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Title: Storage: A New Paradigm for Databases


1
(No Transcript)
2
Storage A New Paradigm for Databases
Ari KaplanPresident, IOUG Datalink Database
Practiceakaplan_at_datalink.com312-399-0079
3
Oracle 30 years!IPOsSun March 4,
1986Oracle March 12, 1986Microsoft March 13,
1986
4
30 years of IT paradigms- Mainframe-
Client-Server- Internet- Mobile- Web
2.0Storage paradigms- Direct-attached disk-
Tape backups- NAS- Disk-to-disk-
Virtualization- Replication
5
Agenda
  • Introduction
  • Oracle-based Methods Hot backup, RMAN, Data
    Guard, Export / Import, Data Pump, Flashback
  • Snapshots Enterprise Backup and Recovery
  • Snapshots Development and testing for cloning
  • Enterprise Backup and Recovery
  • Disk-to-disk, enhanced data recovery, and VTL
  • Disaster Recovery storage-based replication
  • Cost savings tiered architecture / ILM
  • Performance and high-availability RAID-DP and
    aggregates
  • Storage security / encryption
  • De-duplication
  • Pros and Cons Oracle and non-Oracle enterprise
    solutions

6
A Silo Approach?
  • Ive always focused on the Oracle side due to
    implementing RAC. Every company Ive worked with
    has had their storage team take care of that side
    of the house.
  • One of Americas top Oracle RAC specialists

7
Databases Growing at Staggering Rate
  • The WinterCorp survey found that the worlds
    largest databases have posted an annual
    compounded growth rate of approximately 75 since
    1995.

Size of the Largest Data Warehouse in the
WinterCorp TopTen Survey
8
Storage Solutions for DBA Challenges
  • Backup issues
  • Scalability it can take a long time to
    physically copy 2 TB of data to tape or disk
  • Cost it costs a lot to purchase 200 TB of
    storage so you can perform physical image backups
    of 200 TB databases. It is costly to even
    purchase hardware to test backups.
  • Performance keeping large databases in hot
    backup mode negatively affects the performance of
    high-transaction systems (inserts, updates,
    deletes)
  • Complexity of systems multiple databases,
    interlinked systems, different database versions,
    RMAN/non-RMAN, RAC, ASM, etc.
  • Manageability it is often difficult to setup,
    manage, and test backups
  • Recovery issues
  • Manageability human errors, lost data,
    inconsistent data, physical failures, corruption
    can require restores. It can be a manual and
    scary process to recover to a consistent
    point-in-time
  • Performance how in the world do you recover a 2
    TB database in 15 minutes?
  • Disaster Recovery / Replication
  • How do you architect your database and
    surrounding environment for DR? With no data
    loss? With a 15-minute failover timeframe?
  • Data growth
  • Cost DBAs tend to put storage on single class of
    storage without archiving or tiering
    considerations
  • Performance system response time is 5 seconds
    now. What happens when my data triples in size?
  • Manageability it is often a political process to
    get additional storage from non-DBA groups
  • Development and testing
  • Cost it costs a lot to purchase 20 TB of storage
    to get several image copies of production to test
    and development!
  • Scalability it is too much to provide 5, 10, 15
    or more copies to development and testing teams
  • Manageability it can take 25 or more of a DBAs
    time to manage the cloning process

9
RPO and RTO
Tape Backup Hot backup
Tape Backup Hot backup RMAN Data Guard
Copy-on-Write Snapshots
WAFL Snapshots
Async replication RMAN
Synchronous replication, Data Guard
Recovery Point Database-only is typically days
or hours of lost data in disaster, or too costly.
Combined with storage can be faster,
heterogeneous, and with less cost Recovery Time
Database-only can be days or hours. Combined with
storage can be minutes. Backup Window
Database-only is typically days for
terabyte-sizes. Combined with storage can be
seconds
10
  • Snapshots Enterprise Backup and Recovery

