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Digestive System

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Digestive System Structures. 6. Esophagus. Receives food from pharynx and propels it to stomach ... Digestive System Structures. 10. Small intestine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Digestive System


1
Digestive System
  • CHAPTER 12

2
Digestive System Overview
  • Digestive System
  • Known as gastrointestinal tract
  • Also known as digestive tract or alimentary canal
  • Approximately 30 feet long
  • Begins with mouth (oral cavity), ends with anus
  • Functions
  • Prepare foods for absorption into the bloodstream
  • Prepare foods for use by the body cells
  • Responsible for elimination of solid wastes from
    the body

3
Digestive System Structures
  • Oral cavity (Buccal cavity)
  • Lips
  • Cheeks
  • Hard palate
  • Rugae
  • Soft palate
  • Uvula
  • Tongue
  • Principle organ of the sense of taste
  • Also assists in process of chewing (mastication)
    and swallowing (deglutition)

4
Digestive System Structures
  • Salivary glands
  • Three pairs
  • Parotids
  • Submandibulars
  • Sublinguals
  • Secrete saliva
  • Mostly water, but contains mucus and digestive
    enzymes that aid in digestive process
  • Digestive enzymes contained in saliva
  • Amylase aids in digestion of carbohydrates
  • Lipase aids in digestion of fats

5
Digestive System Structures
  • Pharynx
  • Known as the throat
  • Serves as passageway for both respiratory and
    digestive systems
  • Oropharynx
  • Section leading away from oral cavity
  • Nasopharynx
  • Behind nasal cavity
  • Laryngopharynx
  • Lower portion opens into esophagus and larynx

6
Digestive System Structures
  • Esophagus
  • Receives food from pharynx and propels it to
    stomach
  • Cardiac sphincter (lower esophageal sphincter)
    controls passage of food from esophagus into the
    stomach
  • Relaxes food enters stomach
  • Contracts stomach contents prevented from
    reentering the esophagus

7
Digestive System Structures
  • Stomach
  • Fundus
  • Upper rounded portion
  • Body
  • Central part

8
Digestive System Structures
  • Stomach
  • Pylorus
  • Lower tubular part (also called the gastric
    antrum)
  • Pyloric sphincter regulates passage of food from
    stomach into the duodenum
  • Folds in mucous membranes of stomach Rugae

9
Digestive System Structures
  • Stomach
  • Gastric juices breakdown food in stomach
  • Muscular action of stomach causes churning of
    food
  • Mixes food with the secretions
  • Chyme liquidlike mixture of partially digested
    food and digestive secretions

10
Digestive System Structures
  • Small intestine
  • Approximately 20 feet long
  • Also known as the small bowel
  • Divided into three parts
  • Duodenum
  • Jejunum
  • Ileum

11
Digestive System Structures
  • Large intestine
  • Cecum
  • Appendix hangs from lower portion of cecum
  • Ascending colon
  • Hepatic flexure
  • Transverse colon
  • Splenic flexure
  • Descending colon
  • Sigmoid colon
  • Rectum
  • Anus

12
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Liver
  • Located immediately under diaphragm, slightly to
    the right
  • Only digestive function
  • Production of bile for emulsification of fats in
    small intestine

13
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Liver
  • Additional functions of liver
  • Excretion of bile pigments into bile
  • Synthesis of vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins
  • Amino acid metabolism
  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • Fat metabolism
  • Phagocytosis
  • Detoxification
  • Storage of vital nutrients

14
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Gallbladder
  • Pear-shaped sac, located under surface of liver
  • Main function
  • To store and concentrate bile produced by the
    liver
  • Releases bile in response to presence of fatty
    content of food present in duodenum
  • Emulsifies fats

15
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Pancreas
  • Located in upper left quadrant of abdomen, behind
    stomach
  • Functions as exocrine gland to manufacture
    digestive juices
  • Trypsin breaks down proteins
  • Pancreatic lipase breaks down fats
  • Pancreatic amylase breaks down carbohydrates
  • Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acidic stomach
    contents

