
atmosphere comes in the form of gaseous compounds
- hydrogen fluoride and sodium fluoride dust and
calcium. The compounds are toxic effect.
Derivatives are powerful insecticide fluoride.
Fluorine (pronounced /'fl??ri?n/, Latin
fluere, meaning "to flow"), is the chemical
element with the symbol F and atomic number 9.
Atomic fluorine is univalent and is the most
chemically reactive and electronegative of all
the elements. In its elementally isolated (pure)
form, fluorine is a poisonous, pale, yellowish
brown gas, with chemical formula F2. Like other
halogens, molecular fluorine is highly dangerous
it causes severe chemical burns on contact with
skin. Fluorine's large electronegativity and
small atomic radius gives it interesting bonding
characteristics, particularly in conjunction with
carbon, with which it forms stable compounds with
a wide range of industrial applications. See
covalent radius of fluorine, fluorocarbon,
Perfluorocarbon, and fluoropolymer.
The compounds of chlorine
There are in the atmosphere from chemical
plants producing hydrochloric acid, chlorine
pesticides, organic dyes, hydrolysis alcohol,
bleach, soda. In an atmosphere found as an
impurity molecules of chlorine and hydrochloric
acid vapors. Toxicity determined by the form of
chlorine compounds and their concentration. In
the metallurgical industry in the smelting of
iron and the processing of its steel, releases to
the atmosphere of various heavy metals and
poisonous gases. Thus, per 1 tons of pig iron
except allocated 12.7 kg. sulfur dioxide and 14.5
kg of dust particles that determine the amount of
arsenic compounds, phosphorus, antimony, lead,
mercury vapour and rare metals, gum substances
and hydrogen cyanide.
Aerosols, also known as particulates, are
airborne particles that absorb, scatter, and
reflect radiation back into space. Clouds,
windblown dust, and particles that can be traced
to erupting volcanoes are examples of natural
aerosols. Human activities, including the burning
of fossil fuels and slash-and-burn farming
techniques used to clear forestland, contribute
additional aerosols to the atmosphere. Although
aerosols are not considered a heat-trapping
greenhouse gas, they do affect the transfer of
heat energy radiated from the Earth to space. The
effect of aerosols on climate change is still
debated, but scientists believe that
light-colored aerosols cool the Earths surface,
while dark aerosols like soot actually warm the
atmosphere. The increase in global temperature in
the last century is lower than many scientists
predicted when only taking into account
increasing levels of carbon dioxide, methane,
nitrous oxide, and fluorinated compounds. Some
scientists believe that aerosol cooling may be
the cause of this unexpectedly reduced warming.
However, scientists do not expect that
aerosols will ever play a significant role in
offsetting global warming. As pollutants,
aerosols typically pose a health threat, and the
manufacturing or agricultural processes that
produce them are subject to air-pollution control
efforts. As a result, scientists do not expect
aerosols to increase as fast as other greenhouse
gases in the 21st century.
Aerosol pollution of the atmosphere.
Aerosols - it is solid or liquid particles that
are suspended in the air. Solid components of
aerosols in some cases, especially dangerous for
organisms, and the people are of specific
diseases. In an aerosol pollution perceived as
smoke, fog, haze or Haze. Much of aerosols in the
atmosphere formed by the interaction of solid and
liquid particles among themselves or with steam.
The average size of aerosol particles of 1-5
microns. In the Earth's atmosphere annually about
1 cubic km dust particles artificial origin. A
large quantity of dust particles formed in the
course of production activities of people.
Details of some of the sources of technogenic
dust are as follows
Photochemical fog (smog).
Photochemical fog is a multi-gas mixture of
aerosol particles and primary and secondary
origin. The composition of the main components of
smog include ozone, oxides of nitrogen and
sulfur, many organic compounds peroxide nature,
collectively called oxidants. Photochemical able
arises as a result of photochemical reactions in
certain circumstances there is a high
concentration in the atmosphere of nitrogen
oxides, hydrocarbons and other pollutants,
intense solar radiation and not weathering or
very poor air exchange in the surface layer, with
strong and for a period of not less than a day
increased inversion. Steadfast calm weather,
usually accompanied by inversion is needed for
the creation of a high concentration of reactive
substances. Such conditions often created in
June and September and less frequently in winter.