11
Oracle Tablespace Architecture
TABLESPACE
Segment 112K (Table, Index, etc.)
Extent 28K
Extent 84K
Database Blocks
datafile 2
datafile 1
datafile 3
datafile 4
datafile 5
12
Oracle Database Architecture
Image from Oracle Corp
13
Oracle Backup Methods Hot Backups
  • What
  • Online backup of the database
  • PROS
  • Can be used with other backup methods
  • CONS
  • Can be prohibitively lengthy
  • Only backs up some of the Oracle files not
    customized code or non-Oracle systems such as
    Exchange, applications, and SQL
  • Performance degradation
  • Need an automated script that looks at Oracles
    configuration on the fly

14
Oracle Backup Methods RMAN
  • RECOVERY MANAGER
  • What
  • Block-level backups - datafile compression
  • Parallel streams
  • Many companies see a 10x performance depending
    on the amount of updates that were made between
    backups
  • Use of a recovery catalog for multiple databases

15
Oracle Backup Methods RMAN
  • PROS
  • Significantly reduces RTO
  • Significantly less storage space for incremental
    backups (only changed blocks)
  • Parallel streams/channels
  • Works well with snapshots, SnapMirror, SMO,
    Decru, future de-duplication
  • CONS
  • RMAN only backs up the database, not code or
    non-Oracle systems

16
Oracle Backup Methods Data Guard
  • What
  • Replicates Oracle databases from one data
    center to another
  • Performs backups from the standby database
    instead of the production database
  • Both physical and logical versions

17
Oracle Backup Methods Data Guard
  • PROS
  • Synchronous mode
  • Logical mode
  • CONS
  • Not supported by earlier versions of Oracle
  • Only supports Oracle databases, not source code
    or non-Oracle systems
  • Disables NOLOGGING mode
  • Extra Oracle license
  • Standby database must be online

18
Oracle Backup Methods Export/Import
  • What
  • Logical backups of tables (rather than copying
    the physical blocks of data, it copies the series
    of commands used to recreate the tables)
  • PROS
  • Can recover on a table-by-table basis instead of
    the entire database
  • Good for complementing other backup methods
  • CONS
  • Can take a LONG time versus snapshot methods
  • All data since the export was made is lost
  • A database must be running to perform either an
    export or import
  • Export files shouldnt be edited and can only be
    used by Oracle

19
Oracle Backup Methods Export/Import
  • Additional Features
  • Using the SELECT clause (compared to FlexClone)
  • Logical copy of tables or the entire database
  • Defragmenting
  • Moving tables / data among schemas
  • Moving tables / data among databases
  • Recreating CREATE statements
  • imp fully showy logcr_db.sql (its ugly)
  • Migrate among Oracle versions
  • Note some OSs have a 2G file-size limit so DBAs
    use the split and/or compress / tar commands

20
Oracle Backup Methods Data Pump
  • What
  • Export/Imports replacement with significant
    improvements
  • PROS
  • 15-45 times faster than Export/Import
  • Parallel streams
  • Suspend and restart data transfers
  • Self-tuning

21
Oracle Backup Methods Data Pump
  • CONS
  • Like the Export/Import utilities
  • All data since the Data Pump started is lost
  • Still can take a long time to back up and recover
    versus methods such as snapshots
  • A database must be running to perform either an
    export or import
  • Data Pump does NOT yet work with XML schemas and
    XML schema-based tables
  • When you are importing data into an existing
    table using either APPEND or TRUNCATE, if any row
    violates an active constraint, the load is
    discontinued and no data is loaded
  • Situations where external tables is used and
    Direct Path Load is not
  • there is an active trigger
  • a unique index exists
  • the table is partitioned
  • a referential integrity constraint exists
  • fine-grained access control is enabled in insert
    mode
  • the table has encrypted columns, table is in a
    cluster
  • a global index on multi-partition tables exists
    during a single-partition load
  • a domain index exists for an LOB column

22
Oracle Backup Methods Oracle Flashback
  • What
  • Oracles flashback area allows for recovering a
    table (or database) to any point-in-time in the
    past by storing images of data online
  • Flashback Database
  • Recover to point-in-time from Flash Recovery Area
  • Flashback Table
  • FLASHBACK TABLE LAOUG_audience,
  • free_gift_list TO TIMESTAMP
  • (06-FEB-2007, 132500)

23
Oracle Backup Methods Oracle Flashback
  • Flashback Drop
  • DROP command puts object into a recycle bin for
    quick recovery

