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Who Smokes and Why

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Smoking prevalence was highest among men who had dropped out of ... Living in a Coed Dorm. Valuing Parties. Marijuana. Binge Drinking. Multiple Sex Partners ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Who Smokes and Why


1
Who Smokes and Why
2
Prevalence
  • Current estimates for US 25 of adults smoke.
    High was 41 in 1965.
  • 25.2 million men (26.7 percent)
  • 23.2 million women (22.8 percent)
  • Estimated 4.1 million teenagers aged 12 through
    17 years are smokers.

3
Prevalence by Race
  • African Americans over 18 years of age have the
    highest amount of smokers
  • African American 25.1
  • Whites 22.9
  • Hispanic 21.2
  • Asian 14.4

4
Prevalence by Education
  • People with less formal education tend to smoke
    more
  • Less than 12 years 29.1
  • More than 12 years 18
  • Smoking prevalence was highest among men who had
    dropped out of school
    (41.9).

5
Prevalence by Age
  • Nationwide, 70.2 of high school students have
    tried cigarette smoking. More than one-third
    (36.4) of high school students were current
    cigarette smokers, i.e., smoked at least one
    cigarette in the past 30 days. White students
    (19.9) were more likely than African-American
    (7.2) or Hispanic (10.9) students to smoke
    frequently.

6
Prevalence by State
  • Nevada has the highest number of adult smokers
    (30.3)
  • Utah has the lowest number of adult smokers
    (15.1)

7
Prevalence and Taxes
  • States with highest cigarette taxes Washington
    State, Washington D.C., Hawaii, Arizona,
    Massachusetts Connecticut and Minnesota, have
    lower rates of adult smokers
  • States with lowest cigarette taxes Virginia,
    Kentucky, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, Wyoming,
    Tennessee, Indiana and W. Virginia, have higher
    rates of adult smokers

8
Prevalence by Country
  • In developed countries, 41 of men and 21 of
    women regularly smoke cigarettes.
  • In developing countries, 50 of men smoke, and 8
    of women.

9
Why People Smoke
  • Why do you smoke?
  • Why do you think people smoke?
  • Is smoking cool?
  • How could it be viewed as cool or sexy?
  • What does someone get out of smoking?

10
Starting Smoking
  • Reasons for starting
  • Tension Control
  • Rebelliousness
  • Social Pressure
  • Weight Control
  • Parental Modeling

11
College Students Reasons
  • Dissatisfaction w/Education
  • Being Unhappy
  • Living in a Coed Dorm
  • Valuing Parties
  • Marijuana
  • Binge Drinking
  • Multiple Sex Partners
  • Negative View of Religion

12
Why People Continue
  • Habit
  • Increase Positive Affect
  • Decrease Negative Affect
  • Addiction Nicotine Addiction Model

13
Ultimate Reason for Continued Heavy Smoking
  • Nicotine is an addictive drug, which reaches the
    brain faster than drugs that enter the body
    intravenously. Smokers become not only physically
    addicted to nicotine, but develop the habit of
    smoking.
  • Smokers also link smoking with many social
    activities, making smoking a difficult habit to
    break.

14
  • Identified only as "Debi," the woman smokes
    through a hole in her throat, telling the
    audience she tried to quit when she became aware
    of dangers to her health, but couldn't.

15
Quitting Smoking
16
Starting to Stop
  • In 1994, an estimated 46 million adults were
    former smokers. Of the current smokers, 33.2
    million persons reported they wanted to quit
    smoking completely.
  • An estimated 30 of smokers make at least one
    quit attempt per year.
  • 81 fail within the first month.

17
Quitting smoking
  • In 1995, an estimated 68.2 of current smokers
    reported that they wanted to quit smoking
    completely.
  • Quit attempts, abstaining from smoking for at
    least one day during the preceding 12 months,
    were made by about 45.8 of current every-day
    smokers.

