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Written Language


When we read, we decode the letters to form the sound of the words ... Washals for Jewels. Klsd for closed. Patty for piece. Pekt for peeked. Eagel for eagle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Written Language

Chapter 3
  • Written Language
  • Reading, Composition, Spelling

Reading Disabilities
Receptive Written Language
  • Comprehension
  • Reading
  • Spoken

High Level
Recognize Words
Low Level
  • When we read, we decode the letters to form the
    sound of the words and we use comprehension or
    encoding to know what the words mean.

  • Aoccdrng to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy,
    it deosnt mttaer in what oredr the ltteers in a
    word are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is that the
    frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The
    rset can be a total mses and you can still raed
    it wouthit porbelm. This is bcuseae the huamn
    mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istief, but
    the word as a wlohe.

  • Anna, a second-grade student, during her
    independent reading had to use the quiet corner
    and read aloud to herself in order to comprehend
    what she was reading. She was easily distracted
    by noise. Anna is also disorganized (e.g., she
    would leave her material all over the classroom)
    and has the tendency to get frustrated after long
    periods of workbook exercises, so she need take a

Case Questions
  • Can Anna comprehend what she hears?
  • Why does Anna read outloud to herself?
  • What characteristics tell you that Anna has
    dyslexia, rather than ADHD?
  • Does Anna have the potential to show behavioral
    problems as she advances in age?

What questions do you have of Calvins teacher?
Strengths Weaknesses of this Child?
Behavioral Characteristics
  • Passive (McNulty, 2003)
  • Appears insensitive or offensive (Cicci,1984)
  • Class clowns
  • Aggressive
  • Greater discipline problems (Humphrey, 2003
    Johnson, 2002)
  • Attention problems (Berninger, 2001)

Informal Evaluations
  • Types of children?
  • High reading comprehension low decoding
  • High reading decoding low comprehension (Can
    read but doesnt know if a word refers to a
    birthday cake or a tree)
  • DJ is a little boy who has trouble with word
    recognition and reading. He cannot understand
    what he is reading when he reads it to himself.
    But if someone reads it to him, he can understand
    the story.

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APPLICATION A school-age child with delayed
reading skills
  • During a health supervision visit, the father of
    a 7 1/2 year old African/American second grader
    asked about his son's progress in reading. He
    was concerned when, at a recent parent-teacher
    conference to review Darren's progress, the
    teacher remarked that Darren was not keeping up
    with reading skills compared to others in his
    class. She said that he had difficulty
    sounding-out some words correctly. In addition,
    he could not recall words he had read the day
    before. The teacher commented that Darren was a
    gregarious, friendly child with better than
    average verbal communication skills. His
    achievement at math was age appropriate spelling
    was difficult for Darren with many deleted
    letters and reversals of written letters.

  • A focused history did not reveal any risk factors
    for a learning problem in the prenatal or
    perinatal periods. Early motor, language, and
    social milestones were achieved on time. Darren
    had not experienced any head injury, loss of
    consciousness, or chronic medical illness. He
    had several friends and his father denied any
    behavioral problems at home or at school. A DSM
    IV - specific behavioral survey for ADHD was
    completed by his teacher. It did not show any
    evidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity
    disorder. Darren's father completed one year of
    college and is currently the manger of a
    neighborhood convenience store. His mother had a
    high school education she recalled she found it
    difficult to complete assignments that required
    reading or writing. She is employed as a
    waitress. Darren does not have any siblings.
  • The pediatrician performed a complete physical
    examination which was normal including visual
    acuity, audiomentry, and a neurological
    examination. It was noted that Darren seemed to
    pause several times in response to questions or
    commands. On two occasions, during finger-nose
    testing and a request to assess tandem gait,
    directions required repetition. Overall, he was
    pleasant and seemed to enjoy the visit.

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  • What are the outcomes of poor reading skills or
    dyslexia? academically? socially?
  •  Is Dyslexia primarily a problem of decoding or
    encoding? If you improved their decoding will
    they understand what they read?
  •  Does reading disability get better over time or
    is there always some disability?
  • Does environment matter?
  •  Is having children read aloud important? Under
    what circumstances?
  • Do genetics matter?

Reading Comprehension
  • Experimental mortality threatens internal
    validity in that a different group composition is
    available at one data point than is available at
    the second. The researcher has little chance of
    knowing what the subjects look like who cannot be
    located. There is a rather substantial
    probability that those who cannot be located are
    different from those who can.