24
Oracle Backup Methods Oracle Flashback
  • PROS
  • This method provides online backup and recovery,
    eliminating the need to recover from tape and
    saving valuable recovery time and management
    effort
  • Extremely fast recovery of tables with simple
    commands
  • CONS
  • Requires a significant amount of flashback area
    online, taking up lots of storage
  • Cant recover from media failure
  • Cant undo operations such as shrink datafile
  • Can only flashback to the oldest SCN in the FRA
  • Only works with newer releases of Oracle

25
Storage Backup Methods
  • Non-Oracle Storage Backup Solutions
  • Non-Oracle solutions are sometimes undiscovered
    in the world of DBAs
  • Can solve issues that simply cannot be done with
    Oracle-only technology
  • May already be deployed in a company to support
    Oracle/non-Oracle applications but the database
    staff is unaware of its HUGE benefits to database
    environments

26
Storage Backup Methods Triple-Mirroring
  • What
  • Copies the data in real time to three sets of
    redundant disks
  • PROS
  • Its possible to slice the mirror instantaneously
    and back up from the slices, thereby eliminating
    performance hits of being in hot backup mode for
    extended periods of time
  • CONS
  • Expensive 50 more storage costs to keep a set
    of production-sized disks
  • Companies still may not be able to meet backup
    windows, especially if backing up from the mirror
    takes more than 24 hours

27
Storage Backup Methods Array-Based Replication
  • What
  • Replication between two storage arrays that sends
    storage layer blocks to a standby site whenever
    there is a storage change at the primary site
  • PROS
  • Fills the gaps of Data Guard by replicating
    non-Oracle systems and source code as well as
    tables in NOLOGGING mode
  • Works best in conjunction with Data Guard by
    jointly reducing replication traffic and reducing
    or eliminating single points of failure
  • Significantly improves RTO and RPO
  • CONS
  • Source and target may need to be the same vendor,
    unless using heterogeneous replication such as
    Topio
  • There is a cost associated with purchasing and
    maintaining a third-party array-based replication
    solution. An ROI analysis will demonstrate that
    this cost can be justified. The point at which it
    is recouped will depend on the value of the data

28
Oracle Physical Files
  • All of these should be backed up!
  • Datafiles data, index, temporary, rollback,
    system
  • Online and archived redo logs
  • Control files
  • Oracle executables and patches
  • Export, Data Pump dump, RMAN files
  • Auditing files
  • Parameter files (init.ora, sqlnet.ora,
    listener.ora, tnsnames.ora)
  • SPfiles
  • Alert logs, bdumps, cdumps, udumps
  • Password files
  • Single sign-on files
  • LOB or BFILE or library storage structures
  • External tables
  • Home-grown scripts

29
Simpler Backup and Recovery
11AM
10 AM
9 AM
All Oracle Datafiles
8 AM
7 AM
Active File System (CURRENT)
30
Storage Backup Methods Snapshots
  • Instant backup and recovery of large data sets
    using a sophisticated, scalable, and fail-safe
    pointer system of storage blocks. Snapshots
    represent a frozen view of data taken at a
    specific point-in-time. Data and entire
    environments can be restored to a known stable
    point prior to the event that caused the
    disruption or corruption.

Snapshot.0
Active File System
Snapshot.1
(Changed blocks between snapshots are tracked)
C
C
A
B
Snapshot.0 file system version of ORACLE.DBF is
still composed of blocks A, B C Snapshot.1
file system version of ORACLE.DBF is composed of
blocks A, B C
31
Technology IntegrationSnapshot for Backup/DR
validated by Oracle
  • Snapshots
  • Point-in-time copy
  • Created in a few seconds
  • No performance penalty
  • TPC-C Published with 5 active snapshots