16
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Pancreas
  • Functions as endocrine gland to manufacture
    insulin and glucagon
  • Insulin hormone that makes it possible for
    glucose to pass from blood through cell membranes
    to be used for energy
  • Insulin also promotes conversion of excess
    glucose into glycogen
  • Glucagon hormone that stimulates the liver to
    convert glycogen into glucose in time of need

17
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Teeth
  • Primary responsibility
  • Chewing (mastication)
  • Food is ground by teeth and softened by saliva
  • Primary teeth deciduous teeth
  • Set of 20 teeth appears around age 6 months
  • Secondary teeth permanent teeth
  • Begin to appear around age 6

18
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Teeth
  • Incisors
  • Chisel shape with sharp edges for biting food
  • Canine or cuspid teeth
  • Useful for grasping and tearing food
  • Bicuspids (premolars) and molars
  • Flat surfaces, multiple projections for crushing
    and grinding food

19
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Teeth
  • Crown
  • Visible part of the tooth
  • Covered with enamel hardest substance in body
  • Neck
  • Lies just beneath the gum line
  • Root
  • Embedded in bony socket of the jaw bone
  • Root canal pulp cavity
  • Central core of the tooth

20
Accessory Organs of Digestion
  • Layers of Teeth

21
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Achlorhydria
  • Abnormal condition characterized by the absence
    of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
  • Anorexia
  • Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the
    inability to eat

22
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Aphagia
  • Condition characterized by the loss of the
    ability to swallow as a result of organic or
    psychologic causes
  • Ascites
  • Abnormal accumulation of fluid within the
    peritoneal cavity
  • Fluid contains large amounts of protein and
    electrolytes

23
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Borborygmus
  • An audible abdominal sound produced by
    hyperactive intestinal peristalsis
  • Borborygmi are rumbling, gurgling, and tinkling
    noises heard when listening with a stethoscope

24
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Constipation
  • Difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or
    infrequent passage of hard stools
  • Diarrhea
  • Frequent passage of loose, watery stools

25
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Dyspepsia
  • Vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after
    eating
  • Involves an uncomfortable feeling of fullness,
    heartburn, bloating, and nausea
  • Dysphagia
  • Difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated
    with obstructive or motor disorders of the
    esophagus

26
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Emaciation
  • Excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of
    nutrition
  • Emesis
  • Material expelled from the stomach during
    vomiting
  • Vomitus

27
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Eructation
  • Act of bringing up air from the stomach with a
    characteristic sound through the mouth
  • Belching
  • Flatus Flatulence
  • Air or gas in the intestine that is passed
    through the rectum

28
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux
  • Backflow of contents of stomach into esophagus
  • Often result of incompetence of the lower
    esophageal sphincter
  • Icterus
  • A yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous
    membranes, and sclera of the eyes, caused by
    greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the
    blood
  • Also called jaundice

29
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Melena
  • An abnormal, black, tarry stool containing
    digested blood
  • Nausea
  • Unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to
    vomit
  • Pruritus ani
  • A common chronic condition of itching of the skin
    around the anus

30
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Steatorrhea
  • Greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces
  • Characterized by frothy, foul-smelling fecal
    matter that floats
  • Vomit
  • To expel the contents of the stomach through the
    esophagus and out of the mouth

31
PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
  • Digestive System

32
Achalasia
  • Pronounced
  • (ak-al-LAY-zee-ah)
  • Defined
  • Decreased mobility of the lower two-thirds of the
    esophagus along with constriction of the lower
    esophageal sphincter

33
Anal Fistula
  • Pronounced
  • (AY-nal FISS-too-lah)
  • Defined
  • Abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the
    anus usually connecting with the rectum
  • May occur as the result of a draining abscess

34
Aphthous Stomatitis
  • Pronounced
  • (AFF-thus stoh-mah-TYE-tis)
  • Defined
  • Small inflammatory noninfectious ulcerated
    lesions occurring in the lips, tongue, and inside
    the cheeks of the mouth
  • Also called canker sores

