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Graphic Design

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A logo can transform the perception of the company in people's mind ... The Michelin man logo/mascot of the French tyre company develops an amiable ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Graphic Design


1
(No Transcript)
2
SUMMARY
  • Whats a logo?
  • Characteristics
  • Inspirations
  • Your Media
  • Forms
  • Colors
  • Fonts
  • Finishes
  • Your Tools
  • Proportion
  • Contrast
  • Repetition
  • Nuance
  • Design Process

3
WHATS A LOGO?
  • According to Oxford Dictionary a logo is a
    printed design or symbol that a company or an
    organization uses as its special sign.
  • Corporate history has shown that a logo is much
    more than that
  • A logo can transform the perception of the
    company in peoples mind
  • A logo helps attaching adjectives to a
    companyE.g. smart, fast, conventional, hip,
    boring,
  • Logo changes ? people see the company
    differently, rethink the company

4
WHATS A LOGO?
  • Which companys logo is blue and
  • has a crosshatch design?
  • Difficult to answer this question
  • Weve got no information about the product or
    service industry the company is in
  • We require answers to these questions before
    guessing the company or do we?

5
WHATS A LOGO?
  • Which companys logo is red and
  • resembles a tick mark (a) ?
  • Its Nike!
  • No specific info is needed
  • Recall of a powerful logo ? company becomes
    secondary to the logo
  • Thats why Nike maintains just the swoosh since
    1995, it doesnt need to mention its name anymore

6
CHARACTERISTICS
  • Successful logos throughout the world
  • have certain characteristics that make
  • them popular and memorable
  • Differentiation
  • Distinctive
  • Different than the rest
  • Even the fonts of these logos are designed in a
    custom manner
  • Creating new font
  • Tweaking existing font

7
CHARACTERISTICS
  • Timelessness
  • Successful logos stand the test of time
  • Shelf life of an average logo /- 20 years
  • Changes are mostly evolutionary (changing
    business conditions)
  • Logos are the longest living identity an
    organization enjoys
  • Coca Cola is a classic case in timelessness
  • Designed in 1886 by companys book keeper
  • Logo still looks fresh and attractive nowadays

8
CHARACTERISTICS
  • Able to evoke emotions
  • Logos facilitate carrying the desired corporate
    image to the consumer in the shortest possible
    time
  • Type
  • Graphic and colors
  • The Michelin man logo/mascot of the French tyre
    company develops an amiable feeling towards the
    company with the use of a human character

9
CHARACTERISTICS
  • Malleability
  • Good logos have to look good on billboards,
    business cards, black and white fax copies, gold
    embossed door plates and even mugs and t-shirts
  • The media over which the logo appears have to be
    in the mind of the designer while designing
  • Simplicity
  • Times are changing and so are logos
  • Logos in earlier times used to be very detailed
  • Nowadays simpler, minimalistic yet elegant and
    attractive logos are used
  • Somewhat a sign of people not having the time to
    look at detailed logos
  • Certain logos maintain their earlier look, but a
    few companies changed their logo to reflect
    changing times cultures

10
CHARACTERISTICS
1908
1908
1914
1960
2000
11
CHARACTERISTICS
  • Exposure
  • A good logo much like a good product has to be
    advertised
  • Not many companies place a premium on their logo
    as Nike, ATT, Apple,

12
INSPIRATIONS
  • Different and often weird situations have
    inspired and
  • led to the creation of the worlds most famous
    logos

Nike's swoosh was done by accounting class
teacher / freelancer at Nike called Caroline for
only 35!
The current Fiat logo has the letters F-I-A-T
written with a silver line between each of them.
The lines were added by the companys design
chief when one day passing under the factory, he
noticed the sky at the backdrop of the huge FIAT
letters on the top of the building. The lines
added are actually the spaces that he saw in the
name over the building and decided to keep it.
13
INSPIRATIONS
Named after the founder Adolf (Adi) Dasler, the
Adidas logo has a triangle cut into three
pieces. The three pieces reportedly represent
his three sons!
The blue and white parts of a circle are present
in the BMWs logo which we see on its
automobiles. The origin of this dates back to
the first world war when, the fighter planes had
their propellers painted by the company in blue
and white so that the pilots could see through
them. This inspired the design that we see on
BMWs cars.
The American company Apple was the first computer
firm not to use its name as its corporate
identity. Even the word "Macintosh" is the name
of an apple variety. The motiv of an apple with a
bite taken out of it is a reference to the Bible
story of Adam and Eve, in which the apple
represents the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge.
14
YOUR MEDIA FORMS
  • World we live in is primarily a world of forms,
    if color, shades and surface textures would be
    missing ? objects around us still recognizable by
    their forms
  • 1. Choose a visual shape
  • 2. Real world objects
  • 3. Abstract
  • 4. Once you got something interesting, save
    it!