In fine weather a prolonged solar radiation
causes splitting molecules to form nitrogen
dioxide and nitrogen oxide atomic oxygen. Atomic
oxygen with molecular oxygen gives ozone. It
would seem the last oxide nitric oxide should
returning in molecular oxygen, and nitrogen oxide
- in dioxide. But this is not happening. Nitric
oxide comes in response to the volume of exhaust
gases, which are split with regard to the dual
form, and fragments of molecules and excess
As a result following dissociation new mass
split nitrogen dioxide and give additional
quantities of ozone. There is a cyclical
reaction, which ultimately accumulates in the
atmosphere ozone. The process stops at night. In
turn, ozone reacts with the volume. In an
atmosphere of concentrated various peroxide,
which in the amount and form characteristic of
photochemical fog cancer. The latter are the
source of so-called free radicals that differed
ability special reactivity. Such manage -
frequent phenomenon over London, Paris, Los
Angeles, New York and other cities in Europe and
America. According to its physiological effects
on the human organism are extremely dangerous to
the respiratory and circulatory system and often
cause premature death of urban residents with
impaired health. The problem of controlling
the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere
by industry (MPC). Priority in the development of
maximum permissible concentrations in the air has
USSR. MPC - such concentration, which, at the
individual and his offspring direct or indirect
effects do not affect their efficiency, self, as
well as health and living conditions of people's
lives. The synthesis of all information on
the MPC received by all agencies, conducted in
GGO (Home Geophysical Observatory. On the
results of observations to determine the air, the
measured concentrations compared to the maximum
permissible concentration of a case and determine
the number of cases in which exceeded the maximum
permissible concentration, as well as how much
Most times the value was higher MPC.

Water pollution
Any pond or water source connected to the
external environment surrounding it. It
influenced the formation conditions of the
surface or underground water runoff, a variety of
natural phenomena, industry, industrial and
public utility construction, transportation,
economic and domestic human activities. The
effect of these influences is the introduction of
new water, it alien substances - pollutants
degrade water quality. Pollution coming into the
aquatic environment, classified differently,
depending on the approaches, criteria and
objectives. Thus, typically emit chemical,
physical and biological contamination. Chemical
pollution is a modification of the chemical
properties of natural water by increasing the
content of harmful impurities in it as inorganic
(mineral salts, acids, alkalis, clay particles),
and organic nature (petroleum and petroleum
products, organic debris surface-active
substances, pesticides). Inorganic
pollution. The basic inorganic (mineral)
pollutants fresh and marine waters are a variety
of chemical compounds, toxic to aquatic
inhabitants. This arsenic, lead, cadmium,
mercury, chromium, copper, fluoride. Most of them
fall into the water as a result of human
activity. Heavy metals are absorbed by
phytoplankton and then passed on the food chain
more highly organisms.
A toxic effect of some of the most common
pollutants hydrosphere presented in the table
The degree of toxicity (note) -- - missing
- very weak - Weak    - strong   
- very strong
A considerable amount of organic matter, the
majority of which are not inherent in natural
waters discharged into the river along with
industrial and household sewage. Increasing water
pollution and runoff in all industrial countries.
Information on the content of organic matter in
some industrial effluents provided below
The problem of pollution of the world's oceans
Petroleum and petroleum products. Oil is a
viscous oily liquid with a dark brown color and
possessing weak fluorescence. Oil is composed
mainly of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and
hydro aromatic. The main components of oil -
hydrocarbons (98) - divided into 4 classes
a) Paraffin (alkeny) - (90 of total) - resistant
substances, molecules that reflect direct and
branched-chain carbon atoms. Light paraffins have
maximum volatility and solubility in water. b)
cyclic paraffin - (30 - 60 of the total) -
saturated cyclic compounds with 5-6 carbon atoms
in the ring. Besides phosphapalladacycle and
cyclohexane in the oil found cycle and half
cyclic compounds of this group. These compounds
are stable and resist bio expansions.
c) Aromatic hydrocarbons - (20 - 40 of the
total) - unsaturated cyclic number of benzene
compounds containing in the ring at 6 carbon
atoms less than circle paraffin . In the present
volatile oil compounds with single molecules in
the form of rings (benzene, toluene, xylem), then
becyclic (naphthalene), polycyclic. g) Olefins
(alkeny) - (10 of total) discyclic
unsaturated compounds with one or two hydrogen
atoms, each atom of carbon in the molecule having
a direct or branched chain. Petroleum and
petroleum products are the most common pollutants
in the oceans. By the early 80 - s the ocean
annually received about 6 million tons oil, which
stood at 0.23 of the world production. The
biggest losses related to its oil transport from
the areas of production. Emergency situations
plums overboard tankers washing and ballast water
- all this leads to the permanent presence of
contamination in the fields of maritime routes.
