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Comparative Politics Outline

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Parliamentary or presidential systems. Authoritarian regimes. Decisions made by political elites ... Competitive elections. Liberal democracies (v. illiberal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Comparative Politics Outline


1
Comparative Politics Outline
  • AP Comparative Government Politics
  • Mrs. Marshall
  • Spring 2007

2
1 The Comparative Method
  • Three world approach
  • Advanced democracies
  • Communist post-communist countries
  • Less developed (LDCs) and NICs
  • Impact of informal politics
  • Importance of political change
  • Integration of political and economic systems
  • Never study countries by themselves!

3
2 Sovereignty, Authority, Power
  • Sovereignty ability to carry out action or
    policies within their borders independently from
    interference either from the inside or the
    outside
  • States
  • organization that maintains a monopoly of
    violence over a territory - Max Weber
  • Institutions
  • Stable, long lasting organizations that help to
    turn political ideas into policy

4
Max Webers State
5
2 S, A, P
  • States, nations regimes
  • Democracies
  • Direct or indirect
  • Parliamentary or presidential systems
  • Authoritarian regimes
  • Decisions made by political elites
  • Some based on communism
  • Corporatism patron-client systems

6
2 Legitimacy - What makes A,S, P work
  • Traditional legitimacy
  • Tradition should determine who should rule and
    how
  • Charismatic legitimacy
  • Based on the dynamic personality of an individual
    or small group
  • Rational-legal legitimacy
  • Based on a system of well-established laws and
    procedures
  • Rule of law
  • Most modern states rely on this form!

7
2 Political Culture Ideologies - What makes
up A,S, P
  • Political culture political beliefs, values,
    practices, institutions government is based on
  • Political ideologies sets of political values
    held by individuals regarding the basic goals of
    government politics

8
2 A, S, P - Common Political Ideologies
  • Liberalism
  • Conservativism
  • Communism
  • Socialism
  • Fascism
  • Religions

9
3 Political and Economic Change
  • Types of Change
  • 1. Reform
  • Change methods, not substance (no overthrow
    advocacy!)
  • 2. Revolution
  • Advocates change at more basic level
  • More widespread
  • 3. Coup detats
  • Most limited
  • Replaces leadership, but undirected - usually
    overthrown by another coup

10
3 Attitudes Toward Change
  • Radicalism
  • Rapid, systemic change necessary
  • Liberalism
  • Reform gradual change (not liberal ideology!)
  • Conservatism
  • Change is disruptive brings unforeseen
    consequences
  • Reactionary beliefs
  • Turn back the clock (even status quo is bad)

11
3 Three Trends
  • Democratization
  • Competitive elections
  • Liberal democracies (v. illiberal democracies)
  • Civil liberties
  • Rule of law
  • Neutrality of the judiciary
  • Open civil society
  • Civilian control of the military

12
3 More(surfs up!)
  • Third wave of democratization
  • 1st wave gradual
  • 2nd wave post WWII
  • Why democratize?
  • Loss of legitimacy
  • Expansion of urban middle class
  • Human rights emphasis
  • snowball effect (end of Cold War)

13
3 Oh Yeah Those Trends
  • 2. Movement toward Market Economies
  • Terms command economies, market economy, mixed
    economy, marketization, privatization
  • 3. Revival of Ethnic or Cultural Politics
  • Terms fragmentation, nationalism, politicization
    of religion

14
4 Citizens, Society, State
  • Social cleavages
  • Citizen/state relationships
  • Attitudes beliefs of citizens
  • Political socialization
  • Voting behavior
  • Factors that influence political beliefs
    behaviors

15
More 4
  • Civil society
  • Def organizations outside the state that help
    people define and advance their own interests
  • Political institutions
  • Levels of government
  • Confederal, federal, and unitary

16
5 Political Institutions
  • Political institutions
  • Levels of government
  • Confederal, federal, and unitary

17
Even more 5
  • Supranational organizations
  • NATO, EU, UN, etc.
  • Executives
  • Head of state v. head of government
  • Bureaucracies
  • Remember Weber!
  • Legislatures
  • Judiciaries
  • Linkage institutions

18
Last 5
  • Electoral systems
  • First-past-the-post
  • Single-member districts (v. multi)
  • Plurality system
  • Winner-take-all
  • Proportional representation
  • Mixed system
  • Political elites/recruitment

19
6 Public Policy
  • Created by legislative vote, executive decision,
    judicial rulings, or a combo of all three
  • Many issues similar in all countries, but
    governments differ in how they approach issues
    and what importance they assign to them

20
6 Public Policy
  • Economic performance
  • Domestic issues and international trade
  • Social welfare
  • Health, employment, family assistance, eduction
  • Civil liberties, rights, freedoms
  • Freedom House
  • Environment
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