15
YOUR MEDIA FORMS
  • 1. Choose a visual shape
  • Naturally well be starting by exploring which
    visual shape will dominate the logo
  • 2. Real world objects
  • When starting you often have some clues what real
    world objects it must allude toAgricultural
    company a plantPublishing house a bookApple
    an apple
  • Not always this straightforward
  • Fine arts people are pleased by naturalness or
    natural-looking fantasies
  • Logos people favor abstraction and simplicity
  • Professional logos require some guesswork to
    realize how the shape relates to the main idea

16
YOUR MEDIA FORMS
  • 3. Abstract
  • Abstract is purified, cleared of non-essential
    components
  • Abstract not always is simple
  • Abstract never is boring, just a square or
    circle wont do
  • Strive to find an unusual view, a peculiar
    combination or a strange rendering of basic forms
  • A logo is perfect if a viewer can see its built
    on a simple principle AND at the same time
    realizes it would be difficult to reproduce

17
YOUR MEDIA FORMS
  • 4. Once you got something interesting, save it!
  • But most important is realizing you got
    something interesting and to guess how to profit
    from it!
  • If you have a predefined idea, start from trying
    to reproduce it with the geometric forms
    available
  • If you have none, just go wild and play with the
    forms like a child would play

18
YOUR MEDIA FORMS
  • Playing around with geometrical forms

Creating a form by moving things on purpose
Gravity problem when an idea is clear
L to R reading problem when its settled down
Et voila!
19
YOUR MEDIA COLORS
  • Dont use too many colors
  • As with form, simplicity is very important
  • What parallels/opposes this element?Can I choose
    one of the colors I already used for other
    elements?
  • Colors should help express the logic of the form,
    not conflict with it
  • E.g. book logo
  • So you can transform the colors usually
    associated with objects, but dont totally
    disregard them

20
YOUR MEDIA FONTS
  • Now, theres one thing missing the companys
    name
  • Rather unusual to wait, normally the textual part
    is given high priority
  • Often the form of the letters in the company
    name, serves as the main graphic idea and defines
    the shape
  • Dont be too decorative or too original
  • Unusual script fonts my look cool, but require an
    enormous amount of artistic skills and experience
    to use them in a logo
  • Recommended is to choose one of the old,
    time-proven typefaces (Baskerville, Schoolbook,
    Futura, )
  • Normally text in a logo is set in relatively
    large size, so you need to manually kern the
    letters. Default height/width ratio in most fonts
    is chosen with the 10pt body text size in mind.

21
YOUR MEDIA FINISHES
  • Everything you do when both your graphics and
    text are ready, on their proper place and the
    colors are chosen
  • Surface textures
  • Drop shadows
  • Highlights
  • Gradients
  • Beware people often think cool finishes make
    their graphics professional. Far from that!
  • No amount of drop shadows will improve a logo
    which is designed poorly
  • Feel free, but once youve made a cool design,
    youre likely to spoil it with the wrong finishes

22
YOUR TOOLS PROPORTION
  • According to Websters Dictionary proportion is a
    comparative relation between things or magnitudes
    as to size, quantity, number,
  • In the design field this definition is narrowed
    down to relation in size and length
  • Proportion which parts are bigger than others
    and why?
  • Most important principle regarding sizes of your
    logos elements follow their natural sizes
  • The text must be easily readable, the visual
    should be big enough for all its features to be
    evident
  • Dont be afraid wasting time playing with sizes
    and trying to find the best proportion

23
YOUR TOOLS PROPORTION
  • In (a) the circle looks less in diameter than the
    square
  • In (b) the white disk on black background looks
    bigger

24
YOUR TOOLS PROPORTION
  • Try to find relations which are simple yet not
    immediately obvious
  • Try to make two objects the same size, or one
    twice the size of the other, or
  • Experienced designers perceive this rule as if it
    were a natural desire of things to behave that
    way
  • Dont oversimplify a composition were all
    levels with all will be plain boring
  • First go wild and seek a glimpse of originality
  • Play with forms until you see something
    interesting

25
YOUR TOOLS CONTRAST
  • While proportion is mostly about sizes, contrast
    is about nearly anything
  • Color
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Font
  • Texture
  • .
  • Contrast is probably the most powerful concept
    among design tools

26
YOUR TOOLS CONTRAST
  • Purest possible contrast, which is too
    straightforward and even boring for a designer to
    use
  • So we have to soften the contrast relation by
    opposing multiple aspects of objects
  • Added contrast in size
  • Added contrast in position

