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Operational Use of the Rapid Update Cycle

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Title: Operational Use of the Rapid Update Cycle


1
Operational Use of the Rapid Update Cycle
Stan Benjamin - NOAA/FSL benjamin_at_fsl.noaa.gov htt
p//maps.fsl.noaa.gov - RUC/MAPS web page
  • COMAP Symposium
  • 16 December 1999

2
The 1-h Version of the RUC
Data cutoff - 20 min, 2nd run at 55 min at
0000, 1200 UTC
3
RUC/MAPS Purpose
  • Provide high-frequency mesoscale analyses and
    short-range numerical forecasts for users
    including
  • aviation
  • severe weather forecasting
  • general public forecasting
  • other transportation
  • agriculture

4
What Runs Where
  • Rapid Update Cycle (RUC)
  • Operational Version at NCEP
  • Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS)
  • Experimental Version at NOAA/ERL/FSL
  • (Essentially the same software.
  • New capabilities tested first in MAPS at FSL)

5
Uses of the RUC
  • Explicit Use of Short-Range Forecasts
  • Monitoring Current Conditions with Hourly
    Analyses
  • Evaluating Trends of Longer-Range Models
  • Some places where the RUC is used
  • Aviation Weather Center - airmets, sigmets
  • Storm Prediction Center - severe weather watches
  • FAA CWSUs, WARP, air traffic management (CTAS),
    ITWS..
  • National Weather Service Forecast Offices
  • Airline Forecasting Offices
  • NASA Space Flight Centers
  • Private vendors

6
NWS Forecast Discussion Use of RUC - Feb-Nov 1999
100-400 40-99 20-39 10-19
7
http//maps.fsl.noaa.gov
8
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9
Hourly Data for 40 km MAPS/RUC-2
Data Type Number Freq. Use Rawinsonde (inc.
special obs) 80 /12h NCEP and
FSL WPDN/NPN profilers 31 / 1h NCEP
and FSL - 405 MHz Boundary layer profilers
15 / 1h FSL only RASS (WPDN and PBL)
15 / 1h FSL only VAD winds (WSR-88D) 110-130 /
1h NCEP FSL Aircraft (ACARS)(V,temp)
700-3000 / 1h NCEP and FSL Surface - land
(V,psfc,T,Td) 1500-1700 / 1h NCEP and
FSL Buoy 100-200 / 1h NCEP and FSL
not used since 1/99 in RUC or EDAS pending QC
issues
Yellow items new for RUC-2
10
Hourly Data for 40 km MAPS/RUC-2 (cont).
Data Type Number Freq. Use GOES precipitable
water 1000-2500 / 1h NCEP and FSL GOES
high-density cloud drift winds (IR, VIS, WV
cloud top) 1000-2500 / 3h NCEP and FSL SSM/I
precipitable water 1000-4000 /2-6h NCEP only Ship
reports 10s / 3h NCEP
only Reconnaissance dropwinsonde a few /
variable NCEP only
Yellow items new for RUC-2
Real-time observation counts at
http//maps.fsl.noaa.gov for RUC-2 and 40-km MAPS
11
Advantages of q Coords for Data
Assimilation Analysis - adaptive 3-d
correlation structures and analysis increments,
esp. near baroclinic zones - improved coherence
of observations near fronts for QC Forecast
Model - reduced vertical flux through coordinate
surfaces, leading to reduced vertical dispersion
-- much of vertical motion implicit in 2-d horiz.
advection - conservation of potential vorticity -
reduced spin-up problems (Johnson et al. 93 MWR)
12
RUC hybrid-b levels - cross-section
Hybrid-b levels - solid q levels (every 6 K) -
dashed
No discontinuities at q/s transitions
13
Effect of vertical coordinate on frontal
features Turbulence diagnostic at FL200
(20,000 ft) - calculated from native grid
from both MesoEta and RUC (matched forecast
times) Sharper frontal resolution with
RUC despite coarser horizontal resolution and
fewer vertical levels
14
Rapid Update Cycle Present and Next Version
1999 Operations 2000-01 Operations Resolution
40 km, 40 q/s levels 20?15 km, 40 ? 50-60 q/s
levels Analysis Optimal interpolation on 3-d
variational technique on generalized on
generalized q/s surfaces q/s surfaces,
hydrometeor analysis w/ GOES…, use raw
instead of interp. obs Assimilation Intermittent
1-h cycle Intermittent 1-h cycle Stable
clouds Mixed-phase cloud microphysics
MM5), Improved microphysics, / precipitation
explicit fcst of cloud water, rain water,
addition of drizzle snow, ice, graupel,
no. concentration of ice particles Sub-grid-scale
Grell (1993) Modified Grell, scale dependence,
precipitation shallow convection,
interaction w/ cloud microphysics
Turbulence Burk-Thompson explicit TKE
scheme Refined Burk-Thompson or
e-? Radiation MM5 LW/SW scheme,
f(hydrometeors) Refined MM5 scheme Land-sfc
processes 6-level soil/veg model (Smirnova, Add
vertical soil type variability, 1997, 1999)
w/ frozen soil, 2-layer snow improved cold
season processes Sfc conditions Daily 50km
SST/14 km LST, Combine sat Tskin, use 3-d soil
type 0.14? monthly NDVI veg frac, cycled soil
moisture/temp, snow depth/temp
15
RUC-2 Analysis
  • Background (1-h fcst usually) subtracted from all
    obs
  • Analysis is of forecast error
  • QC - buddy check, removal of VADs w/ possible
    bird contamination problems
  • 3-part analysis (all using optimal interpolation)
  • 1) univariate precipitable water (PW) analysis -
    using satellite PW obs - update mixing ratio
    field
  • 2) z/u/v 3-d multivariate analysis
  • update ?v based on height/thickness analysis
    increment
  • update psfc from height analysis increment at sfc
  • update u/v at all levels
  • Partial geostrophic balance vertically
    dependent, weakest at surface