35
Appendicitis
  • Pronounced
  • (ap-pen-dih-SIGH-tis)
  • Defined
  • Inflammation of the vermiform appendix
  • Usually an acute condition that can lead to
    rupture (perforation) with resultant inflammation
    of the peritoneum (peritonitis)

36
Celiac Disease
  • Pronounced
  • (SEE-lee-ak disease)
  • Defined
  • Nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel
    mucosa

37
Cirrhosis
  • Pronounced
  • (sih-ROH-sis)
  • Defined
  • Disease of the liver that is chronic and
    degenerative causing injury to the hepatocytes
    (functional cells of the liver)
  • Fat infiltrates lobules of the liver, causing
    tissue covering the lobes to become fibrous
  • Functions of liver eventually deteriorate

38
Colorectal Cancer
  • Pronounced
  • (koh-loh-REK-tal CAN-sir)
  • Defined
  • Presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large
    intestine

39
Constipation
  • Pronounced
  • (kon-stih-PAY-shun)
  • Defined
  • A state in which the individuals pattern of
    bowel elimination is characterized by a decrease
    in the frequency of bowel movements and the
    passage of hard, dry stools
  • Individual experiences difficult defecation

40
Crohns Disease
  • Pronounced
  • (KROHNZ dih-ZEEZ)
  • Defined
  • Digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature
    causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss,
    and anorexia

41
Dental Caries
  • Pronounced
  • (DEN-tal KAIR-eez)
  • Defined
  • Tooth decay caused by acid-forming microorganisms

42
Dysentery
  • Pronounced
  • (DISS-en-ter-ee)
  • Defined
  • A term used to describe painful intestinal
    inflammation typically caused by ingesting water
    or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites,
    or chemical irritants
  • Person has frequent stools that often contain
    blood

43
Diverticular Disease
  • Pronounced
  • (dye-ver-TIK-yoo-lar dih-ZEEZ)
  • Defined
  • Expression used to characterize both
    diverticulosis and diverticulitis
  • Diverticulosis non-inflamed outpouchings or
    herniations of the muscular layer of the
    intestines, typically the sigmoid colon
  • Diverticulitis inflammation of these
    outpouchings

44
Esophageal Varices
  • Pronounced
  • (eh-soff-ah-JEE-al VAIR-ih-seez)
  • Defined
  • Swollen, twisted (tortuous) veins located in the
    distal end of the esophagus

45
Gallstones (Cholelithiasis)
  • Pronounced
  • (koh-lee-lih-THIGH-ah-sis)
  • Defined
  • Pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed
    as a result of bile crystallization

46
Hemorrhoids
  • Pronounced
  • (HEM-oh-roydz)
  • Defined
  • Hemorrhoid is an unnaturally distended or swollen
    vein (varicosity) in distal rectum or anus

47
Hepatitis
  • Pronounced
  • (hep-ah-TYE-tis)
  • Defined
  • Acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to
    a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol,
    toxins, or parasites

48
Hernia
  • Pronounced
  • (HER-nee-ah)
  • Defined
  • Irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or a
    portion of an organ through an abnormal break in
    the surrounding cavitys muscular wall

49
Herpetic Stomatitis
  • Pronounced
  • (her-PEH-tic stoh-mah-TYE-tis)
  • Defined
  • Inflammatory infectious lesions in or on the oral
    cavity occurring as a primary or a secondary
    viral infection caused by herpes simplex

50
Hirschsprungs Disease (Congenital Megacolon)
  • Pronounced
  • (HIRSH-sprungz dih-ZEEZ)
  • (kon-JEN-ih-tal meg-ah-KOH-lon)
  • Defined
  • Absence at birth of the autonomic ganglia in a
    segment of the intestinal smooth muscle wall that
    normally stimulates peristalsis