Reading Assessment If you cant comprehend
what you read, what do you need to assess?
  • 1. can you read (decode or recognize) words
  • 2. can you comprehend what you hear

Implications for Intervention
  • Contrary to the myth, people with dyslexia CAN
  • However, 75 of third graders who are poor
    readers stay like that all the way into high
  • Students may learn to compensate
  • More likely to use context cues
  • May have strong math skills (Berninger 2001)
  • Children can learn to read if early intervention
    is implemented.
  • 18 incidence of RD reduced to 1.4 5.4 (Lyon,
    Shaywitz, Shaywitz, 2003)

Expressive Written Language
High Level
Spelling Handwriting Grammar mechanics
Low Level
Is this child using visual memory or auditory
Informal Analysis
Which spellings show good phonetic analysis
  • Washals for Jewels
  • Klsd for closed
  • Patty for piece
  • Pekt for peeked
  • Eagel for eagle
  • Sounding for sounded

Formal Analysis
  • InputProcessOutput
  • TWS
  • TOWL-2
  • PIAT spelling

Written Language
  • Why are there twice as many academic problems in
    written language as in reading, math, or

Working Memory Skills
  • Keeping ideas in mind
  • Written work is brief or incomplete
  • Ordering those ideas
  • Ideas are not clearly organized or well-developed
  • Translating auditory thought to visual symbols
    (words, sentences)
  • Mechanics (memory)
  • Spelling
  • Handwriting (construct letters)
  • Punctuation

  • Grammar
  • Auditory errors
  • Sentence structure
  • Omissions, additions, substitutions, ending
    errors (agreement, tense, plural, possessives)
  • Visual errors
  • Punctuation
  • Capitalization

Evaluate the Childs Auditory and Visual Problems
Reasoning Skills (IQ)
  • Levels of Abstract
  • Naming or lists
  • Describes quality or action
  • Interpretation inferences about feelings or
  • Narrative interpret infers preceding action or
    outcome (past/future)
  • Eval interpret generalizes, moralizes
  • Ideas
  • Reasoning Meaningfulness

Application Evaluate the Childs Conceptual
Meaningful Experiences
  • Essential Features
  • Outline for planning, writing, revising
  • Structure for different types (descriptive and
    argumentative styles)
  • Providing feedback
  • Teachers
  • Peers
  • (Harris Graham, 1999)

Taught by
  • Self-regulated strategy training
  • Modeling/Direct Instruction
  • Cuing
  • Steps
  • Who (characters, feelings),
  • Where (setting),
  • What (goal, problem), How (plan, solution)
  • Self-monitoring steps
  • Editing (student-critic and student-writer)

  • Mnemonics, prompt cards, think-sheets
  • Graphic organizers (maps, outlines, child
  • Computers
  • Computer Assisted Composition (CAC) specifically
    accommodates handwriting and student
    interactivity with tools (editing spelling,
    grammar, relistening to audio)

High Interest Reading
  • Adventure, Sci Fi
  • Scary, Gross
  • Novel Study of Fables -- 2 versions
  • Unfamiliar animals (orangutan vs. fox)
  • Emotional adjectives (angry vs. kind)
  • Active verbs (swooped vs. walked)
  • Surprise endings (cut off heads vs. walked home)

Study Children with attention problems (AP) and
reading problems (RP)
  • Better performance with high than low interest
  • RP on 3 comp questions
  • AP on 5 comp questions

One comprehension question
Case 2 what might contribute to the problems of
this child?
  • My 2nd grader is undergoing more rigorous testing
    as I am extremely concerned about the discrepancy
    showing up between his IQ, his math scores and
    his reading scores and lastly his teacher's
    perceptions of him.  
  • His IQ is very superior his math scores on Terra
    Nova are at the 97percentile his teacher thinks
    he is average because he can't complete basic
    worksheets in a timely manner in math he can't
    get to the next level - he is still at level 2
    but when he was presented with a math problem the
    other day in testing that included addition in
    the 1,000's he not only loved it but aced it.  
  • His reading is at the 50th percentile Tommy can
    read textbooks on greek mythology but the picture
    books he has to read to pass these reading tests
    make him sound like he can't read.

Teaching Composition Write an original story
of the 3 little pigs and the wolf
  • Self-regulated strategy training
  • Modeling/Direct Instruction
  • Cuing and the three little pigs
  • Steps
  • Who (characters, feelings),
  • Where (setting),
  • What (goal, problem), How (plan, solution)
  • Self-monitoring steps
  • Editing (student-critic and student-writer)
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