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Bill Raun Oklahoma State University

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Title: Bill Raun Oklahoma State University


1
Bill RaunOklahoma State University
2
Outline
  • Journey-Imagine-Fabric-Focus
  • GreenSeeker, 1991-present
  • Focus on NUE
  • Yield Prediction, RI
  • N Rate Algorithm
  • Liebig and Bray
  • Sensor Based Nitrogen Rate Calculator
  • Ongoing GreenSeeker Work
  • Future of Sensing Technologies
  • Borlaug Institute

3
Interest in the position
  • Increased participation in international
    agriculture

4
Argentina Australia CanadaChinaEcuadorIndiaIta
ly MexicoTurkey UzbekistanZimbabwe
1992-present67 Graduate Students Faculty1
week to 4 month study abroad
5
Borlaug Institute for International Agriculture
  • Mission
  • Enable faculty, students, citizens and
    institutions to respond to opportunities in
    international agriculture.
  • Support and implement agricultural development
    projects throughout the world.
  • Offer extensive short-term training programs for
    professionals in academe as well as the private
    and public sectors and serve as a resource to
    faculty and researchers from across the Texas AM
    University System.
  • Associate Director
  • Lead international agriculture programs with all
    units of Texas AM Agriculture
  • Proposal and project development responding to
    the terms of reference issued by international
    development/donor agencies
  • Classroom instruction, student thesis research
    supervision, leadership of study abroad
  • Create productive working relationships in
    cross-cultural environments.

6
Ambassador of Agriculture
7
Journey
  • Willingness to recognize the need for change in
    time to alter the journey
  • Strategy or plan
  • Expectation

8
Journey
Minden, NE (6)
Lincoln, NE (3)
Sanliurfa, Turkey
Stillwater, OK (23)
Wuhan, China
Ciudad Obregon, MX (2)
Mexico City, MX (3)
Guatemala City (4)
Bogota, Colombia (4)
Cali, Colombia (5)
ArgentinaVenezuelaEcuadorCanadaPhilippinesPan
amaCosta RicaNicaraguaEl SalvadorHonduras
Dominican RepublicHaitiCuba
9
Imagine
  • See results
  • Envision effects
  • Embrace change
  • If I keep on doing the same thing I am bound to
    get the same thing back.

10
Fabric
  • One can stand still in a flowing stream, but not
    in a world of men
  • What we do can impact many far beyondthe reaches
    ofthose intended

11
Focus
  • Development-education-delivery

12
  • October 2001

13
GreenSeeker
  • 1991-present, Marvin Stone, John Solie

14
April 16, 2007Dr. Norman BorlaugCiudad Obregon,
MX
15
Focus on NUE
16
NDVI at F5

INSEY
Days from planting to sensing, GDDgt0
Winter Wheat
Units biomass, kg/ha/day, where GDDgt0
17
Long-Term Winter Wheat Grain Yields, Lahoma, OK
18
Response to Fertilizer N, Long-Term Winter Wheat
Experiment, Lahoma, OK
After the FACT N Rate required for MAX Yields
Ranged from 0 to 140 lbs N/ac
19
Predicting N Responsiveness
20
RI-NFOAYPNYP0 RI
YP0
YPN
YPN
YPMAX
RI1.5
RI2.0
Grain yield
INSEY (NDVI/days from planting to sensing)
Nf (YP0RI) YP0))/Ef
  • Mechanics of how N rates are computed
  • Yield potential is predicted without N
  • The yield achievable with added N is 1 times the
    RI
  • Grain N uptake for 2 minus 1 Predicted
    Additional N Need
  • Fertilizer Rate 3/ efficiency factor (usually
    0.5 to 0.7)

21
25 cm depth FWIAug 26, 2007
Improved prediction of yield potential using
Mesonet data
22
Liebig's Law of the Minimum
  • Growth is controlled not by the total of
    resources available, but by the scarcest
    resource.
  • Only by increasing the amount of the limiting
    nutrient (the one most scarce in relation to
    "need") was the growth of a plant or crop
    improved.