Snapshot taken
32
Real World Snapshot Performance
"In our test configurations, we found that
conducting a single snapshot copy on the FAS3070
over the course of the test had no sustained
impact on the overall performance. On the CX3-80,
creating a single snapshot caused the overall
performance level to drop to approximately 50
percent of the baseline performance.
Additionally, the results show that the post
snapshot performance did not recover to levels
observed before the snapshot was
taken. VeriTest Report, NetApp FAS3070 vs. EMC
CX3-80 Nov. 2006
33
Storage Backup Methods SnapManager for Oracle
  • What
  • GUI that uses Snapshots for database backups,
    recoveries, and cloning. Easy to install and
    integrates with Oracle RMAN, Oracle RAC, Oracle
    ASM. Oracle 9i and 10g
  • PROS
  • Greatly improves DBA efficiency in setting up
    test and dev environments
  • Automates DBA tasks and reduces risks for
  • Error-free backups and recoveries
  • Restores
  • Clones
  • Initiate and manage backups
  • Minimize the risk of data loss and corruption
    with increased backup frequency
  • Near instantaneous restores of data when its
    most critically needed
  • CONS
  • There is a cost associated with purchasing
    non-Oracle solutions. As with the other
    storage-based methods, an ROI analysis will
    demonstrate that this cost can be quickly
    justified. The point at which it is recouped will
    depend on the value of the data and the value of
    the speed of backup or recovery, improvements in
    manageability, etc.

34
  • Snapshots Development and testing for Cloning

35
Using Snapshot Cloning to AccelerateApplication
Development and Upgrade Cycle
  • Quickly reconfigure multiple test, development,
    QA, DW, auditing, staging environments
  • Rapid restore from online Snapshot copies
  • Allows multiple test environments
  • Accelerates test cycles
  • Helps deliver new Oracle applications quickly
  • Use Oracle cloning procedures to clone
    application environments

Test and Development Lab
TestDatabase
OracleServer
Clustered Filers
36
Before Large E-Business Suite
Production
  • Challenges
  • Copies consume lots of disk
  • Copies take a lot of time
  • Slower time to market

37
After, with Snapshot Clones
Production
Mirrored Copy
Develop 1
Develop 2
Test 1
Test 2
QA
38
Oracle University and Cloning
  • Refresh about 100 classes with 11 databases each
    weekend
  • Entire operation now complete in 45 minutes!

39
Storage Backup Methods SnapShots for
Cloning(SMO and FlexClone)
Scalability by Metric To avoid surprise, require
proof of scalability at your requirement levels
Unpredictable Performance and Cost
Known Performance and Cost
Demo (0504)
Test and dev with full size database
Test and dev with full size database)
Test and dev with subset of database
40
Storage Backup Methods SnapManager for Oracle
  • What
  • GUI that uses snapshots for database backups,
    recoveries, and cloning
  • Easy to install and integrates with Oracle RMAN,
    Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM, Oracle 9i and 10g
  • PROS
  • Greatly improves DBA efficiency in setting up
    test and dev environments
  • Automates DBA tasks and enables error-free
    backups and recoveries, restores and clones
  • Initiates and manages backups
  • Minimizes the risk of data loss and corruption
    with increased backup frequency
  • Provides near instantaneous restores
  • CONS
  • Cost associated with purchasing non-Oracle
    products
  • ROI analysis will demonstrate that this cost can
    be justified

41
  • Disk-to-disk, enhanced data recovery and VTL

42
Disk-to-Disk Enhanced Data Recovery is the
Solution
  • Why?
  • Rising downtime costs
  • Pressure to reduce recovery time (RTO)
  • Pressure to minimize data loss (RPO)
  • Increasing data sizes / shrinking backup window
  • Tape backup restore is unreliable
  • Media costs media management complexity getting
    out of control

43
Disk-to-Disk Enhanced Data Recovery is the
Solution
  • A backup and restore architecture that adds a
    disk based storage array to a traditional tape
    only solution.
  • Enables concept of Backup to disk, Archive to
    tape
  • Enabled by falling disk prices (ATA SATA)
  • Leverages random access capability of disk
  • Augments tape capabilities

44
VTL Efficient Backup and Restore
  • VTL emulates industry standard tape libraries
  • Time to restore is improved with online and
    near-line backups
  • Consolidated backups integrates as appliance!
  • Replace tape backups with VTL backups
  • Faster than tape
  • Non-sequential recovery
  • Rapid failover supportedwhen a server fails you
    can remount the database volumes to another
    server

Storage
Backup Server
NearStoreVTL
UNIX Servers
Windows Servers
Tape Library for backup
45
  • Disaster Recovery Storage-based Replication

