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Introduction: Matter and Measurement

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Metric unit conversions. Other conversions: temperature, metric-English, etc. ... Choose a person to record and report the group's result. Problem #1 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction: Matter and Measurement


1
Introduction Matter and Measurement
  • Chapter 1 BLB 11th

2
1.1 The Study of Chemistry
  • Chemistry is everywhere!
  • Matter is everywhere!
  • Thus, chemistry matters!
  • Chemistry involves the study of matter its
    properties and behavior.
  • Macroscopic observations are rooted in
    microscopic structure.

3
Why study chemistry?
  • Its required.
  • It sounds interesting.
  • Its unavoidable.
  • It truly is the central science.
  • Name an element
  • Name a compound
  • Name a mixture

4
The Periodic Table of the Elements
5
Molecules
  • O2, H2O, CO2, C2H5OH, C2H6O2, C9H8O4
  • Models
  • Shown on p. 2

6
Expectations
  • Classify matter
  • Properties of matter
  • g ? mL (using density)
  • Solve for any variable in a formula.
  • Metric unit conversions
  • Other conversions temperature, metric-English,
    etc.
  • Identify and work with significant figures.

7
1.2 Classification of Matter
  • Matter anything which has mass and takes up
    space.
  • States of matter (p. 5)
  • Solid rigid, regular
  • Liquid fluid, irregular
  • Gas open, random
  • Phases of matter

8
States of Matter
9
States of Matter
10
Alternative diagram to that on p. 9
11
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12
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13
Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
14
The Periodic Table of the Elements
15
Elements
16
Group Activity
  • Get into groups of four or five. No solo flyers!
  • Introduce yourself.
  • Work together.
  • Discuss, argue, and intellectually engage.
  • Choose a person to record and report the groups
    result.

17
Problem 1
  • Describe the contents of the containers.
  • Devise a plan to determine which liquid is in
    each of the two containers.

18
Description
19
Strategy for identification
20
1.3 Properties of Matter
  • physical measured or observed without changing
    the identity of a substance, e.g. physical state,
    color, odor, density, boiling point
  • chemical describes a substances reactivity,
    e.g. flammability, corrosiveness
  • extensive depends on the amount of matter
    present, e.g. mass, volume
  • intensive does not depend on the amount of
    matter present, e.g. density, color, temperature

21
Physical Chemical Changes
  • Physical change in appearance, not in
    composition, e.g. phase changes, separation of
    mixtures filtration, distillation,
    chromatography (p. 12)
  • Chemical new substance is formed as the
    chemical identities change, e.g. any chemical
    reaction (pp. 10-11)
  • Dissolve vs. react
  • Explode vs. ignite

22
1.4 Units of Measurement (SI Units)
23
Volume a derived unit
24
Metric Prefixes
Angstrom Å 10-10 m
25
Temperature Scales
26
Temperature Conversions
  • F ? C
  • C ? F
  • C ? K

27
Density
  • Density mass per unit volume
  • D m/V (g/cm3 or g/mL)
  • Measured at a specific temperature
  • Useful as a conversion factor (g ? mL)
  • Most substances become more dense at lower
    temperatures.
  • Specific gravity density of a substance divided
    by the density of a reference substance (usually
    water) no units

28
Difference in density values is the reason some
things float and others sink.
29
Density of Water
30
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31
1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement
  • Exact numbers have a defined value, e.g.
    12-dozen, 2.54 cm/in 1000 g 1 kg count of
    objects
  • All measurements have some degree of uncertainty
    inexact
  • Types of error systematic random
  • The last digit of a measured quantity is
    uncertain.
  • The more significant figures, the greater the
    certainty.
  • precision agreement among data
  • accuracy agreement of data with true value

32
Different measuring devices have different uses
and different degrees of accuracy and precision.
33
Significant Figures
34
Significant Figures in Calculations
  • A calculated result can be no more certain than
    the data measured.
  • Mathematical operations (p. 23)
  • Averaging least number of decimal places
  • and - least number of decimal places
  • x and least number of sig. figs.
  • Round off at the end at the end of a multi-step
    problem.

35
1.6 Dimensional Analysis
  • Problem-solving strategies (pp. 26 28)
  • Estimate and then calculate your answer. Do the
    two agree?
  • Get your units correct and your answer should be
    correct.
  • Report to correct number of sig. figs.
  • Practice, practice, practice!
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