Justus von Liebig1803 - 1873
23
Brays Nutrient Mobility Concept
Plants respond to the total amount of mobile
nutrients present Plants respond to the
concentration of immobile nutrients present
Mobile Nutrients Immobile
Nutrients
Nutrient limitation expressed as a of potential
yield, or sufficiency, and independentof the
environment
Nutrient limitation directlyrelated to yield
potential, and dependent on the environment
24
Did Dr. Borlaug employ Liebigs law of the
minimum and Brays Mobility Concept?
  • India, 1962 (Pitic 62, Penjamo 62) broke the
    yield ceiling
  • India 1964 (Sonora 64, Lerma Rojo 64) out
    yielded Indian check varieties by 30
  • Agronomic research recommended 120 kg N/ha
    replacing old recommendations of 40 kg N/ha
  • The nitrogen not utilized by the plant is lost
    it forms a gas that escapes into the atmosphere,
    or it dissolves and is carried away by soil
    moisture.

From, Hanson, Borlaug, Anderson, 1982. Wheat in
the Third World. Westview Press Inc. Chapters 4
and 9
25
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27
Motivate
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29
GreenSeeker Sensor Research and Extension
  • CIMMYT
  • Ecuador
  • Mexico
  • Zimbabwe
  • India
  • China
  • Uzbekistan
  • Turkey
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • Italy

Kansas Nebraska Iowa Minnesota Virginia Ohio Color
ado South Dakota North Dakota Utah
Idaho North Carolina Kentucky Texas Illinois Maryl
and Louisiana
30
GreenSeeker Research and Extension
31
Esperance, Australia
32
Tarlee, Australia
33
Beijing, China, National Academy of Sciences
34
New Delhi, India
Modipuram, India
35
El Batan, Mexico
  • Saskatchewan, Canada

36
Ciudad Obregon, Mexico
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio Farmers in the Yaqui
Valley on average saved around US 75 per hectare
in fertilizer they did not apply
37
Future Work
  • Optical pocket sensor
  • 3rd world
  • Common Farmer Tool

4000 US
100 US
38
Variable Rate Technology Treat Temporal and
Spatial Variability Wheat, 0.4m2 Corn,
by plant
39
By-Plant N Management
OKLAHOMA
IOWA
Agron. J. 971603-1611. Regardless of yield
level, plant-to-plant variability in corn grain
yield can be expected and averaged more than 2765
kg/ha (44 bu/ac). Argentina, Mexico, Iowa,
Nebraska, Ohio, Virginia, Oklahoma
40
Ramp Calibration Strip
March 2007, The Furrow, Larry Reichenberger
41
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42
RAMP Calibration Strip
200 0 15 30
45 60 75 100
115
N Rate, lb/ac
200
30
15
0
200
43
Ramp Calibration Strip
0 N
195 N
  • Walk it off
  • Or use Hand-Held Sensor

44
Results
  • Use of N Rich Strip and the SBNRC can lead to
    increased profits gt 10/ac in winter wheatgt
    20/ac in corn
  • Ramp Calibration Strip offers an applied and
    affordable method of determining mid-season
    fertilizer N rates for corn and wheat
  • 2006, 586 Ramps, 1500 N Rich Strips, 200,000
    acres

45
Borlaug Institute
  • 2001, Texas AM Partnerships for Enhancing
    Agriculture in Rwanda through Linkages project
    (PEARL).
  • USAID-TAMU improve income and quality of life
    for Rwandans Linda Cleboski
  • The most effective way to reach that goal was by
    helping Rwandans improve their agricultural
    capacity," "Agriculture is the mainstay of
    Rwanda's economy and the small farmer is the
    backbone of Rwandan agriculture."
  • By helping Rwandan farmers, particularly coffee
    growers, Texas AM and its project partners have
    had a positive impact on tens of thousands of
    Rwandans over the past six years, including many
    widows and orphans of the 1994 genocide

