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What is HCI

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... Philosophy and Anthropology: Artificial Intelligence: ... Transient store of temporary data. Rapid decay of information. Half-life of about six seconds ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is HCI


1
What is HCI?
  • The role of HCI is to enhance the quality of
    interaction between humans and computer systems
  • We are especially concerned with the problems
    encountered by users while interacting with
    multiple channels of communication
  • HCI involves input from other disciplines

2
Other disciplines which contribute
  • Cognitive science
  • Cognitive psychology
  • Sociology, Philosophy and Anthropology
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Ergonomics and Human Factors
  • Design
  • Computing Science
  • Linguistics

3
of Multimedia Systems
  • User Types and capabilities
  • Mental Models
  • Memory
  • Navigation
  • Training
  • Ergonomics environment
  • Prototyping

4
1 User types
  • Four main types of user
  • Novice
  • Casual
  • Experienced
  • Professional
  • The above will be included in one of the
    following
  • Discretionary
  • Non-Discretionary

5
2 Mental Models
  • Guide the user on how to structure the
    interaction task
  • Are built up through interaction
  • Contain structural and functional models
  • how it works
  • knowing how to use it
  • Precise model is built up through experience

6
Feedback and observation
  • Feedback helps the user to build up or confirm an
    existing model by presenting information about
    itself as it is used
  • Public systems are usually placed where users can
    observe before trying it out
  • Prime cause of errors is disagreement with user
    model and actual model

7
3 Memory
  • Short-term working storage
  • Transient store of temporary data
  • Rapid decay of information
  • Half-life of about six seconds
  • Limited (but variable) capacity
  • Long-term knowledge
  • Retrieval of structured data
  • Slower than working storage

Dont expect users to remember much for
long Dont expect users to remember things quickly
8
Use of Metaphors
  • Meaningless information is more difficult to
    remember.
  • Concepts are more difficult than objects to
    remember.
  • Analogies, metaphors and icons are therefore
    better for to help explain the workings of a
    system.
  • Meaning is taken more quickly and is easier to
    maintain in memory.

9
Book-page Metaphor
10
4 Navigation
  • Problems of spatial disorientation
  • Assessing how much information the system
    contains
  • Distraction from goal directives
  • Complexity in the interface

11
Solutions to assist navigation
  • Guided Tours
  • History Lists
  • Book marks
  • Backtrack
  • Overview Diagrams

12
Navigation and interaction
  • Explicit systems
  • - Plain but all interaction is directly
    viewable
  • Implicit (metaphor) systems
  • - Advanced to look at, but all navigation
    and
  • interaction needs to be hunted out by
    the user

13
Passive applications
  • Emphasis on simple linear progression
  • e.g. forward and back (book-page structure)
  • Press to move on, low cognitive load, little can
    go wrong
  • Mainly sit back and watch auto- running on page
    load (media rich but little interaction)

14
Highly interactive applications
  • Non-linear exploration
  • Diversity of actions on users part, user has to
    work. Interaction diversity leads to higher
    cognitive overhead
  • Needs clear, selectable options

15
User distractions
  • There is always a danger that users may easily
    become side-tracked, or change direction due to
    new stimulation in a multimedia application. Too
    busy ?

16
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17
(No Transcript)
18
Follow Through
19
5 Training
  • Usability criteria
  • how long does it take to learn
  • the speed of performance
  • what is the rate of errors
  • how easy is the recovery
  • subjective satisfaction
  • how much is remembered
  • how much is unused

20
6 Ergonomics environment
  • Health and safety requirements
  • Task requirements
  • Visual display
  • Keyboard requirements
  • Workstation layout and posture
  • Lighting
  • Room climate
  • Noise
  • Personal space

21
7 Prototyping
  • Interactive product design and construction is
    labour and time intensive -
  • So you cannot afford many mistakes
  • Prototyping as an iterative approach can be
    useful in managing blocks of work
  • User centred design approach

22
7 Prototyping
  • Interactive product design and construction is
    labour and time intensive, mistakes are costly
  • User centered design approach
  • Tangible visible approach- depiction of intended
    system
  • Helps to define user requirements at an early
    stage in development can include some interaction
  • Can be used to elicit information from users
  • Helps resolve uncertainty about whether it suits
    users needs
  • Helps to verify design solutions

23
User Feedback Design
  • Early or Late?
  • Early user feedback gives you time to incorporate
    changes
  • Late user feedback is more precise, since the
    product is nearly ready
  • Analytic or informal?
  • Analysis of user feedback may be necessary
  • Informal feedback may be all that is required

24
Design rules in use
  • The following slides show reported principles
    for user interface design as used in industry
  • The information is split into
  • Input/Output Dialogue
  • Conceptual model General
  • Idea generation

25
Input/Output
  • Minimise input movements
  • Maximise input channels
  • Be Visually attractive
  • Use language carefully
  • Maintain screen key consistency
  • Use a highly visual interface

26
Dialogue
  • Use of menus and prompts
  • Context-dependent messages
  • User control
  • Natural response time

27
Conceptual model
  • Use of analogy, metaphor
  • Match user expectations, minimise surprises
  • Start with user model, not the developer model
  • Make examples concrete
  • Novice-expert path

28
General
  • Easy to use, "user friendly"
  • Make it as simple as possible (but no simpler)
  • Follow standards wherever applicable
  • The key is to understand the users needs and the
    users types of conceptual models

29
Three different models
  • When developing an interface, there are three
    different viewpoints
  • The users conceptual model
  • The programmer/developers model
  • The interface/system designers model

30
Types of models
  • The users model may be unconsciously
    (intuitively) developed. An easy-to-use system
    should not impose any conscious modelling on the
    part of the user.
  • The programmer and designer have consciously
    designed system models. Ease-of-use is still an
    issue, but not necessarily linked to intuition.

31
The Users Conceptual Model
  • Real-world experiences
  • Tasks
  • Processes
  • Tools
  • Results

32
The Programmers Model
  • Platform
  • Operating System
  • Development tools
  • Practical User Interface Guidelines
  • Hardware constraints
  • Media limitations

33
The Designers Model
  • Users Conceptual Model
  • Programmers Model
  • User interface design principles
  • User interface design guidelines

34
The Users Model
  • Developed through experience.
  • Refined or redefined slowly.
  • Transfer of expectations based on recognition of
    metaphor (e.g. Trashcan on Mac).
  • Uncertainty, hesitation and frustration may
    result from mismatched metaphors.
  • Model depends on education, training, previous
    exposure to machines.

35
The Programmers Model
  • Includes a thorough understanding of the
    underlying hardware and the library and operating
    system software.
  • Model concentrates on the objects and
    relationships useful in implementing a product.
  • The deeper technical levels must not be perceived
    by the user, so the programmer must be mindful of
    the design guidelines.

36
The Designers Model
  • Like an architect who must balance the
    requirements of the user and the builder, so the
    system designer must maintain multiple
    perspectives.
  • Three main elements of the model are 136
  • the look of the interface (visual
    representation)
  • the feel of the interface (interaction
    techniques)
  • the objects in the interface and their
    relationships
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