16
RUC-2 Analysis, cont.
  • - 3) univariate analyses
  • condensation pressure at all levels
  • ?v at all levels
  • update u/v near sfc and psfc (univariate
    analysis) with smaller correlation lengths
  • Pass through soil moisture, cloud mixing ratios,
    snow cover/temperature (will alter these fields
    in future, cloud analysis parallel cycle now
    running)

17
RUC-2 Analysis, cont.
  • Vertical spreading (correlation of forecast
    error) based on potential temperature separation
    (not pressure separation as w/ other models)
  • Analysis in generalized vertical coordinate (code
    applicable to pressure, sigma, or eta analysis)
    except for adjustment at end to reference
    potential temperatures and new psfc
  • Background is usually previous 1 hr RUC forecast

18
Raob sounding RUC2 grid sounding
Close fit to observations in RUC2 analysis
19
Raob RUC after fix RUC before fix 7 April
99 significant-level fix in RUC-2
20
Use of minimum topography for 2m T/Td fields
from RUC2
RUC2 2m T/Td fields are not valid at model
terrain surface Instead, they are derived from
model surface fields and lapse rates in
lowest 25 mb to estimate new values using a
different topography field that more closely
matches actual METAR elevations Minimum
topography minimum 10km value inside each
40km grid box, then updated with high-resolution
analysis using actual METAR elevations.
21
RUC2 topography fields
Minimum topo for 2m T/Td
Model topo
22
RUCS 60 km Hourly Surface Analyses (same as AWIPS
MSAS)
  • Draws fairly closely to data
  • Persistence background field (1 hr previous
    analysis
  • QC vulnerable to consistent data problems
  • no consistency with terrain effects except as
    reflected in observations
  • MAPS sea-level pressure, (Benjamin Miller, 1990
    MWR)
  • Blending to data-void region from NGM

23
Surface Analyses/Forecasts in RUC-2
  • integrated with 3-d 40 km 1 hr cycle
  • dynamic consistency with model forecast gt
    accounts for
  • land/water, mtn circulations, sea/lake breezes,
    snow cover, vegetation…
  • improved quality control - model forecast
    background prevents runaway bullseyes
  • forecasts out to 12 hr in addition to hourly
    analyses

24
Divergence - 0900 UTC 20 Jan 98 (blue - conv,
green/yellow - div)
RUC2 Surface Analysis Topographical features
more evident with model background
RUCS 60km surface analysis Little consistency
with nighttime drainage
25
Divergence - RUC2 Surface Analysis - 0600Z 19
April 96 Consistency with topographical features
in model (land/water roughness length variations
in this case)
26
Surface Analyses/Forecasts in RUC-2, cont.
  • Same fields as in 60 km RUCS, plus all fields
    available in 3-d system
  • RUC-2 sfc files (GRIB)
  • 0.3 MB / output time
  • all variables from RUCS plus
  • precip
  • precip type
  • stability indices