46
Replication Based Backup Solution ROI/TCO
  • What
  • Replication between two storage arrays that sends
    storage layer blocks to a standby site whenever
    there is a storage change at the primary site
  • Reduces the number of copies of data backed up
  • Reduces IP network traffic for backup data
  • More frequent backups with more copies kept
    online
  • Reduces tape media and automation resources
  • Fast file full restores
  • Shortest RPO RTO
  • Centralization of remote backup
  • Replication to off-site location lowers tape
    media management costs for off-site tape rotation

47
Oracle Backup Methods Data Guard
  • What
  • Replicates Oracle databases from one data
    center to another
  • Performs backups from the standby database
    instead of the production database
  • Both physical and logical versions

48
Oracle Backup Methods Data Guard
  • PROS
  • Synchronous mode
  • Logical mode
  • CONS
  • Not supported by earlier versions of Oracle
  • Only supports Oracle databases, not source code
    or non-Oracle systems
  • Disables NOLOGGING mode
  • Extra Oracle license
  • Standby database must be online

49
Storage-based Replication for Oracle
NYC
Chicago
Primary Site
Standby Site
remote disk mirroring solutions
NAS/SANStorage Appliance
NAS/SANStorage Appliance
Asynchronous replication over TCP/IP LAN or WAN.
No distance limitation.
GigE / FCP
GigE / FCP
Changed blocks are shipped to the target mirrored
volume
/vol/Oracle Data, Log Cntrl files
/vol/Oracle Mirrored Data, Log and Cntrl files
  • Oracle DB volumes on primary and standby site are
    SnapMirrored
  • Remote sites Oracle DB is kept in recovery mode
  • When disaster strikes primary site, its a matter
    of breaking the SnapMirror and bringing up the
    remote standby sites Oracle DB in query/update
    mode

50
Storage Backup Methods Array-Based Replication
  • PROS
  • Fills the gaps of Data Guard by replicating
    non-Oracle systems and source code as well as
    tables in NOLOGGING mode
  • Works best in conjunction with Data Guard by
    jointly reducing replication traffic and reducing
    or eliminating single points of failure
  • Significantly improves RTO and RPO
  • CONS
  • Source and target may need to be the same vendor,
    unless using heterogeneous replication such as
    Topio
  • There is a cost associated with purchasing and
    maintaining a third-party array-based replication
    solution. An ROI analysis will demonstrate that
    this cost can be justified. The point at which it
    is recouped will depend on the value of the data

51
  • Cost savings tiered architecture / ILM

52
Oracle and Virtualization Enterprise Grid
  • Scalable everything performance, availability,
    capacity, etc.
  • Single view single point of control

53
Tiered Architecture / ILM
  • Oracle options for tiering data
  • Tablespaces on specific tiers of disks
  • Table and index partitioning tiers of disk
    relate to specific partitions
  • Triggers, procedures, packages for migrating data
  • ILM solutions from Oracle or third-parties
  • Oracle ILM Assistant
  • Define the Data Classes
  • Create Storage Tiers for the Data Classes
  • Create Data Access and Migration Policies
  • Define and Enforce Compliance Policies
  • Third-party solution integration with Oracle

54
Cost savings example 94 reduction in storage
costs!
  • Oracle options for tiering data
  • Tablespaces on specific tiers of disks
  • Table and index partitioning tiers of disk
    relate to specific partitions
  • Triggers, procedures, packages for migrating data
  • ILM solutions from Oracle or third-parties
  • Oracle ILM Assistant
  • Define the Data Classes
  • Create Storage Tiers for the Data Classes
  • Create Data Access and Migration Policies
  • Define and Enforce Compliance Policies

55
  • Performance and high-availability RAID-DP

56
RAID-DP
  • RAID-DP is an advanced, cost-effective disk
    failure/error protection solution protecting
    information in the event of a double disk or
    media failure within a single RAID group
  • RAID-DP is based on RAID4 adding a diagonal
    parity calculation to enhance overall performance
    versus competitive double parity adaptations
    based on RAID6