51
Ileus
  • Pronounced
  • (ILL-ee-us)
  • Defined
  • Obstruction of the intestine
  • May occur due to twisting of the bowel, absence
    of peristalsis, or presence of adhesions or tumor

52
Intestinal Obstruction
  • Pronounced
  • (in-TESS-tin-al ob-STRUCK-shun)
  • Defined
  • Complete or partial alteration in the forward
    flow of the contents in the small or large
    intestines

53
Intussusception
  • Pronounced
  • (in-tuh-suh-SEP-shun)
  • Defined
  • Telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine
    into distal intestine usually in the ileocecal
    region causing an obstruction
  • Typically occurs in infants and young children

54
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Spastic Colon
  • Pronounced
  • (EAR-it-ah-bl BOW-el SIN-drom)
  • (SPAS-tik COH-lon)
  • Defined
  • Increased motility of the small or large
    intestinal wall resulting in abdominal pain,
    flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and the trapping of
    gas throughout the intestines

55
Oral Leukoplakia
  • Pronounced
  • (OR-al loo-koh-PLAY-kee-ah)
  • Defined
  • Precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the
    mouth

56
Pancreatitis
  • Pronounced
  • (pan-kree-ah-TYE-tis)
  • Defined
  • Acute or chronic destructive inflammatory
    condition of the pancreas
  • May be acute or chronic

57
Peptic Ulcers(Gastric, Duodenal, Perforated)
  • Pronounced
  • (PEP-tik ULL-sir)
  • (GAS-tric, doo-oh-DEE-nal, PER-foh-ray-ted)
  • Defined
  • Break in the continuity of the mucous membrane
    lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result
    of hyperacidity or the bacterium, Helicobacter
    pylori

58
Peptic Ulcers
  • Peptic ulcer descriptions
  • Acute or chronic
  • Singular or clustered
  • Shallow or deep
  • Symptoms of an ulcer
  • Gnawing epigastric pain
  • Heartburn or indigestion
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bloated feeling after eating

59
Periodontal Disease
  • Pronounced
  • (pair-ee-oh-DON-tal dih-ZEEZ)
  • Defined
  • Group of inflammatory gum disorders
  • May lead to degeneration of teeth, gums, and
    sometimes surrounding bones

60
Polyps, Colorectal
  • Pronounced
  • (PALL-ips koh-loh-REK-tal)
  • Defined
  • Small growths projecting from the mucous membrane
    of the colon or rectum
  • May be sessile (attached by a base) or
    pedunculated (attached by a stalk)
  • May vary in size and may be benign or
    pre-cancerous

61
Thrush
  • Pronounced
  • (THRUSH)
  • Defined
  • Fungal infection in the mouth and throat
    producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised
    curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral
    mucosal surfaces
  • Caused by Candida albicans

62
Ulcerative Colitis
  • Pronounced
  • (ULL-sir-ah-tiv koh-LYE-tis)
  • Defined
  • Chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a
    break in the continuity of the mucous membrane
    lining of the colon in the form of ulcers
  • Characterized by large watery diarrheal stools
    containing mucus, pus, or blood

63
Volvulus
  • Pronounced
  • (VOL-vyoo-lus)
  • Defined
  • Rotation of loops of bowel causing a twisting on
    itself that results in an intestinal obstruction

64
DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES
  • Digestive System

65
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Abdominal ultrasound
  • High-frequency sound waves to provide
    visualization of the internal organs of the
    abdomen (liver, gallbladder, bile ducts,
    pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters)
  • Abdominocentesis (Paracentesis)
  • Insertion of a needle or trochar into abdominal
    cavity to remove excess fluid
  • Person is in a sitting position

66
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
  • Hepatocellular enzyme released in elevated
    amounts due to liver dysfunction
  • Also known as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase
    (SGPT)

67
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
  • Enzyme found in highest concentrations in liver,
    biliary tract, and bone
  • Amylase
  • Enzyme secreted normally from pancreatic cells
    that travels to the duodenum by way of
    pancreatic duct
  • Aids in digestion