18
Quitting Smoking
  • About 23.3 of US adults (25 million men and 19.3
    million women) were former smokers in 1995

19
How People Quit
20
How People Quit
  • Self-Help
  • Nicotine Replacement
  • Antidepressants
  • Psychosocial Interventions

21
Self-help
  • Of smokers using the self-help approach, about
    20 remain tobacco-free for about 1 year.
  • In the U.S., about 90 of successful quitters
    have used some form of self-help method either
    alone or with other methods.

22
Self-help
  • The most successful self-help materials address
    the physical, psychological, and social
    components of nicotine addiction and smoking
    behavior.
  • Information includes topics like quitting, diet,
    exercise, relaxation, and relapse prevention.

23
Group Help
  • Some organizations, like the American Cancer
    Society, also offer highly structured group
    support programs
  • The groups try to aid in the adjustment to a
    non-smoking lifestyle.
  • Of smokers participating in group programs,
    about 33 are successful at 1 year.

24
Nicotine Gum
  • Contains nicotine but less than that in
    cigarettes (about 2mg per stick instead of the
    6-8mg in a single cigarette).
  • Nicotine is slowly released when chewed (90 of
    the nicotine is released in 20-30 minutes).
  • Used properly, this gum helps to slowly wean
    from cigarettes by first substituting the gum and
    then chewing less and less of the gum.

25
Nicotine Gum
  • Most patients are advised to use the gum for 3-6
    months.
  • Side effects of the gum may include nausea,
    dizziness, or overdoses.
  • Studies have suggested that the gum is effective
    in decreasing the amount of symptoms experienced
    with the withdrawal syndrome.

26
Nicotine Gum
  • There have been reports that use of the gum with
    behavioral treatments has provided success at 1
    year in up to 37.
  • Without counseling and a physician's
    instructions, success is low.

27
Nicotine Patches
  • The patches have been found to significantly
    decrease the craving for nicotine.
  • Initial studies suggest the 1 year quit rate
    with the patch to be up to 20.

28
Nicotine Inhaler
  • Designed to help w/habit aspect.
  • New, so there isnt much data.

29
Anti-Depressants
  • Recent studies of bupropion (Zyban) have shown
    that this drug may be useful in heavily addicted
    smokers when used in combination with behavioral
    methods of quitting.

30
Anti-Depressants
  • There appears to be an increased quit rate and a
    decreased relapse rate with bupropion as compared
    to control subjects.
  • It is thought that bupropion may work by
    decreasing the withdrawal symptoms associated
    with nicotine addiction.

31
Psychosocial Interventions
  • Three types of counseling and behavioral
    therapies were found to be especially effective
    and should be used often in combo with
    pharmacotherapy
  •  Provision of practical counseling (problem
    solving/skills training).
  • Provision of social support as part of treatment
    (intra-treatment social support).
  • Help in securing social support outside of
    treatment (extra-treatment social support).

32
Relapse Prevention
  • Abstinence Violation Effect
  • Triggers
  • Slippery Situations
  • Behavior Chain Analysis

33
Treatment Outcome
  • There is a strong dose-response relation between
    the intensity of tobacco dependence counseling
    and its effectiveness.
  • Treatments involving person-to-person contact
    (via individual, group, or proactive telephone
    counseling) are consistently effective, and their
    effectiveness increases with treatment intensity
    (e.g., minutes of contact).

34
Treatment Outcome
  • Women more willing to make quit attempt
  • Women less successful in first 24-hours
  • Equal in avoiding relapse once quit

35
In Sum
  • Tobacco dependence is a chronic condition that
    often requires repeated intervention.
  • However, effective treatments exist that can
    produce long-term or even permanent abstinence.
  • Tobacco dependence treatments are both clinically
    effective and cost-effective relative to other
    medical and disease prevention interventions.

36
Effects of Quitting
  • Possible 9-11 pound weight gain
  • Decreased risk for all cause mortality
  • Light smokers return to normal after about 15
    years.
  • Heavy Smokers take longer
  • Lung cancer rate risk lower but remains
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