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Who Smokes and Why


Smoking prevalence was highest among men who had dropped out of ... Living in a Coed Dorm. Valuing Parties. Marijuana. Binge Drinking. Multiple Sex Partners ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Who Smokes and Why

Who Smokes and Why
  • Current estimates for US 25 of adults smoke.
    High was 41 in 1965.
  • 25.2 million men (26.7 percent)
  • 23.2 million women (22.8 percent)
  • Estimated 4.1 million teenagers aged 12 through
    17 years are smokers.

Prevalence by Race
  • African Americans over 18 years of age have the
    highest amount of smokers
  • African American 25.1
  • Whites 22.9
  • Hispanic 21.2
  • Asian 14.4

Prevalence by Education
  • People with less formal education tend to smoke
  • Less than 12 years 29.1
  • More than 12 years 18
  • Smoking prevalence was highest among men who had
    dropped out of school

Prevalence by Age
  • Nationwide, 70.2 of high school students have
    tried cigarette smoking. More than one-third
    (36.4) of high school students were current
    cigarette smokers, i.e., smoked at least one
    cigarette in the past 30 days. White students
    (19.9) were more likely than African-American
    (7.2) or Hispanic (10.9) students to smoke

Prevalence by State
  • Nevada has the highest number of adult smokers
  • Utah has the lowest number of adult smokers

Prevalence and Taxes
  • States with highest cigarette taxes Washington
    State, Washington D.C., Hawaii, Arizona,
    Massachusetts Connecticut and Minnesota, have
    lower rates of adult smokers
  • States with lowest cigarette taxes Virginia,
    Kentucky, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, Wyoming,
    Tennessee, Indiana and W. Virginia, have higher
    rates of adult smokers

Prevalence by Country
  • In developed countries, 41 of men and 21 of
    women regularly smoke cigarettes.
  • In developing countries, 50 of men smoke, and 8
    of women.

Why People Smoke
  • Why do you smoke?
  • Why do you think people smoke?
  • Is smoking cool?
  • How could it be viewed as cool or sexy?
  • What does someone get out of smoking?

Starting Smoking
  • Reasons for starting
  • Tension Control
  • Rebelliousness
  • Social Pressure
  • Weight Control
  • Parental Modeling

College Students Reasons
  • Dissatisfaction w/Education
  • Being Unhappy
  • Living in a Coed Dorm
  • Valuing Parties
  • Marijuana
  • Binge Drinking
  • Multiple Sex Partners
  • Negative View of Religion

Why People Continue
  • Habit
  • Increase Positive Affect
  • Decrease Negative Affect
  • Addiction Nicotine Addiction Model

Ultimate Reason for Continued Heavy Smoking
  • Nicotine is an addictive drug, which reaches the
    brain faster than drugs that enter the body
    intravenously. Smokers become not only physically
    addicted to nicotine, but develop the habit of
  • Smokers also link smoking with many social
    activities, making smoking a difficult habit to

  • Identified only as "Debi," the woman smokes
    through a hole in her throat, telling the
    audience she tried to quit when she became aware
    of dangers to her health, but couldn't.

Quitting Smoking
Starting to Stop
  • In 1994, an estimated 46 million adults were
    former smokers. Of the current smokers, 33.2
    million persons reported they wanted to quit
    smoking completely.
  • An estimated 30 of smokers make at least one
    quit attempt per year.
  • 81 fail within the first month.

Quitting smoking
  • In 1995, an estimated 68.2 of current smokers
    reported that they wanted to quit smoking
  • Quit attempts, abstaining from smoking for at
    least one day during the preceding 12 months,
    were made by about 45.8 of current every-day

Quitting Smoking
  • About 23.3 of US adults (25 million men and 19.3
    million women) were former smokers in 1995

How People Quit
How People Quit
  • Self-Help
  • Nicotine Replacement
  • Antidepressants
  • Psychosocial Interventions

  • Of smokers using the self-help approach, about
    20 remain tobacco-free for about 1 year.
  • In the U.S., about 90 of successful quitters
    have used some form of self-help method either
    alone or with other methods.

  • The most successful self-help materials address
    the physical, psychological, and social
    components of nicotine addiction and smoking
  • Information includes topics like quitting, diet,
    exercise, relaxation, and relapse prevention.

Group Help
  • Some organizations, like the American Cancer
    Society, also offer highly structured group
    support programs
  • The groups try to aid in the adjustment to a
    non-smoking lifestyle.
  • Of smokers participating in group programs,
    about 33 are successful at 1 year.

Nicotine Gum
  • Contains nicotine but less than that in
    cigarettes (about 2mg per stick instead of the
    6-8mg in a single cigarette).
  • Nicotine is slowly released when chewed (90 of
    the nicotine is released in 20-30 minutes).
  • Used properly, this gum helps to slowly wean
    from cigarettes by first substituting the gum and
    then chewing less and less of the gum.

Nicotine Gum
  • Most patients are advised to use the gum for 3-6
  • Side effects of the gum may include nausea,
    dizziness, or overdoses.
  • Studies have suggested that the gum is effective
    in decreasing the amount of symptoms experienced
    with the withdrawal syndrome.

Nicotine Gum
  • There have been reports that use of the gum with
    behavioral treatments has provided success at 1
    year in up to 37.
  • Without counseling and a physician's
    instructions, success is low.

Nicotine Patches
  • The patches have been found to significantly
    decrease the craving for nicotine.
  • Initial studies suggest the 1 year quit rate
    with the patch to be up to 20.

Nicotine Inhaler
  • Designed to help w/habit aspect.
  • New, so there isnt much data.

  • Recent studies of bupropion (Zyban) have shown
    that this drug may be useful in heavily addicted
    smokers when used in combination with behavioral
    methods of quitting.

  • There appears to be an increased quit rate and a
    decreased relapse rate with bupropion as compared
    to control subjects.
  • It is thought that bupropion may work by
    decreasing the withdrawal symptoms associated
    with nicotine addiction.

Psychosocial Interventions
  • Three types of counseling and behavioral
    therapies were found to be especially effective
    and should be used often in combo with
  •  Provision of practical counseling (problem
    solving/skills training).
  • Provision of social support as part of treatment
    (intra-treatment social support).
  • Help in securing social support outside of
    treatment (extra-treatment social support).

Relapse Prevention
  • Abstinence Violation Effect
  • Triggers
  • Slippery Situations
  • Behavior Chain Analysis

Treatment Outcome
  • There is a strong dose-response relation between
    the intensity of tobacco dependence counseling
    and its effectiveness.
  • Treatments involving person-to-person contact
    (via individual, group, or proactive telephone
    counseling) are consistently effective, and their
    effectiveness increases with treatment intensity
    (e.g., minutes of contact).

Treatment Outcome
  • Women more willing to make quit attempt
  • Women less successful in first 24-hours
  • Equal in avoiding relapse once quit

In Sum
  • Tobacco dependence is a chronic condition that
    often requires repeated intervention.
  • However, effective treatments exist that can
    produce long-term or even permanent abstinence.
  • Tobacco dependence treatments are both clinically
    effective and cost-effective relative to other
    medical and disease prevention interventions.

Effects of Quitting
  • Possible 9-11 pound weight gain
  • Decreased risk for all cause mortality
  • Light smokers return to normal after about 15
  • Heavy Smokers take longer
  • Lung cancer rate risk lower but remains
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