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Using Adaptations and Modifications in the Inclusive Classroom


Be prepared to play a key role in beginning and maintaining an inclusive focus ... use a reading aide such as a monitor, magnifying glass or inclined reading stand ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Using Adaptations and Modifications in the Inclusive Classroom

Using Adaptations and Modifications in the
Inclusive Classroom
  • Live Classroom Presentation
  • April 9th, 2009
  • Diana Carr
  • Based on the book
  • Learning in Safe Schools
  • By Brownlie and King

How to support an inclusive classroom?
  • Be flexible
  • Be collaborative
  • Be prepared to problem solve
  • Be a planner
  • Be aware of the language used when describing
  • Be aware of how you spend your time
  • Be prepared to play a key role in beginning and
    maintaining an inclusive focus

Stainback and Stainback, authors of Support
Networks for Inclusive Schooling
  • In inclusive schools , the focus is not
    exclusively on how to help students…fit into the
    existing, standard curriculum in the school.
    Rather the curriculum in the regular education
    class is adapted, when necessary, to meet the
    needs of any student for whom the standard
    curriculum is inappropriate or could be better
    served through adaptation. Possibly the most
    common curricular modification in inclusive
    schools involves arranging for students to pursue
    different objectives within the same lesson.

  • How can one lesson be taught to the entire class
    while meeting the individual needs of each
  • Consider
  • Clarify difference between the concepts and the
    content to develop the concepts
  • Presentation
  • Student practice
  • Evaluation

  • When a teacher makes adaptations, the
  • curriculum maintains the exact
  • same learning outcomes for the student,
  • but the goals/expectations,
  • presentation, materials, assistance or
  • environment may vary or be different.

So remember…
  • You are adjusting the way the student will gain
    access to the learning situation
  • The difficulty of the task cannot be affected
  • What is being evaluated cannot be modified
  • Must be clearly indicated in the students IEP

  • When a teacher makes modifications, there
  • are different learning outcomes for the
  • student, as identified in his or hers
  • Individualized Education Plan.
  • The materials used may be
  • similar or different from those of the
  • other learners in the classroom

So remember…
  • Requirements or the evaluation criteria of the
    competencies are modified
  • The difficulty level of the task is reduced
  • All modification of task requirements and
    evaluations are clearly recorded on the
    established IEP

Adaptation vs. Modification
  • Use of adaptation over modification when possible
    enhances the student's acceptance and inclusion
    in the classroom
  • Adaptation reduces teacher time needed for
    planning and delivering multiple curricula
  • Once clearly understood and practiced it almost
    comes naturally
  • Avoid assuming the child requires a separate
    curriculum since the overuse of a separate
    curriculum increases the exclusion of the child
    and workload of the teacher.

Ask Four Questions
  • Which curriculum learning outcomes can the child
    meet without any changes?
  • What adaptations can be made, and where for the
    child to meet these learning outcomes?
  • Which learning outcomes will need to be modified?
    (can this be done with the same classroom
  • Are there any times when the child will be
    working on different learning outcomes with
    different, but age appropriate, materials?

Types of Adaptation
  • Input
  • Output
  • Time

Possible Adaptations
  • Changes to the environment
  • Student materials
  • Availability
  • Adapted devices
  • Adapting the page set up
  • Presentation of lesson
  • Time allocation
  • Technology

Types of Modification
  • Difficulty
  • Level of support
  • Size
  • Degree of participation
  • Alternate goals
  • Substitute Curriculum

Possible Modifications
  • Different objective with same materials
  • Simplify the vocabulary/questions
  • Simplify the task
  • Provide the answers
  • Grade work turned in, not work required
  • Alternate expectations
  • Fill in the blank
  • Provide functioning level materials

Why Adapt and Modify?
  • Encourages inclusion of all students
  • Addresses different learning styles
  • Allows teacher to reach all students some of the
  • Allows for diversity among students
  • Fosters social relations and self-worth
  • Meets social, emotional and academic needs
  • MOST OF ALL… Success for all

Elementary School Exam Support Measures
  • Adaptations may include
  • Additional time as specified in the IEP
  • Isolated workspace
  • Read aloud or reader provided
  • Chunking the work
  • Adult to pace and keep student on task
  • Read directions aloud at students request

Elementary School Exam Support Measures
  • Modifications may include
  • Reduce difficulty of assigned task
  • Use of word processor with correction tools
  • Adult interpretation of text
  • Adult facilitating discussion of material
  • Breaking situational problem down into smaller
  • Use of various resources

Secondary School Exam Support Measures
  • taken form
    the Administrative Manual for the Certification
    of Secondary School Studies 16-7175A, Chapter 5
  • 5.2 The intervention plan can include means
    allowing students to understand instructions and
    questions and give their answers. However,
    educational institutions must maintain
    requirements for issuing secondary school
  • The school principal is authorized to
    introduce the following measures if they are
    included in a student's individualized education

Chapter 5
  • extending the time allotted for the exam by up to
    one third of the time normally allowed
  • adaptation of specific measures the attendant
    provides assistance that the student requires
    according to his or her needs
  • allowing students to use a computer without
    grammar corrector or speller while respecting
    certain conditions
  • ensuring that the exam is held in a secure
    location and that the students are supervised
  • allowing the students to use various writing aids
  • allowing students to give their answers using a
    tape recorder
  • allowing students to use a reading aide such as a
    monitor, magnifying glass or inclined reading

Elements for Success
  • Flexibility and creativity
  • Understanding of students backgrounds
  • Resources and materials
  • School support
  • Understand students IEPs
  • Professional development opportunities are
    especially necessary in order for teachers to
    improve their skills and knowledge in curriculum

Salisbury, Mangino, Petrigala, Rainforth, Syryca
Palombaro, (1994)
  • Salisbury and her colleagues found that modifying
    curriculum based on students IEP resulted in
    successful physical, social, and instructional
    inclusion of students with mild to profound

Buxton, 1999 Fradd, Lee, Sutman Saxton, 2001
  • Major focus of this study was on the modification
    of materials
  • Teachers perceptions regarding the effectiveness
    of curriculum modification shifted from uncertain
    to preferable
  • That teachers need to understand the
    characteristics and specific needs of particular
    groups when determining how curriculum should be
  • School failure is less likely to occur and
    students self-esteem increases when their
    culture is successfully incorporated

  • The whole reason for education is to help create
    whole people for the future. We build in students
    what we want in a future society. The principles
    around inclusion are what we are all searching
    for in our lives. I think if we give a taste of
    this to children, they will seek it out for the
    rest of their lives
  • -Kim Ondrik, teacher