27
RUC-2 use of surface data
  • All winds, sfc pressure obs used
  • T/Td used if abs (Pstation - Pmodel) lt 70 mb
  • - about 90 west of 105ºW, 99 east of 105ºW
  • Eta48 Eta29 RUC40
  • FGZ 0 18 10
  • TUS 60 13 44
  • SLC 59 68 59
  • MFR 109 48 67
  • OAK 18 15 25
  • SAN 12 5 23
  • DRA 42 29 34
  • GJT 98 105 65
  • RIW 104 27 16
  • GEG 4 11 1
  • GTF 26 4 14
  • UIL 14 9 11
  • SLE 50 15 22
  • BOI 55 21 24

pmodel - pstn
within 5 mb of closest fit
28
RUC surface temperature forecasts - verification
against all METARs in RUC domain
Excellent analysis fit to surface obs (also wind,
Td) 3-h forecast better than 3-h persistence
RMS error
Bias (obs - forecast)
persistence
Validation time
Validation time
29
Effect of 6 May 1999 Fix to surface
temperature diagnosis in RUC2 Improved lapse
rates in extrapolation from RUC2 model terrain to
different terrain file (minimum topography)
used for sfc T/Td diagnosis.
30
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31
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32
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2
3 4 5 g/kg
Sfc virtual pot temp Sfc water vapor mix ratio
Analysis increment fields (1h forecast error
correction) RUC analysis 2200 UTC 29 Oct 1999
33
Wind analysis increment fields (forecast error
correction) - RUC analysis 2200 UTC 29 Oct 1999
34
SLC CYS
Vertical cross-section 2200 UTC 29 Oct 99 RUC
3-d analysis Need for 3-d consistency to
initialize model, other diagnostics
35
RUC-2 Model
  • Prognostic variables
  • Dynamic - (Bleck and Benjamin, 93 MWR)
  • ?v, ?p between levels, u, v
  • Moisture - (MM5 cloud microphysics)
  • q v, qc, qr, qi, qs, qg, Ni (no. conc. ice
    particles)
  • Turbulence - (Burk-Thompson, US Navy, 89 JAS)
  • Soil - temperature, moisture - 6 levels (down to
    3 m)
  • Snow - water equivalent depth, temperature
  • (soil/snow/veg model - Smirnova et al., 1997 MWR)

36
RUC-2 Model, cont.
  • Numerics
  • Continuity equation
  • flux-corrected transport (positive definite)
  • Advection of ?v, all q (moisture) variables
  • Smolarkiewicz (1984) positive definite scheme
  • Horizontal grid
  • Arakawa C
  • Vertical grid
  • Non-staggered, generalized vertical coordinate
    currently set as isentropic-sigma hybrid

37
RUC-2 Model, cont.
  • Cumulus parameterization
  • Grell (Mon.Wea.Rev., 1993)
  • simplified (1-cloud) version of Arakawa-Schubert
  • includes effects of downdrafts
  • Digital filter initialization (Lynch and Huang,
    93 MWR)
  • /- 40 min adiabatic run before each forecast

38
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39
RUC Digital Filter Initialization 40 Dt
forward 40 Dt backward - digital filter avg of
model values Produces much smoother 1-h fcst
Mean absolute sfc pres tendency each Dt in
successive RUC runs
40
Processes in RUC2/MM5 microphysics (Reisner,
Rasmusssen, Bruintjes, 1998, QJRMS)
41
RUC2 case study - Quebec/New England ice storm -
9 Jan 1998 500 mb height/vorticity - 9h RUC2
fcst valid 2100 UTC
42
RUC2 9h fcst - Surface temp (image), MSLP (beige
isobars)
43
N-S cross-section - temperature (isopleths, int
2 deg C, solid for gt 0) RH (image), 9h RUC2
forecast
YUL
44
Montreal ice storm - 9h RUC2 forecast valid 2100
9 Jan 98. N-S cross sections of RUC2 microphysics
Water vapor mixing ratio / q
Cloud water mixing ratio
YUL/Montreal
Graupel mixing ratio
Rain water mixing ratio
45
40 km RUC versus 32 km Eta
June-July 1999
46
40 km RUC versus 32 km Eta
June-July 1999
47
RUC vs. Eta 12-h fcsts 250mb RMS vector error
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
From 80km grids for both models RUC uses 24h Eta
for lateral boundary conditions
Comparable skill, potential for ensembles
48
RUC 1, 3, 6, 12h forecasts valid at same time
(against 0000 and 1200 UTC rawinsonde data)
Better wind and temperature forecasts with use
of more recent asynoptic data
49
RUC/MAPS Land-surface Process Parameterization (S
mirnova et al. 1997, MWR 1999, JGR) Ongoing
cycle of soil moisture, soil temp,
snow cover/depth/temp)
2-layer snow model
50
Previous MAPS vegetation New
vegetation BATS classes
Addition of high-resolution EOS vegetation-type
data to current 40km MAPS - September
1999
51
RUC/MAPS cycling of soil/snow fields - soil
temperature, soil moisture - snow water
equivalent, snow temperature
MAPS snow water equivalent depth (mm) 5 Jan
1999 1800 UTC
NESDIS snow cover field 5 Jan 1999 2200 UTC
1 2 3
4 5
52
RUC2 Output Files, cont.
  • Significant changes to RUC AWIPS output
  • Already started after NCEP fire
  • AWIPS files produced as each part of RUC is
    complete (analysis, 3h, 6h, 9h, 12h) rather than
    all produced after end of RUC forecast run
  • Hourly output of analysis and 3h fcst
  • New variables added - vertical velocity (3-d),
    lots of 2-d grids
  • New 2-d variables - cloud top/base, visibility,
    gust speed, PBL height, conv cloud top, eq level,
    pres(max qe)
  • Likely to start within next few months
  • 212 grids (236 subset of 212 - 151x113 RUC
    domain) will be available (not certain of comms
    yet)

