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Stem Cell Science Basics

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1999 - First Successful human transplant of insulin-making cells from cadavers ... cord injury, Parkinson's disease, heart disease. Genetic based Disease ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem Cell Science Basics


1
Stem Cell Science Basics
Biotechnology and Society BIS 411 Monday and
Wednesday 330-535 UW1-020
Class Number 6 January 23, 2006 CHEERS and
Genome
2
Question??
Who were the most influential people of the past
century?
James Watson (L) and Francis Crick (R), and the
model they built of the structure of DNA (and
Rosalind Franklin).
3
Topics
  • Stem Cells The Basics
  • Cloning Therapeutic and Human
  • The Politics State, National, International

4
Stem Cell History
1998 - Researchers first extract stem cells from
human embryos 1999 - First Successful human
transplant of insulin-making cells from
cadavers 2001 - President Bush restricts federal
funding for embryonic stem-cell research 2002 -
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
International creates 20 million fund-raising
effort to support stem-cell research 2002 -
California ok stem cell research 2004 - Harvard
researchers grow stem cells from embryos using
private funding 2004 - Ballot measure for 3
Billion bond for stem cells
5
Importance
  • Disease
  • Diabetes, Spinal cord injury, Parkinsons
    disease, heart disease
  • Genetic based Disease
  • Cystic fibrosis, Huntingtons

6
Stem Cell Characteristics
  • Blank cells (unspecialized)
  • Capable of dividing and renewing themselves for
    long periods of time (proliferation and renewal)
  • Have the potential to give rise to specialized
    cell types (differentiation)

7
Stem Cell Differentiation
Princeton University
8
Sexual Reproduction
The Association of Reproductive Health
Professionals
9
Stem Cell Cultivation
University of Wisconsin-Madison
10
Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs)
Science and Politics of ESCs research
  • August 9, 2001 - President Bush restricted
    federal funding of human embryonic stem cell
    research to 70 lines thought to be in existence
  • Only 11 now available and useable
  • Many researchers calling for change

11
Blastocyst Diagram
Princeton University
12
Five Day Pre-Embryo
http//www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/
13
Human Clones?
Are there human clones?
Yes Identical Twins
(Time 2.19.01)
14
Cloning Defined
  • What is cloning?
  • Asexual reproduction
  • Examples?
  • Bacteria, fungus
  • Plants cutting potato
  • Farm animals

15
Asexual Reproduction
The Association of Reproductive Health
Professionals
16
Cloning Dolly
1997 - 2003
(Roslin Institute http//www.roslin.ac.uk/library/
)
17
Cloning A Sheep
(Roslin Institute http//www.roslin.ac.uk/library/
)
18
Human Stem Cell Production
19
Removing Nucleus
Removing the maternal nucleus before nuclear
transfer
(Roslin Institute http//www.roslin.ac.uk/library/
)
20
Nuclear transfer
Nuclear transfer embryo about to be activated
(Roslin Institute http//www.roslin.ac.uk/library/
)
21
Cloning for use in Stem Cells
Cloning techniques for creating stem
cells Therapeutic cloning Reproductive cloning
22
IVF In Vitro Fertilization
  • Available since 1986
  • About 100,000 IVF kids in U.S.
  • Often creates extra embryos
  • U.S. - About 400,000 frozen embryos (unregulated)
  • England 52,000 (regulated by government)

23
What Americans Think
From Research!America http//www.researchamerica.o
rg/
Taking Our Pulse The PARADE/Research!America
Health Poll Charlton Research Company, 2005 July
10, 2005
24
U.S. Performance in Science and Math Education
Do you think the U.S. is performing well or
performing poorly compared to other nations in
terms of science and math education?
Taking Our Pulse The PARADE/Research!America
Health Poll Charlton Research Company, 2005
25
A Majority of Americans Favor Embryonic Stem Cell
Research
Do you favor or oppose medical research using
embryonic stem cells?
58
29
Taking Our Pulse The PARADE/Research!America
Health Poll Charlton Research Company, 2005
26
A Majority of Americans Favor Research Using
Donated Eggs from Fertility Clinics
Scientists can extract embryonic stem cells from
fertilized eggs that are voluntarily donated by
fertility clinic patients. These fertilized eggs
would otherwise be discarded. Knowing this, do
you favor or oppose embryonic research?
Taking Our Pulse The PARADE/Research!America
Health Poll Charlton Research Company, 2005
27
A Majority of Americans Favor Cloning Technology
to Make Embryonic Stem Cells
Scientists can now make embryonic stem cells for
medical research by merging an unfertilized egg
with a skin cell, for example. In other words, no
fertilization takes place and there is no merger
of egg and sperm. Knowing this, do you favor or
oppose embryonic stem cell research?
Taking Our Pulse The PARADE/Research!America
Health Poll Charlton Research Company, 2005
28
Therapeutic Cloning Should Be Allowed
Therapeutic cloning is the use of cloning
technology to help in the search for possible
cures and treatments for diseases and
disabilities. Do you think that research into
therapeutic cloning should be allowed?
Taking Our Pulse The PARADE/Research!America
Health Poll Charlton Research Company, 2005
29
WA State Legislation
WA State Stem Cell Bills http//www.leg.wa.gov/wsl
adm/billinfo1/billsearch.cfm?Searchtermstem20cel
l "Regulating stem cell research (passed House
59-36 on 3/15/05 and failed in the Senate 26-23
on 4/11/05) Forum on Science Ethics and
Policy (FOSEP at UW) http//www.fosep.org/
30
State Legislation Key Points
  • Informed Consent
  • No reproductive Cloning
  • IRB approval

31
California Legislation
  • Law supports therapeutic cloning
  • 3 Billion bond measure to support stem cell
    research - 2004

32
National Regulation
  • 2001 - President Bush restricts federal funding
    for embryonic stem-cell research
  • Federal funding only for existing stem cell lines
  • Many consider inadequate

33
National Legislation
  • House of Representatives passed the Stem Cell
    Research Enhancement Act (H.R. 810)
  • Senate is expected to consider it soon -
    corresponding bill (S.471) today!

34
International Legislation
  • South Korea refined nuclear transfer or
    therapeutic cloning
  • China supports research
  • Singapore stem cell research a national
    priority
  • Israel leaders stem cell disease
  • Great Britain leader Dolly active support of
    research
  • Japan supports research

35
Stem Cells and Cloning
Questions or Comments?
36
Stem Cell - References
Forum on Science Ethics and Policy (FOSEP at
UW) http//www.fosep.org/
A Small Dose of Toxicology www.asmalldoseof.org
The bioscience-bioethics friendship
Co-operative http//www.bioscience-bioethics.org/p
ortal.htm
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