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Coffee

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Parchment coffee is the bean, testa, endocarp. From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI Publishing. Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coffee


1
Coffee
  • Family - Rubiaceae
  • Genus - Coffea
  • Species - arabica and canephora

2
Two Types of CoffeeAbout 90 Coffea spp in Africa
  • Arabica, C. arabica
  • Tetraploid, self fertile
  • Ethiopia highlands
  • 1600m
  • 15-24C
  • 1300 mm
  • Best quality
  • Susceptible to rust
  • Robusta, C. canephora
  • Diploid, self incompatible
  • Rain forest of Congo basin
  • 24-30C
  • 1550 mm
  • Less flavor, acidity
  • Resistant to rust

3
Two Types of CoffeeAbout 90 Coffea spp in Africa
  • Arabica, C. arabica
  • Medium size tree
  • 14-20 tall
  • Medium vigor
  • Leaves
  • Smaller
  • Thinner
  • Seedlings uniform
  • Robusta, C. canephora
  • Medium to large tree
  • Up to 32 tall
  • Vigorous
  • Leaves
  • Larger
  • Thicker
  • Seedlings variable

4
Distribution of Cultivated Coffee
5
Coffee Production and Yield
Africa
S. America
S. America
C. Amer
C. Amer
Africa
Asia
Asia
6
World Coffee Production
  • Brazil
  • 21.1, arabica
  • Only country with frost possibility in coffee
    zone
  • Colombia
  • 13.9, arabica
  • Indonesia
  • 7.3, robusta
  • Other important producing countries
  • Vietnam, Mexico, Ethiopia, India, Guatemala,
    Ivory Coast, Uganda

1996 data from Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and
Tea. CABI Publishing.
7
Major Consumers
  • High proportion imported by developed countries
  • USA 23
  • EEC 39

8
The Seed of the Fruit is the Economic PartA
Drupe like a Peach
  • Both begin bearing in 3-4 years
  • Time to mature fruit
  • Arabica, 7-8 months
  • Robusta, 11-12 months
  • Productive for 20-30 years
  • Both need pruning for best production

9
The Coffee Fruit is called a Cherry
  • Exocarp
  • Red skin
  • Mesocarp
  • Sweet pulp
  • Endocarp, hull
  • Testa (silvery)
  • Bean (embryo and cotyledons)

10
The Coffee Fruit is called a Cherry
  • Exocarp
  • Red skin
  • Mesocarp
  • Sweet pulp
  • Endocarp, hull
  • Testa (silvery)
  • Bean (embryo and cotyledons)
  • Parchment coffee is the bean, testa, endocarp

From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI
Publishing.
11
Coffee Tree Growth Cycle
  • Dry and/or cool season
  • Floral initiation
  • Reduced vegetative growth
  • Wet season
  • Flowers open, fruit set and begin development
  • Active vegetative growth
  • Dry and/or cool season
  • Fruit ripen
  • Flower buds initiate
  • Reduced vegetative growth

12
Coffee Tree Growth Habit
  • Orthotropic stem
  • Erect growth
  • Plagiotropic stems
  • Horizontal secondary stems growing off of
    orthotropic stems
  • These are the fruiting wood

13
Coffee Farmers
  • Grown under many conditions
  • Plantations and smaller farmers
  • Under shade and in full sun
  • Monoculture and mixed farming systems

14
Coffee Production
  • Propagation
  • For arabica
  • Most is done by seed
  • Clonal propagation
  • Hybrids
  • Robusta types

15
Coffee Production
  • Planting
  • Slightly acid (pH 5.2 to 6.3) well drained soil
  • Beginning of wet season
  • Vertical position or 30 angle
  • Spacing - need light for fruit ripening
  • Arabica, 1350 trees/ha
  • Robusta, 900-1000 trees/ha
  • Time to fruiting
  • Take 3-4 years to obtain mature plant
  • Fruit on year old wood

16
Shade and Coffee Production
  • Both species are understorey trees
  • Well adapted to shade
  • Initially coffee was planted under shade
  • Small holders may use mixed farming
  • Later unshaded plants were shown to produce
    higher yields

17
Shade and Coffee Production
Data from Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea,
Figure 6.4.
Conclusion High input system - better with
fertilizer Low input system - not as essential
18
Coffee Production
  • Training/Pruning objectives
  • Maximize plagiotrophic stems (fruiting wood)
  • Shape trees
  • Maximize use of space
  • Ease of management
  • Maintain open tree to allow good light
    penetration
  • Minimize biennial bearing
  • Remove diseased and dead wood

19
Single Stem Training(Central leader)
  • Cut back orthotropic stem
  • Encourages plagiotropic stem formation
  • Repeat for 3-5 years
  • With each cycle the tree gets bigger
  • Lower limbs die due to lack of light
  • Rejuvenate after 3-5 years
  • To reduce size of tree
  • Cut back to 40-50 cm height

20
Single Stem Training(Central leader)
  • Cut back orthotropic stem
  • Encourages plagiotropic stem formation
  • Select one orthotropic as new leader
  • Repeat for 3-5 years
  • With each cycle the tree gets bigger
  • Lower limbs die due to lack of light
  • Rejuvenate after 3-5 years
  • To reduce size of tree
  • Cut back to 40-50 cm height

