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Forbrug, livstil og medier


foie gras (liver of a crammed goose - basically it is a big and fat sick - liver) ... restaurant, admits that she watches 'Eastenders' (popular soap) and drinks tea ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forbrug, livstil og medier

Forbrug, livstil og medier
  • Mad, forbrug og livstil

Introduction - Would you eat that?
Introduction - Would you eat that?
  • This dish combines two highly controversal foods
  • - sweetbread (kalvebrissel)
  • - foie gras (liver of a crammed goose -
    basically it is a big and fat sick - liver)
  • Other controversal food in Western civilization
  • - all innards, brain, snails, froglegs, oysters
  • - vegetables with pesticides
  • - butter (because of cholesterol)
  • - Hamburgers, fast food
  • - food from other cultures (foul eggs, insects,
    apes, duria fruit
  • - food that is not good for the environment

  • I Food and Culture
  • - Three approaches structuralism, culturalism
    and hegemony approach
  • II The raw and the cooked
  • III Table manners and the civilizing process
  • IV Detox etc.

  • B.Ashely/J.Hollows/S.Jones/B.Taylor, Food and
    Cultural Studies, chapter 1 Food-cultural
    studies three paradigms, Routledge London
  • Norbert Elias, The Civilizing Process, chapter
    IV, group 2 On the Eating of Meat, Use of the
    Knife at Table, On the Use of the Fork at Table,
    Blackwell Oxford 1994.

I Food and Culture
  • Food plays a central role in cultures
  • Symbolic
  • Material
  • Social
  • Economic
  • behaviour
  • Approaches
  • Structuralism (in sociology, anthropology)
  • Culturalism (social science, cultural studies)
  • Hegemony as approach (neo-marxism, Antonio
  • Everyday life approach (Michel de Certeau)
  • Civilisation process (Norbert Elias)
  • Ethnographic studies

I Food and Culture - Structural approach
  • Protagonists Mary Douglas, Claude Lévi- Strauss,
    Roland Barthes
  • Food and food practices has to be understood as
    the systematic generation of difference and the
    separation of self from other. (p.3, Ashley et
    al.), often binary differences (national
    international food)
  • E.g. the piggish Irish, a negative standard
    against which the more disciplined English
    working class defined itselves (see Engels)
  • Prominent the system of raw, cooked and rotten
    of Lévi-Strauss

I Food and culture - structural approach
  • Roland Barthes Example of steak and chips an
    edible metaphor for the national family a
    French icon, cross classes
  • Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction, structural system
    of distinctions in relation to social economic
    class, fields and capitals. A young executive
    who knows how to live In cooking , as in
    clothing and furnishing, they manifest the same
    refusal of pretension of excess, the same sense
    of distinction. …If its whiskey, we drink
    Chivas, were rather demanding.
  • Beer vs. Red wine, sushi vs. Flæskesteg etc.

I Food and Culture - cultural approach
  • Raymond Williams (teashop example)
  • No difference between high culture and low
    culture, special emphasis on working class
    culture, people and their practices in the centre
  • Example the pub, from feeling like a member
    (working class pub with fixed drinking habits) to
    a consumer (Campari instead of beer)

I Food and Culture - cultural approach
  • David Miller, research on soft-drink (coke) in
    Trinidad ethnic divisions and a system of
    meaning, red sweet drinks (Indians) black sweet
    drink (Afro Americans)
  • Michel de Certau, The Practice of Everyday Life,
    Vol. 2 Living Cooking, 1998, microresistances
    in practices, examples are the neighborhood shop
    Robert or on Innumerable Anonymous Women.

I Food and Culture - the hegemony approach
  • Antonio Gramsci, neomarxism, hegemony of a moral
    and intellectual leadership (dominant groups
    legitimize power relations)
  • Example Queen Elizabeth visits in Glasgow a
    McDonald restaurant, admits that she watches
    Eastenders (popular soap) and drinks tea with a
    local resident
  • one nation, different tastes?

I Food and Culture - the hegemony approach
  • How McDonald became McDonald?
  • Why do people eat the Hamburges, accept the
    standarisation, in the first place (in the 30s)
    and now worldwide?
  • Burger production functions according the
    principles of rationalization and standarization.
  • People are hegemonized into working in this
    scheme, eating according this scheme etc.
  • The illusion of the family that eats together,
  • Ritzer McDonaldization includes standarization
    plus self-rationalization/self-governing.

