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## Introduction: Matter and Measurement

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### Metric unit conversions. Other conversions: temperature, metric-English, etc. ... Choose a person to record and report the group's result. Problem #1 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction: Matter and Measurement

1
Introduction Matter and Measurement
• Chapter 1 BLB 11th

2
1.1 The Study of Chemistry
• Chemistry is everywhere!
• Matter is everywhere!
• Thus, chemistry matters!
• Chemistry involves the study of matter its
properties and behavior.
• Macroscopic observations are rooted in
microscopic structure.

3
Why study chemistry?
• Its required.
• It sounds interesting.
• Its unavoidable.
• It truly is the central science.
• Name an element
• Name a compound
• Name a mixture

4
The Periodic Table of the Elements
5
Molecules
• O2, H2O, CO2, C2H5OH, C2H6O2, C9H8O4
• Models
• Shown on p. 2

6
Expectations
• Classify matter
• Properties of matter
• g ? mL (using density)
• Solve for any variable in a formula.
• Metric unit conversions
• Other conversions temperature, metric-English,
etc.
• Identify and work with significant figures.

7
1.2 Classification of Matter
• Matter anything which has mass and takes up
space.
• States of matter (p. 5)
• Solid rigid, regular
• Liquid fluid, irregular
• Gas open, random
• Phases of matter

8
States of Matter
9
States of Matter
10
Alternative diagram to that on p. 9
11
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12
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13
Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
14
The Periodic Table of the Elements
15
Elements
16
Group Activity
• Get into groups of four or five. No solo flyers!
• Introduce yourself.
• Work together.
• Discuss, argue, and intellectually engage.
• Choose a person to record and report the groups
result.

17
Problem 1
• Describe the contents of the containers.
• Devise a plan to determine which liquid is in
each of the two containers.

18
Description
19
Strategy for identification
20
1.3 Properties of Matter
• physical measured or observed without changing
the identity of a substance, e.g. physical state,
color, odor, density, boiling point
• chemical describes a substances reactivity,
e.g. flammability, corrosiveness
• extensive depends on the amount of matter
present, e.g. mass, volume
• intensive does not depend on the amount of
matter present, e.g. density, color, temperature

21
Physical Chemical Changes
• Physical change in appearance, not in
composition, e.g. phase changes, separation of
mixtures filtration, distillation,
chromatography (p. 12)
• Chemical new substance is formed as the
chemical identities change, e.g. any chemical
reaction (pp. 10-11)
• Dissolve vs. react
• Explode vs. ignite

22
1.4 Units of Measurement (SI Units)
23
Volume a derived unit
24
Metric Prefixes
Angstrom Å 10-10 m
25
Temperature Scales
26
Temperature Conversions
• F ? C
• C ? F
• C ? K

27
Density
• Density mass per unit volume
• D m/V (g/cm3 or g/mL)
• Measured at a specific temperature
• Useful as a conversion factor (g ? mL)
• Most substances become more dense at lower
temperatures.
• Specific gravity density of a substance divided
by the density of a reference substance (usually
water) no units

28
Difference in density values is the reason some
things float and others sink.
29
Density of Water
30
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31
1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement
• Exact numbers have a defined value, e.g.
12-dozen, 2.54 cm/in 1000 g 1 kg count of
objects
• All measurements have some degree of uncertainty
inexact
• Types of error systematic random
• The last digit of a measured quantity is
uncertain.
• The more significant figures, the greater the
certainty.
• precision agreement among data
• accuracy agreement of data with true value

32
Different measuring devices have different uses
and different degrees of accuracy and precision.
33
Significant Figures
34
Significant Figures in Calculations
• A calculated result can be no more certain than
the data measured.
• Mathematical operations (p. 23)
• Averaging least number of decimal places
• and - least number of decimal places
• x and least number of sig. figs.
• Round off at the end at the end of a multi-step
problem.

35
1.6 Dimensional Analysis
• Problem-solving strategies (pp. 26 28)