D
D
D
D
P
DP

3
1
2
3
9
7
1
1
2
1
5
12
2
3
1
2
8
12
1
1
3
2
7
11
57
Why is RAID-DP Needed?
  • Protection
  • Traditional single-parity-drive RAID group no
    longer provides enough protection
  • Reasonably-sized RAID groups (e.g. 8 drives) are
    exposed to data loss during reconstruction
  • RAID-DPs double disk-failure protection does
    what RAID5 and RAID1/0 cannot
  • Reduces RISK limits exposure to same RAID group
    second disk failure or non-recoverable media
    error
  • Cost
  • RAID 1 is too costly for widespread use
  • Mirroring doubles the cost of storage
  • Not affordable for all data
  • RAID-DP exceeds RAID1/0 protection levels without
    the associated doubling of capacity and cost
  • RAID-DP has a comparable operational cost to RAID
    4
  • Performance
  • Optimized for Performance
  • Reduces RAID group rebuild time

58
RAID-DP vs other RAIDs
RAIDProtects against single disk failure
  • 10,000 times more secure than single-parity RAID
  • More reliable than mirroring for double-disk
    failure
  • 13 Parity Overhead vs 50 Overhead w/ Mirror()
  • 75 more usable capacity than competitive
    offerings()
  • Comparing 14d 2p vs. 88 mirror

P
RAID DP Protects against any two-disk failure
P
DP
59
The Cost of Data Availability Protection
Compare RAID-DP to RAID10 Count the drives
needed for 2TB useable storage using 144GB disk
drives
RAID 10
RAID-DP
17
30
RAID-DP protects as well as RAID10 with less
storage overhead
60
A Simpler Database Architecture
All Oracle Datafiles
Redo Logs Archive Logs Ctl Files
61
Aggregates a Simpler Database Design
RAID-DP
62
Aggregates Improved Performance
Test OLTP Database - 2
Test OLTP Database - 1
63
Aggregates Improved Performance
64
  • De-duplication

65
Other Backup Methods De-duplication
  • What
  • De-duplication works with VTLs by detecting
    redundant data streams during the backup process
    and sending pointers to that data (versus actual
    streams of blocks of data) when duplicate streams
    are detected

De-dupe device

66
Other Backup Methods De-duplication
  • PROS
  • Can dramatically reduce the backup stream
    sizetypically 10-20 timesand bandwidth required
    for backup
  • 10-40 lower acquisition cost than tape
  • When set up properly, de-duplication can work
    well with multiple Oracle RMAN channels
  • CONS
  • Initial costs

67
  • Storage security

68
Encryption by Storage Vendors
  • What
  • Unencrypted data opens up the company to several
    vulnerabilitieswhether its a disgruntled
    employee or consultant stealing the tape or the
    tape being lost in the warehouse or while being
    transported off-site.

69
Encryption by Oracle
  • Oracle solutions
  • Database Encryption
  • Store data encrypted within database tables and,
    thus, also encrypted on tape
  • Data may be unencrypted in indexes, temp
    tablespace, flashback, audit, and elsewhere
  • Oracle Secure Backup
  • Encrypt Oracles RMAN backups before they are
    written to tape
  • By encrypting at the database level, an
    organization reduces much of its exposure. This
    method is also free (for one direct-attached
    storage device)
  • Typically, the DBA is solely responsible for
    retaining the key and there are inherent
    weaknesses with this strategy
  • 2) Storage vendor encryption
  • Encryption at the storage level
  • Multi-master key management that prevents single
    points-of-failure for key loss
  • No auto-destruct capabilities
  • By using a hardware and software appliance,
    backup streams can be encrypted with negligible
    impact on performance

70
Recovery Methodologies
  • An untested or undocumented backup and recovery
    plan is no plan at all

71
Summary, Q A
  • Ari Kaplan
  • akaplan_at_datalink.com
  • 312-399-0079

72
Addendum Slides
73
Datalink Overview
  • Independent information storage architect
    specializing in solutions services spanning
  • Data availability
  • Data recovery
  • Storage management
  • Focused on information storage solutions and
    services since 1987
  • Headquartered in Minneapolis, MN, with operations
    throughout the U.S.
  • Publicly traded company (NASDAQ DTLK)

74
Datalink Value Proposition
  • Independence
  • Unbiased guidance
  • Business needs drive recommendations
  • Storage focus expertise
  • Insiders view of manufacturer RD roadmaps
  • Extensive experience with complex, multi-vendor,
    multi-platform infrastructures
  • Alignment of people, processes and technologies
  • Track record of excellence
  • Long-term partnerships
  • Business value
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