21
Single Stem Training(Central leader)
  • Cut back orthotropic stem
  • Encourages plagiotropic stem formation
  • Select one orthotropic as new leader
  • Repeat for 3-5 years
  • With each cycle the tree gets bigger
  • Lower limbs die due to lack of light
  • Rejuvenate after 3-5 years
  • To reduce size of tree
  • Cut back to 40-50 cm height

22
Multiple Stem Training(Modified Central Leader)
  • Leave 2-8 orthotropic stems
  • Pruning
  • Cut back (or bend) orthotropic stem
  • Encourages orthotropic stem formation
  • Select several orthotropic stems to be new
    leaders
  • Eliminate growth in center of tree

23
Multiple Stem Training(Modified Central Leader)
  • Leave 2-8 orthotropic stems
  • Pruning
  • Eliminate growth in center of tree
  • Continues growing taller
  • Cropping area moves higher

24
Multiple Stem Training(Modified Central Leader)
  • Leave 2-8 orthotropic stems
  • Pruning
  • Cut out wood in center
  • Continues growing taller
  • Cropping area moves higher
  • Rejuvenation every 4-6 years
  • Need to lower fruiting surface
  • Allow basal suckers to grow

25
Multiple Stem Training(Modified Central Leader)
  • Rejuvenation every 4-6 years
  • Allow suckers to grow
  • Remove old branches
  • Stump with lung
  • Once suckers begin to grow remove lung

26
Harvest
  • Most done by hand
  • Ripe berries only
  • Pick every 8-10 days
  • In Brazil, allow cherries to dry on tree
  • Machine harvest in Brazil
  • Oscillating fingers
  • 7-9 immature fruit

From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI
Publishing.
27
Disease and Pests Problems
  • Losses due to diseases
  • Africa 15
  • Asia 10
  • S. Am. 12
  • Coffee rust (Hemeleia vastatrix)
  • History
  • First in Sri Lanka in 1880
  • Now throughout world
  • Control
  • Robusta/hybrids resistant
  • Less serious above 1700 m
  • Cu fungicides
  • Coffee Berry Disease (Colletotrichum)
  • Cause berry rot

28
Disease and Pests Problems
  • Losses due to pests
  • Africa 20
  • Asia 15
  • S. Am. 15
  • Coffee Berry Borer
  • History
  • Originate in Africa
  • Now throughout world
  • Damage
  • Larvae feed on bean
  • Control
  • Berry removal
  • Chemicals
  • IPM
  • Monkeys, birds
  • Insert Fig 8.4, p 87

From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI
Publishing.
29
Coffee Processing
  • Bean Processing done on the Farm

30
Wet Method
  • Start on Harvest Day
  • Separate trash and defective berries by flotation
  • Good berries are depulped same day
  • Fermentation
  • Only to remove mucilaginous covering
  • Excessive heat destroys flavor

31
Wet Method
  • Washed
  • Water under pressure
  • Dried - spread out to dry
  • Sun
  • Artificial heat
  • Best quality
  • Gives coffee that is cleaner, brighter, fruitier,
    better acidity

32
Dry Method (Natural Method) (Most traditional
and least expensive)
  • Drying (Indonesia, Ethiopia, Brazil, Yemen)
  • Initial drying done on trees
  • Spread on concrete, tile or matted surface
  • 2 thick and constantly raked
  • 3-15 days until specific moisture
  • Pergamino is dry and crumbly

33
Dry Method(Most traditional and least expensive)
  • Remove pericarp
  • Mortar and pestle or machine
  • Chaff removed via winnowing and picking
  • Sorted by size, shape, density and color
  • Packed in 60 kg bags for processing

34
Industrial Processing(Usually by importing
company)
  • Grading process
  • Redry and clean the parchment beans before using
  • Remove testa (hulling and polishing)
  • Sort on size and density
  • Roasting (370F to 540F)
  • Removes moisture
  • Light roast lose 3-5 moisture
  • Dark roast lose 8-14 moisture
  • Time (up to 30 min) determines flavor
  • Decreasing the amount of
  • Chlorogenic acid
  • Trigonelline
  • Grinding

35
Industrial Processing(Usually by importing
company)
  • Caffeine Reduction
  • Add water to beans
  • Extract with
  • Methylene chloride and ethyl acetate
  • Residual solvent removed via low level steam
    drying
  • Caffeine can be recovered with water extraction
    of organic solvent

36
Industrial Processing(Usually by importing
company)
  • Once ground the beans lose flavor rapidly
  • Grinding
  • Coarse to medium (600-1100 µm)
  • Home percolators
  • Fine grinds (Automatic percolators)
  • Europe (400-500 µm)
  • USA (600-700 µm)

37
Industrial Processing(Usually by importing
company)
  • Instant Coffee
  • Extract soluble solids, volatile aroma and flavor
    with water
  • Drying
  • Drum drying - poor appearance
  • Spray drying - loses flavor volatiles
  • Freeze drying - best product
  • Best retention of flavor
  • Produces granules
  • No evaporation so no loss of flavor
  • Coffee oil for head space aroma

38
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