27
YOUR TOOLS CONTRAST
  • Contrasting background and foreground
  • Contrasting font styles

28
YOUR TOOLS REPETITION
  • Repetition a way to animate otherwise dead
    material
  • Allows to communicate much more information
  • Two contrasting objects a message of
    interaction
  • Pattern of repetition trend of development, a
    line of motion, sequence of transformation
  • Any repetition
  • implies a line
  • can be an undirected line or a directed vector

29
YOUR TOOLS REPETITION
  • How many objects should we use in repetition?
  • A pair is not enough perceived as symmetry or
    contrast
  • The least number of steps that makes a stairway
    is three

30
YOUR TOOLS NUANCE
  • One of the most important features that
    differentiates a work of experienced designer
    from a novice's exercise is the powerful use of
    nuances
  • Applying nuance means using the same design
    concepts, but with a difference
  • Nuance subtle, delicate degree
  • Nuances can really make the difference in
    perception
  • A well-nuanced design becomes warm, human and
    attractively elegant
  • A design deprived of nuances only looks
    interesting on first glance

31
YOUR TOOLS NUANCE
  • Some discoveries that can be made unconsciously
    to illustrate nuance
  • Aha, this couple of lines are parallel
  • This detail is the same color as that one
  • These two lines continued, their point of
    intersection is exactly in the center of that
    disk
  • This letters serif is exactly on the level of
    that horizontal bar
  • Our mind is pleasantly stimulated by this
    background activity
  • Decorating a logo with nuances is a
    time-consuming process
  • With inspiration the main shape and color
    combination can be created in a wink
  • The subtleties to illuminate the soul requires
    some time and effort
  • Before you roll out your finished work, always
    ask yourself why you did it that way, why it has
    that size or this angle?

32
YOUR TOOLS NUANCE
  • One nuance that deserves special mention is
    kerning
  • Nothing is a more undeniable giveaway of an
    amateur than a title left without kerning
  • Fonts are to be treated like any other graphic
    resource and need to be adjusted where suited
  • Kerning always needs manual intervention

33
DESIGN PROCESS
  • The design process can be split into 6 stages
  • 1. Identify
  • 2. Research
  • 3. Fonts
  • 4. Emblem
  • 5. Composition
  • 6. Mock Up

34
DESIGN PROCESS
  • 1. Identify
  • Always ask yourself whats the purpose of the
    design
  • Artist just wants to express himself or his
    feelings on society
  • Designer always has a specific purpose that
    doesnt necessarily come from him
  • What do we mean by purpose?
  • Target audience
  • Competition
  • Tone of voice
  • Key messages
  • Can be found by asking simple questions to the
    client
  • What do you want to say?
  • Who are you saying it to?
  • Who else is trying to say the same thing?
  • Where are you going to say it

35
DESIGN PROCESS
  • 2. Research
  • Go scout the enemies camps
  • Whats the competition doing?
  • Whats the design standard of the particular
    industry doing?
  • If its a global company, consider these things
    in other countries and see what theyre doing
  • Whats the market leader doing?
  • Understand the target audience
  • Try to define your average target customer
  • Build a profile of him (her name is Jane, she
    lives in a suburb of a big city, she drives a
    4x4, she is married and has three children, )
    this may look bizarre but it helps to get in the
    head of the audience
  • What color will be appropriate?
  • Research can be a grand large scale Quality
    Audience Research, but mostly the client will not
    have the budget for this. In that case a couple
    of hours on Google does the trick

36
DESIGN PROCESS
  • 3. Fonts
  • When you start the design, the emphasis is on the
    emblem
  • A logos tone of voice is primary defined by its
    typeface
  • Always start by selecting potential fonts which
    have a tone of voice which suit the research and
    client discussions
  • If somebody wants to present a respectable,
    classic feel ? choose a serif typeface

37
DESIGN PROCESS
  • 4. Emblem
  • Make a logo recognizable, an emblem can be
    anything from a shape to a physical illustration
  • If your typeface is strong enough or your logo is
    not supposed to be imposing, an emblem is not
    required
  • An emblem has to
  • Complement the typeface
  • Complement the key messages
  • Be original and different from any of the
    competition
  • There is no wrong or right when coming up with an
    emblem
  • TIP design your emblems within the same file as
    you have all
  • your potential typefaces. This way you can see if
    a mark would
  • work or not with a certain emblem. Try at least
    10 marks which
  • complement about 20 typefaces.

38
DESIGN PROCESS
  • 5. Composition
  • Now come the practicality of a logo
  • How will this logo fit the page?
  • A logo with a straight edge is very difficult to
    sit nicely on a page
  • If there are baselines or website addresses that
    have to accompany the logo consider it at this
    stage
  • 6. Mock Up
  • Mock up a few letter heads, brochures, which
    show the logo in context
  • A logo has to work along side other elements and
    future problems can be ruled out at this point
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