68
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Appendectomy
  • Surgical removal of an inflamed appendix
  • May be removed via laparoscope if no rupture has
    occurred

69
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Barium Enema (BE)
  • Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium
    sulfate, into the rectum and held in the lower
    intestinal tract while x-ray films are obtained
    of the lower GI tract

70
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Barium Swallow (Upper GI Series)
  • Involves oral administration of a radiopaque
    contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into
    the esophagus as the person swallows

71
Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures
  • Cheiloplasty
  • Surgically correcting a defect of the lip
  • Cholecystectomy
  • Surgical removal of the gallbladder
  • Cholecystography (Oral)
  • Visualization of the gallbladder through x-ray
    following the oral ingestion of pills containing
    a radiopaque iodinated dye

72
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Colonoscopy
  • Visualization of the lining of the large
    intestine using a fiberoptic colonoscope
  • Colostomy
  • Surgical creation of a new opening on the
    abdominal wall through which the feces will be
    expelled, by bringing the incised colon out to
    the abdominal surface
  • Abdominal-wall anus

73
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • CT of the abdomen
  • Painless, noninvasive x-ray procedure
  • Produces an image created by the computer
    representing a detailed cross section of the
    tissue structure within the abdomen
  • Computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen

74
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
  • Examines the size of and filling of the
    pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct
    radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic
    endoscope

75
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
  • Process of direct visualization of the esophagus,
    stomach, and duodenum using a lighted, fiberoptic
    endoscope
  • Also known as an upper endoscopy

76
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
  • Alternative treatment for gallstones by using
    ultrasound to align the computerized lithotripter
    and source of shock waves with the stones
  • To crush the gallstones and thus enable the
    contraction of the gallbladder to remove stone
    fragments

77
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Radiological technique used to examine the
    function of an organ or a body part using a
    fluoroscope
  • Gastric analysis
  • Study of the stomach contents to determine the
    acid content and to detect the presence of blood,
    bacteria, bile, and abnormal cells

78
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Gastric Lavage
  • Irrigation, or washing out, of the stomach with
    sterile water or a saline solution

79
Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures
  • Herniorrhaphy
  • Surgical repair of a hernia by closing the defect
    using sutures, mesh, or wire
  • Liver biopsy
  • Piece of liver tissue obtained for examination by
    inserting a specially designed needle into the
    liver through the abdominal wall

80
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Liver scan
  • Noninvasive scanning technique
  • Enables visualization of shape, size, and
    consistency of liver after IV injection of a
    radioactive compound
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Noninvasive scanning procedure that provides
    visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony
    structures without the use of radiation

81
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Nasogastric intubation
  • Placement of a tube through the nose into the
    stomach
  • To relieve gastric distension by removing gastric
    secretions, gas, or food

82
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography (PTC)
    or (PTHC)
  • Examination of bile duct structure using a needle
    to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct
    to inject a contrast medium

83
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and
Procedures
  • Serum Bilirubin
  • Measurement of bilirubin level in serum
  • Serum bilirubin levels are a result of the
    breakdown of red blood cells
  • Serum Glutamic-oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT)
  • Enzyme that has very high concentrations in liver
    cells
  • Also known as aspartate aminotransferase (AT)

84
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Small bowel follow-through
  • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast
    medium, barium sulfate
  • Flows through the GI system
  • X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to
    observe the progression of the barium through the
    small intestine

85
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Stool analysis for occult blood
  • Analysis of a stool sample to determine presence
    of blood not visible to naked eye
  • Stool culture
  • Collection of a stool specimen placed on one or
    more culture mediums
  • Allowed to grow colonies of microorganisms to
    identify specific pathogen(s)

86
Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures
  • Stool Guaiac
  • Test on a stool specimen using guaiac as a
    reagent
  • Identifies presence of blood in stool
  • Urinary Bilirubin
  • Tests for conjugated or direct bilirubin in a
    urine specimen
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