In the period 1962-79 for years as a result of
accidents in the marine environment has received
some 2 million tons of oil. Over the past 30
years, beginning in 1964, procuring about 2000
wells in the oceans, of which only 1000 in the
North Sea and 350 industrial wells equipped.
Because of minor leaks lost 0.1 million tons
annually oil. Large masses of oil into the sea
come on the rivers, with household sewage and
storm water. The amount of pollution from
this source is 2.0 million tons per year. So
runoff industry gets 0.5 million tons annually
When the marine environment, oil initially
spreads in the form of film, forming layers of
different capacities. For colour film thickness
can be determined
Oil film alters the composition of the spectrum
and intensity of light penetration into the
water. Light crude oil thin films of 1-10 (280
nm), 60-70 (400 nm). Film thickness of 30-40
microns fully absorbs infrared radiation. Used
with water-oil emulsion forms of two types
direct - "oil in the water" - and reverse -
"water in the oil." Direct emulsions prepared
viruses oil diameter up to 0.5 micrometers, and
is characterized by less resistant to oils
containing surfactants. When removing volatility,
viscous oil inverse emulsion form, which can be
preserved on the surface, be transported over,
discharged ashore and sink to the bottom.
Thermal pollution
Thermal pollution of surface waters and
coastal waters are a result of the dumping of
waste hot water power plants and certain
industrial output. Discharge of hot water, in
many cases, leads to increase in temperature of
water in reservoirs to 6-8 degrees Celsius.
Surface water hot spots in the coastal areas can
be as high as 30 A more steady temperature
stratification prevents water change surface and
bottom layers. Solubility decreases oxygen, and
its consumption is increasing as temperature
increasing with the growth of aerobic bacteria
activity, organic matter decomposes. Growing
diversity of phytoplankton and the whole algal
flora. By synthesizing the material can be
concluded that the effects of human impacts on
the aquatic environment, individually and
manifest populated-zonal levels, and long-term
effect of pollutants leads to easier of the
Pesticides as a polluting factor
Opening pesticides - protecting chemical
plants and animals of various pests and diseases
- one of the greatest achievements of modern
science. Today in the world on 1 hectare. sprayed
300 kg. chemical means. However, following a
lengthy use of pesticides in agriculture daily
medicine (vector control disease) is declining
almost everywhere because of the effectiveness of
the development of resistant pests races and the
spread of "new" harmful organisms, natural
enemies and rivals who were killed by pesticides.
However, the effect of pesticides has become
manifest on a global scale. Of the enormous
quantity of harmful insects are only 0.3 or 5
thousand species. U 250 - ty species found
resistance to pesticides. This is compounded by
the phenomenon of cross-resistance, which is that
the increased resistance to one drug of action is
accompanied by resistance to other classes of
compounds. Wish total biological positions
resistance can be seen as a shift of populations
as a result of the transition to sustainable
strain sensitive strain of the same type as a
result of selection, caused by pesticides. This
phenomenon is related to genetic, physiological
and biochemical reconstructions organisms.
Excessive use of pesticides (herbicides,
insecticides, defoliants) adversely affects the
quality of the soil. In connection with this
intensively studied the fate of pesticides in
soils and the ability and opportunity to clear
their chemical and biological methods. It is very
important to create and apply only to products
with low life expectancy is measured in weeks or
months. In this regard has already achieved some
success, and preparations are being introduced at
a high rate of destruction, but the whole problem
has not been resolved.
Nature - the challenge of this century, the
problem that has become social. Again and again
we hear about the danger to the environment, but
until now many of us consider them unpleasant but
inevitable product of civilization and think that
we have to cope with all tracks emergency
difficulties. However, man's impact on the
environment has taken alarming proportions. To
radically improve the situation, will need
concerted and deliberate action. Responsible and
effective policies on the environment will be
possible only if we gain reliable data on the
current status of the environment, co-founded
knowledge of the major environmental factors that
will develop if the new methods of reducing and
preventing harm Nature of Humans. How said one
of the Oil and gas technologies lesson, my
friend and group mate Tkachev Viktor What will
we reserve to our children?. This is really
global problem of humanity. The more important
moment belongs to our field, to petroleum
industry. I think we must use more effectively
and modern technologies in the time of mining. Or
must make new technologies and find new
ideas. And this must be one of the main aim of
every geophysics and all challenges of our
field. Maybe then our faces will be brighter
compared to our future generation!