53
Visibility Sfc wind gust speed
Examples of new diagnostic fields from RUC
54
RUC visibility and ceiling vs. METAR
IFR/MVFR 1700 UTC 4 Dec 1999
55
Maintenance of operational RUC
  • Operational production at FSL of backup RUC
    products in real time from 1 Oct thru 15 Nov
    1999
  • Software and scripts developed and implemented
    on separate SGI Origin for backup.
  • Monitoring, verification, new web sites, web
    forum
  • Daily coordination with NCEP and NWS/OSO

56
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57
RUC/MAPS 1-h cloud-top fcsts with and
without GOES cloud-top assimilation
(clearing and building) (1200 UTC 14 May 1999)
1-h fcst w/o GOES cloud assim
1-h fcst w/ hourly GOES cloud assim
NESDIS cloud-top (verification)
58
Visible satellite image at 1745z 28 Oct 99
1-h MAPS cloud-top fcst with previous GOES
assimilation -- valid 18z 28 Oct 99
Correspondence between MAPS cloud fcsts and sat
images - improved with GOES cloud-top
assimilation
59
Parallel - with cloud analysis
0.7
Control - no cloud analysis
0.5
0.3
Julian date
September 1999 - fall
Cloud-top verification with and without initial
cloud analysis - correlation coefficient
between RUC forecasts and NESDIS cloud-top
pressures
Significant improvement in RUC cloud-top
forecasts with cloud analysis, esp. for 1-h
forecasts, but smaller but consistent
improvement even in 12-h forecasts
60
Verification of MAPS cloud-top fcsts
against NESDIS product Frequency scatter
plot for each MAPS grid point Cloud tops
valid Sunday 21 Nov 99 1800 UTC
Control run no GOES
Parallel run w/ GOES
1-h fcsts
pres
9-h fcsts
61
No GOES
w/ GOES
Impact of GOES cloud-top assimilation in MAPS
parallel cycle test - July-August
1999 Improved 3h RH forecasts with GOES cloud
assimilation, especially at 300-500 hPa. Less
impact at 850-700 hPa.
62
Visible satellite image at 1745z 28 Oct 99
NESDIS Cloud-top product (sounder-based) 1800z
28 Oct 99
63
Addition of national radar data to RUC cloud
analysis Access software for national radar
(both 4km NEXRAD and 2km NOWRAD) data
developed Initial comparisons between GOES
cloud-top pressures and national radar data
both mapped to RUC 40km grid
64
Apr 99 emergency change for RUC2
  • Correctly uses raob sig-level temp/dewpoint data
    now.
  • Previously, missed sig-level T/Td data (TTBB) and
    forced in linearly interpolated structures
    between mandatory levels.
  • Significant improvement in RUC grid sounding
    structures and in overall RUC performance

65
May 99 post-proc fixes for RUC2
  • Bug/consistency fixes for diagnosis of sfc T/Td
    in RUC2. (fix to lapse rate range)
  • Biases in west US for T/Td reduced, 2 C ? 0
  • s.d. temps over US from 2.0 ? 1.4 C
  • (verification against METAR obs)
  • CAPE- searches lowest 300 mb, not 180 mb
  • More smoothing of isobaric winds in lower
    troposphere, near tropopause
  • Use of NESDIS ice field
  • Much faster running of RUC - 10 procs for all runs

