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Roman Republic

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... the small cupid riding the dolphin alludes to Augustus's claim that the ... (Adina Tovy/Robert Harding Picture Library) Roman Legacy (RGH #49) 'Rome's genius ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Roman Republic


1
Roman Republic 2nd BCE - 44 BCE Rome is an
idea
Punic Wars
2
Julius Caesar Crossing the Rubicon
You bring them blood and death and theyll love
you for it.
Rome was a military state. Generals in Politics
3
Rome is the mob
-Latifundia (Slavery) -Extremes of Wealth
(Patricians and Plebes) -Civil Wars -Dictator
Coin of Julius Caesar Upon his acquisition of
power in 46 B.C.E., Caesar allowed a number of
extraordinary honors to be conferred upon him.
The Senate declared him "father of his country"
and had this stamped on his coinage. He was the
first living Roman to be represented on a coin, a
sign both of his power and of the break with
tradition that he marked. (Bibliotheque nationale
de France)
4
From republic to monarchy
  • Rome was always beset with conflicts between
    classes
  • Tensions worsened as the Roman empire expanded
  • From c. 31 BCE, Rome was a monarchy disguised as
    a republic
  • The empire killed the republic.

Octavian Caesar a.k.a. Augustus Princeps
Julius Caesar Dictator for life
5
Bread and Circuses The beating heart of Rome
is not the marble of the Senate but the sand of
the Coliseum.
Win the crowd and youll win your freedom
Gladiators, mosaic Gladiators--literally men who
carried a gladius (sword)--fought to the death in
the arena and enraptured the Roman Empire.
6
Bread and Circuses
  • Romans loved urban spectacles such as gladiator
    games.
  • Rome also had a welfare system, distributing
    free wheat to the urban poor.

7
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8
Roman Empire 44 BCE - 5th CE
Fasces symbol of Imperial Rome
Augustus as imperator Augustus, dressed in
breastplate and uniform, emphasizes the imperial
majesty of Rome and his role as imperator. The
naked feet signify Augustus's divinity the small
cupid riding the dolphin alludes to Augustus's
claim that the Julian line descended from Venus.
The breastplate commemorates his victory over the
Parthians, the triumph that ushered in the
Augustan Peace. (Scala/Art Resource, NY)
9
Golden Age of Rome 1st CE 3rd CE Pax Romana
Remember Romans To rule the people under law, to
establish, The way of Peace Virgil, 1st CE
Robbery, butchery, rapine, they call
Empire They create a desert and call it
peace. Tacitus, 1st CE
10
An empire of force and lawHard versus soft
power
  • Hard power
  • Rome had the strongest military in the world.
  • Territories within the empire either submitted to
    Roman rule or were conquered.
  • Soft power
  • Roman citizenship was eventually extended to all
    free males within the empire allowing them
    protection under Roman law and other privileges
  • Benefits of being a part of the integrated
    economic zone of the empire

11
The Roman Legion
The tortoise formation
12
Resisting the Romans.
  • Some peoples resisted Roman rule especially in
    Persia, Gaul, and Britain
  • Most famous revolt Boudica and the Iceni people
  • Tacitus You made a desert and you called it
    peace.

Statue of Boudica, near Houses of Parliament,
London
13
Roman society
  • Patricians and plebians
  • Patriarchy
  • Pater familias
  • Fathers made all decisions pertaining to the
    family

Patrician woman
14
Slaves in the Roman Empire
  • Through military conquest, Rome accumulated
    millions of slaves
  • 1st century CE 1 in 3 in city of Rome a slave
  • Roman proverb Every slave we own is an enemy
    we harbor

Crassus
15
Other engineering wonders
Aqueducts
16
Center of Roman social life
The baths
17
Roman Empire, 146 CE All roads lead to Rome
MARE NOSTRUM Our Sea
18
All roads led to Rome
50,000 miles of main roads 200,000 miles of
lesser roads
19
http//web.arch.ox.ac.uk/archatlas/Trade/Trade.htm
THE20WEST-EURASIA20WORLD20SYSTEM,203600-1400
20BC
20
We believed it once, make us believe it again
Diocletian's Tetrarchy The emperor Diocletian's
attempt to reform the Roman Empire by dividing
rule among four men is represented in this piece
of sculpture, which in many features illustrates
the transition from ancient to medieval art. Here
the four tetrarchs demonstrate their solidarity
by clasping one another on the shoulder.
Nonetheless each man has his other hand on his
sword--a gesture that proved prophetic when
Diocletian's reign ended and another struggle for
power began. (Scala/Art Resource, NY)
21
Colossal statue of Constantine The head of
Constantine is part of an enormous sculpture of
him seated that was once originally placed in his
basilica. The entire statue was over 30 feet
high the head alone weighs over 8 tons. Head,
arms, hands, legs and feet were of marble. The
drapery was probably of bronze plates over a
masonry frame. The colossal head and neck are
superbly modeled, but the eyes, which seem to be
fixed on some spot above our heads (perhaps on
eternity), seem overly large. Such a feature is
common in the early Christian period. (Scala/Art
Resource, NY)
22
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23
Roman amphitheater, Tunisia Amphitheaters where
gladiatorial combats took place were as common in
Italy and the Roman Empire as skyscrapers are in
a modern city. This amphitheater in the city of
El Djem in modern Tunisia (the Roman province of
Africa) was built of high-quality local stone. It
was meant to have sixty-four arches but was never
completed. The openings in the floor permitted
animals to be released into the arena. This
amphitheater held at least thirty thousand
spectators. (Adina Tovy/Robert Harding Picture
Library)
24
Roman Legacy (RGH 49) Romes genius was
practical -Architecture and Engineering -Administ
ration, Bureaucracy -Latin -Law (international
law, universal) -Classical (Greco-Roman)
Culture -Romanization
- Common Citizenship You have made the name of
Rome no longer that of a city but of an entire
people. Greek Orator - Christianity
25
Byzantine Empire
26
The Decline of the Roman Empire
  • 3rd Century Crisis
  • Leadership and succession crises
  • Over-extension of the empire
  • External pressures

27
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28
Consequences
  • Devolution
  • Return to barter economy
  • People left cities and moved to countryside
  • Decentralization of power
  • 476 CE Western Roman Empire collapsed

29
Legacies of the Roman Empire
  • Cities and roads of Europe
  • Ideas about law
  • Romance languages
  • Christianity
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