46
Borlaug Institute
  • Norman Borlaug Fellows Program

47
Borlaug Institute
  • Reviving Agriculture in Iraq
  • Partnership with Tikrit University

48
Borlaug Institute
  • Ms. Julie BorlaugAssociate Manager for Donor
    Relations
  • Ms. Linda CleboskiProgram Development
    Coordinator (Africa)
  • Ms. Cathryn ClementAdministrative Assistant and
    Reciprocal Exchange Coordinator
  • Mr. Keith ColeInternational Administrator
  • Ms. Beverly Cook Program Assistant
  • Ms. Stephanie Curs Assistant Director for
    Foreign Operations
  • Ms. Rhonda D'Agostino Administrative Coordinator
  • Ms. Denise GarciaAdministrative Assistant
  • Ms. Stella Garcia, Financial Specialist I -
    Travel
  • Mr. Mark Kelly, Program Coordinator (Indonesia
    SEAFAST)
  • Mr. Joseph King, International Business Manager
  • Dr. Karen Kubena, Assistant Deputy Vice
    Chancellor
  • Mr. Anthony Laos Program Advisor (Iraq and the
    Middle East)
  • Dr. Mike McWhorter International Training
    Coordinator
  • Dr. Maad Mohammed Assistant Research Scientist
  • Ms. Johanna Roman Program Coordinator (Latin
    America)
  • Graduate Assistants Shahriar Kibriya, Sarah
    Whalen, Cody Zilverberg
  • Student Workers Kyle Baker, Jordan Moore, Blaze
    Currie, Dawna Winkler, Shanna Herzog, Natalie
    Williams
  • Dr. Norman E. BorlaugDistinguished Professor of
    International Agriculture
  • Dr. Edwin C. PriceAssociate Vice Chancellor and
    Director
  • Dr. Edward Runge Senior Advisor
  • Dr. Tim Schilling
  • Coordinator for international programs

49
Dr. Norman Borlaug Success
  • Delivery of a product/system
  • Genetics accompanied by nutrient management
  • Focus on a specific product
  • Researchers must extend their own products
  • Cannot solve all problems

50
Extramural Funding
Has consistently ranked in the forefront over the
past decade among public universities in Texas in
retention rates keeping its students enrolled
and on course for graduation a leader for
overall student body and for minorities both
African-American and Hispanic students
U.S. foreign assistance has always had the
twofold purpose of furthering America's foreign
policy interests in expanding democracy and free
markets while improving the lives of the citizens
of the developing world. Spending less than
one-half of 1 percent of the federal budget,
USAID works around the world to achieve these
goals.
Guided by the belief that every life has equal
value, the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation works
to reduce inequities and improve lives around the
world.
Improving current and future communities' quality
of life in the United States, Latin America,
Caribbean, and southern Africa
The Gates-Rockefeller Foundation alliance has
allocated 150m to improving seeds through
conventional breeding to increase their yields
and make them suitable for Africa's unpredictable
rainfall patterns.
  • Strengthen democratic values,
  • Reduce poverty and injustice,
  • Promote international cooperation and
  • Advance human achievement

51
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52
Care
53
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58
People
  • Asst., Assoc, Full Professors
  • Brenda Tubana, Louisiana State University
  • Fred Kanampiu, CIMMYT
  • Robert Mullen, Ohio State University
  • Wade Thomason, Virginia Tech
  • Steve Phillips, IPNI
  • Shannon Osborne, USDA-ARS
  • Edgar Ascencio, CARE- El Salvador
  • Erna Lukina, Lab Director, Illinois
  • Hasil Sembiring, NARS Indonesia
  • Francisco Gavi-Reyes, Chapingo, MX
  • Kyle Freeman, Monsanto
  • Kefyalew Girma, Oklahoma State University
  • Paul Hodgen, Monsanto
  • Jagadeesh Mosali, Noble Foundation
  • Byungkyun Chung, Oklahoma State University
  • Shambel Moges, Accurate Labs
  • NRCS, Monsanto, KSU, UNL, John Deere, Servi-Tech,
    Noble Foundation, SST, SCS