66
June 99 fix to veg fraction bug
Vegetation fraction in RUC was erroneously set to
zero due to integer/real problem (only a
problem w/ NCEP RUC, not in FSL
MAPS/RUC) Responsible for warm bias from
2100-0900 UTC increasing during May. Also
resulted in dry bias and too little precip
67
July/Sept/Nov/Dec 1999 fixes
26 July - fix to moisture in RUC boundary
conditions from Eta - Eliminate erroneous
precip near RUC boundaries especially over warm
oceans 28 Sept start IBM version of RUC
faster post-processing 21 Nov fix canopy water
cycling problem that had caused too moist soil
for about 1 week Dec ? 8 new variables in
post-processing visibility, cloud base/top, sfc
wind gust, PBL height, conv. Cld top, equilibrium
level, pres of max theta-e
68
RUC-2 Weaknesses
  • Still some precip spin-up problem, despite
    cycling of cloud/precip variables, esp. for light
    precip/overrunning (1-3 hr late)
  • Fix Add cloud analysis - 1999 - 1st version,
    allow for cloud at RH lt 100
  • Too much precip over warm oceans, too little near
    SE coast in cold season
  • Dec 98 fix package helped some - work underway on
    fixing tendencies input to Grell convective
    parameterization
  • Fix now running in backup RUC look at web page
    prods
  • Daytime convective precip in summer too
    widespread
  • Upcoming fix on tendencies input to Grell scheme
  • Fix now running in backup RUC

69
RUC-2 Weaknesses, cont.
  • Convective precip forecasts miss many small
    areas, underforecast peak amounts.
  • Lower equitable threat score than Eta
  • more detailed than Eta
  • Too much graupel near 0ºC
  • Fix with 20-km RUC (perhaps sooner),
    collaboration with FSL and NCAR on microphysics
    fixes
  • Diurnal cycle of surface temperature a little too
    weak
  • a little too warm at night
  • Dec 98 fix package - sfc flux change, radiation
    fix, GRIB precision to allow proper soil moisture
    cycling
  • May 99 fix - improve diagnosis of sfc temp/Td
    diagnosis -- significant reduction in bias
  • Upcoming fix to SW radiation 0-60 min phase delay
  • Detailed (noisy?) output compared to other
    models, especially vertical velocity
  • Detail is probably realistic over terrain

70
Fixed RUC-2 Weaknesses
  • Analysis sounding structure
  • irregular near ground if only sfc data
    assimilated
  • Fix analysis tuning (Dec 98)
  • Fix sig-level bug fix (Apr 99)
  • CAPE/CIN
  • analysis values previously too high in high CAPE
    areas
  • jump between analysis and 1-h forecasts
  • Fix CAPE software (Dec 98)
  • (May 99 - parcel search now in lowest 300 mb, not
    180 mb layer)

71
RUC-2 Strengths
  • Surface fields, especially surface winds
  • sfc files
  • analysis and forecast
  • small
  • standard sfc fields plus precip, stability,
    precip type
  • Topographically induced circulations
  • sea/lake breezes (scale too large but theyre
    there)
  • mtn/valley circulations
  • differential friction effects
  • e.g. Catalina eddy

72
RUC-2 Strengths, cont.
  • Precipitation fields
  • more detailed than Eta (lower FAR but lower POD)
  • Snow accumulation
  • explicit, not diagnosed (from MM5 microphysics)
  • Precipitation type
  • uses explicit hydrometeor mixing ratios/fall
    rates
  • Upper-level features
  • hybrid ?/? coordinate
  • winds, PV, temps, fronts, more coherent vorticity
    structures on isobaric surfaces

73
RUC-2 Strengths, cont.
  • Lower tropospheric temp/RH
  • good fcst sounding structure (esp. after 4/99
    fix)
  • hybrid coordinate
  • Soil/hydro fields
  • soil moisture - cycled in 6-level soil model
  • surface runoff, canopy water, dew formation, etc.
  • Vertical velocity
  • available in RUC-2
  • good mtn wave depiction, frontal features
  • Hourly analyses
  • available much sooner than RUC-1 grids