II The raw and the cooked
  • Claude Lévi-Strauss, structural anthropologist
  • Fieldwork in different cultures, e.g. native
    American, comparison of French and Englisch
    cooking, food or the act of cooking as an
    symbolic marker
  • Starts with a binary system of
  • raw cooked heaven - earth
  • nature culture life - death
  • endogenous- exogenous
  • In the finished system also gender differences
  • men roasting
  • Women - boiling

(No Transcript)
II The raw and the cooked
  • Mary Douglas criticises Lévi-Strauss for not
    taking small scale social relations into account,
    context can change the structure
  • example how to use the nature culture
    difference to relocate the cooked food in the
  • - pumpkin soup served in the pumpkin
  • - the chef decorates the dish with fresh herbs
  • - the advertisments places the cheese on the

III Table manners and the process of civilization
  • Mikael Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World,
    Bloomington 1984
  • - the carnivalesque banquet in Middle Ages
    (excessive drinking, eating etc.) is reduced to
    few occasions (birthday, wedding), modernity and
    the disciplined body
  • Norbert Elias, The civilizing process (1939),
    subtitle sociogenetic and psychogenetic

III Table manners and the civilizing process
  • Everyday forms of behaviour in the civilizing
    process, e.g. table manners
  • Elias investigated into etiquette books from the
    13th to the 19th century
  • Sociological frame in Vol. II State formation
    and Civilization, from feudal society over
    court-society to bourgeois society
  • Manners are related to the type of society, often
    born out of the competition between social
    classes, manners allow social distinction
  • Tendency in history that manners in bourgeois
    societies tend to be less important than in
    feudal or court societies, because in modern
    societies production and the individual are more
    in the centre (manners private and less

III Table manners and the civilizing process
  • Table manners
  • - source for all manners are the emotions and
    affects of shame and embarrassement which are
    attached to bodily functions, the refinement of
    manners and the role of emotions
  • - to show hygienecally correct behaviour
  • Consumption of meat/ manners of eating meat
  • Social difference in consumption secular upper
    class high consumption, lower class almost no
  • Presentation of meat
  • - Middle Ages whole animals, carving and
    presentation of animal became a art/craft, to eat
    from the whole animal is pleasurable

III Table manners and the civilizing process
  • 17th century smaller pieces of meat (also
    smaller household units)
  • 20th centure whole animals are seen as
    disgusting, no bones or joints! (Chicken
  • How to use the knife
  • Dangerous instrument, lots of emotions connected
    (fear e.g.)
  • Middle Ages Do not clean your teeth with a
    knife (p. 104)
  • - Eating with a knife normal, but it is a
    problematic situation, pointing with the knife to
    ones own face

III Table manners and the civilizing process
  • 16th century to lift the knife to the mouth is
    forbidden, the knife should be passed in a way
    that it doesnt point to the other person (no
  • Modern times fish knife, lots of restrictions
    using a knife everything that can be cut
    without a knife, should be cut with a fork
    alone. (p. 106)
  • Example China!

III Table manners and the civilizing process
  • Why use the fork?
  • Why is it more civilized to eat with a fork?
    (p. 107)
  • civilized vs. uncivilized, feeling of distaste
    when people use their hands, lick the fingers,
    touch other food with the unwashed hand etc.
  • a change in the economy of dirces and motions
    (p. 107)
  • Cas Wouters (Dutch sociologist) in his research
    on etiquette books/cook books he finds a
    dialectic of informalization (back to nature) and
    formalization (sophisticated manners)

IV Detox etc.
  • Detox diets are dietary plans regarded as having
    detoxifying effects. Scientists, dietitians, and
    doctors, while generally judging 'detox diets'
    harmless (unless nutritional deficiency results),
    often dispute the value and need of 'detox diets'
    due to lack of supporting factual evidence.11
  • "Detox" diets usually suggest that water,12 or
    fruits and vegetables compose a majority of one's
    food intake. Limiting this to unprocessed (and
    sometimes also non-GM) foods is often advocated.
    Limiting or eliminating alcohol is also a major
    factor, and drinking more water is similarly
  • Methods to modify the diet for the purpose of
    detoxification include
  • - Eliminating foods such as caffeine, alcohol,
    processed food (including any bread), pre-made or
    canned food, salt, sugar, wheat, red meat, pork,
    fried and deep fried food, yellow cheese, cream,
    butter and margarine, shortening, etc., while
    focusing on pure foods such as raw fruits and
    vegetables, whole grains, legumes, raw nuts and
    seeds, fish, vegetable oils, herbs and herbal
    teas, water, etc.

IV Detox etc
  • - Raw foodism
  • - Fasting, including water fasting and juice
  • - Increased consumption of fish
  • - Food combining
  • - Calorie restriction
  • - Herbal detox
  • - Master Cleanse, also known as the lemonade
    diet, terms that refer to the fasting diet
    advocated by Stanley Burroughs13
  • Special teas used in combination with another
    detox method. Most detox teas contain ginger,
    milk thistle, licorice, rooibos, black pepper and
    dandelion, ingredients known in folk medicine as
    digestive aids. Other ingredients help to protect
    the liver, alleviate urinary problems and help
    treats stomach ulcers.
  • - Some proponents of detox diets emphasize it as
    a lifestyle rather than a diet, 1415. Others
    have touted spiritual and psychological benefits
    of regular detox dieting.16

IV Detox etc
  • Socio-economic differences, who uses Detox?
    Social distinctions
  • Gender differences?
  • Nature culture is nature here good while
    culture (refined food) is bad?
  • Ideas about purity (food, bowel system, mind)
  • Other life styles vegetarianism, veganism
  • Disorders Anorexia, body images and food