ArgentinaChina (2) El Salvador (2)Ethiopia
(3)India (2)IndonesiaIraqKenyaKoreaMexico
(2)Philippines Russia (2)Uzbekistan
59
Sub-Saharan Africa
  • SAA USA
  • Population, million 700 300
  • Cereals, million ha 88 56
  • Production, million tons 97 364
  • Yield, tons/ha 1.1 6.5
  • Fertilizer N, million tons 1.3 10.9
  • Avg. N rate, kg/ha 4 52
  • of world N consumed 1.4 13
  • of world population 10 4

60
Ongoing Activities
  • Novel, Nitrogen
  • ASA Monograph, Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils
  • Technical Editor
  • NUE Website nue.okstate.edu
  • 10 current graduate students
  • Chapter, N Management Diverse Environments

61
Summary
  • Identify limiting factor
  • Sense of urgency
  • Commitment
  • Products

62
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63
Texas, 2007
  • 6.2 million acres, winter wheat
  • 2.1 million acres, corn-grain
  • 5.1 million acres, cotton
  • 5.3 million acres, hay

64
People
65
Nitrogen Use Efficiency
  • Malakoff (Science, 1998)
  • 750,000,000, excess N flowing down the
    Mississippi River
  • Africa expenditure on fertilizer N, cereals
  • 706,000,000
  • Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) World 33
  • Developed, 42
  • Developing, 29
  • 10 increase
  • Worth 10.9 billion US annually

66
US Expenditures, Int. Aid
  • 27 Million Golfers in the USA24.3 Billion
    dollars spent on golf in 2004 (888/person/year)
  • 82 Million Hunters USA (fishing, etc.)108
    Billion spent on hunting in 2001
    (1317/person/year)
  • Americans and Europeans together spend 17
    billion a year on pet food, 4 billion more than
    the estimated yearly additional amount needed to
    provide everyone in the world with basic health
    and nutrition.

67
  • On September 4, 1961, the Congress passed the
    Foreign Assistance Act, which reorganized the
    U.S. foreign assistance programs including
    separating military and non-military aid. The Act
    mandated the creation of an agency to administer
    economic assistance programs, and on November 3,
    1961, President John F. Kennedy established the
    U.S. Agency for International Development
    (USAID).

http//www.usaid.gov/
68
USAID Web Site
  • United States gives the largest amount of
    official aid to developing countries
  • As a percentage of gross national income,
    however, this aid is the smallest among
    government foreign assistance programs.
  • True measure of U.S. generosity and sustainable
    development is not just government aid-it is
    total U.S. international resource flows,
    including private capital and philanthropy.
  • When all these private flows are added to
    official development assistance, the United
    States moves into first place for total resource
    flows.
  • Table 6.4 summarizes and compares U.S. government
    and private international assistance for 2000,
    2005, and 2010. The table also includes estimates
    for the Millennium Challenge Account, projected
    to increase U.S. government aid by 5 billion a
    year in 2006. For private international giving,
    poorly documented and therefore underestimated in
    all categories, the table provides a range from
    the lowest estimates supported by research to
    reasonable higher estimates suggested by known
    gaps in research. This range of numbers provides
    a much-needed starting point for estimating
    private international giving. The table
    provides a different perspective on the common
    criticism that the United States is not generous
    in its overseas contributions. Although official
    development assistance is a smaller percentage of
    gross national income in the United States than
    in other countries, it is also a smaller
    percentage of total giving. According to the DAC
    standard of 0.7 percent of gross national income,
    total U.S. international giving in 2000 should
    have been 69.5 billion. The actual total of
    official development assistance and private
    giving was 44.5 billion, or 0.45 percent of U.S.
    gross national income-well within the average
    range for DAC donors.

http//www.usaid.gov/
69
US Giving
http//www.independentsector.org/GandV/default.htm
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