74
RUC
MesoEta
Theta
Mtn wave comparison - MesoEta vs. RUC2
75
MesoEta
RUC
U - component Mtn wave comparison - MesoEta vs.
RUC
76
W - vertical velocity Mtn wave comparison -
MesoEta vs. RUC
77
Subset of full domain
20km RUC/MAPS topography - 2000
  • Will use
  • 20km versions of
  • EOS veg data
  • 3-d STATSGO soil data
  • improved data assimilation (sat cloud products,
    3dVAR, later - radar, sfc cloud data,
    lightning, GPS IPW)

78
13km RUC - 12h forecast - start 0000 UTC 27
October 1997
Precipitation Surface winds
79
10
20
25
20
13km RUC - 6h forecast valid 06Z 27 Oct 97 6-h
precipitation (cm), wind speed (m/s) in
cross-section
80
The Future of the RUC
  • Transfer of current 40km RUC2 to IBM SP
  • completed Sept 1999
  • faster, distributed post-processing
  • 20 km 1 hr version on IBM SP
  • Probably by summer 2000
  • 3-d variational analysis
  • Cloud/hydrometeor analysis using satellite
    combined with explicit cloud fcsts in RUC-2
  • Later, assimilation of new data sets radar, sfc
    cloud obs, sat. cloudy/clear radiances
    (GOES/POES), hourly precipitation analyses,
    WSR-88D radial winds, lightning, GPS precipitable
    water, sat water vapor winds

81
The Future of the RUC, cont.
  • Improved physical parameterizations, including
    cloud microphysics (freezing drizzle), surface
    physics (frozen soil, high-resolution soil and
    surface data sets), and turbulence physics
  • Higher resolution versions
  • 13-15 km/60 level - 2001
  • Applications to air quality, coupled air
    chemistry?
  • Extensive NAOS observation sensitivity tests
  • WRF version of RUC

82
The Future of the RUC, cont.
  • Non-hydrostatic q-sz model under development
  • Generalized vertical coordinate
  • Nudging of coordinate surfaces toward grid
    generator
  • can be set as smoothed quasi-isentropic hybrid
    coordinate
  • treats sub20km variations (convective clouds,
    breaking mountain waves) w/ quasi-horizontal
    coordinates
  • treats gt20km variations w/q-s z coordinates
  • Collaboration between University of Miami (Rainer
    Bleck, Zuwen He), FSL (John Brown, Stan
    Benjamin), and NCAR (Bill Skamarock)
  • Part of WRF model (Weather Research and Forecast
    - NCAR/FSL/NCEP/CAPS) effort - a generalized
    vertical coordinate option.
  • WRF-based RUC probably by 2005-6 at 5-8 km scale
  • 30-min cycle or finer?

83
Quasi-isentropic option for WRF non-hydrostatic
model Breaking mountain wave simulation - 2 km
horizontal resolution Sigma-z version Quasi-isent
ropic version
Thick - q Thin - coordinate surfaces
84
Rapid Update Cycle Present and Next Version
1999 Operations 2000-01 Operations Resolution
40 km, 40 q/s levels 20?13-15 km, 40 ? 50-60
q/s levels Analysis Optimal interpolation
on 3-d variational technique on generalized
on generalized q/s surfaces q/s surfaces,
hydrometeor analysis w/ GOES…, use raw
instead of interp. obs Assimilation Intermittent
1-h cycle Intermittent 1-h cycle Stable
clouds Mixed-phase cloud microphysics
MM5), Improved microphysics, / precipitation
explicit fcst of cloud water, rain water,
addition of drizzle snow, ice, graupel,
no. concentration of ice particles Sub-grid-scale
Grell (1993) Modified Grell, scale dependence,
precipitation shallow convection,
interaction w/ cloud microphysics
Turbulence Burk-Thompson explicit TKE
scheme Refined Burk-Thompson or
e-? Radiation MM5 LW/SW scheme,
f(hydrometeors) Refined MM5 scheme Land-sfc
processes 6-level soil/veg model (Smirnova, Add
vertical soil type variability, 1997, 1999)
w/ frozen soil, 2-layer snow improved cold
season processes Sfc conditions Daily 50km
SST/14 km LST, Combine sat Tskin, use 3-d soil
type 0.14? monthly NDVI veg frac, cycled soil
moisture/temp, snow depth/temp
85
Feedback
  • Send feedback/questions on RUC performance to the
    RUC discussion forum.
  • Invite us to workshops.
  • http//maps.fsl.noaa.gov/forum/eval
  • 303-497-6387
  • benjamin_at_fsl.noaa.gov
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