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Introduction to Cloning

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Cloning from disease patients (diabetes, Parkinson's, etc.) being sought ... CLONAID ,the first human cloning company in the world, was founded in February ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Cloning


1
Introduction to Cloning
2
  • What is a Clone?
  • Colloquial definition a copy of an individual
  • Biological definitions
  • Asexual duplicate of an organism or cell
    typically through mitosis/ Clonal expansion
  • Parthenogenetic duplication of an entire organism
  • Monozygotic twins/ Embryo splitting
  • Molecular cloning and subcloning
  • Vegetative growth

3
Why Clone?
  • Reproductive cloning
  • Asexual reproduction of an entire animal from a
    single cell's genetic information.
  • Allowed to come to term
  • For infertility or resurrection of endangered
    species.
  • For in vitro manipulation of livestock
  • For selection of traits of livestock
  • Study imprinting
  • Study cancer
  • Study embryology and development/ cellular
    genomics
  • Therapeutic cloning
  • Broad use of the word cloning.
  • Not used to create an entirely new individual.
    (Never implanted)
  • Used to create stem cells for tissue engineering
    to treat anything from neurodegenerative disease
    to organ transplantation without rejection.
  • Gene therapy

4
Parthenogenesis
Virgin Birth
  • New Mexico Whiptail is all female species
  • Derived from female Western and male Striped
    Whiptail
  • Unfertilized eggs yield clones

Pseudocopulation no exchange of genetic material
progesterone
estrogen
Unfertilized eggs
Clones of the mother
5
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7
Dolly
  • Cells derived from a 6 year old Finnish Dorset
    ewe (white faced)
  • Implanted into Black-face surrogates
  • 277 cell fusions with 29 viable embryos
  • Dolly developed arthritis and lung cancer at the
    age of 6
  • Finnish Dorset ewes live 11-12 years
  • Dolly was euthanized at half her breed's expected
    life-span

8
Proliferation of cloned mammals mouse, cow,
gaur, mule, cat
  • Noah, the gaur
  • First attempt to revive endangered species
  • Cloned from a gaur skin nucleus
  • Into enucleated cow oocyte
  • Died 48 hours after birth from respiratory issues
  • Cc, the tabby cat
  • Cloned from Rainbow, a calico cat
  • Superficially nonidentical
  • Genotyping reveals genetic identity with Rainbow

Cloned by Genetic Savings Clone
Cloned by Advanced Cell Technology
9
Cloning problems
  • Expensive
  • Low yield/ success rate
  • Shortened life-span
  • Cloned calves die young and are often large
  • Abnormal gene expression found in cloned mice
  • Sperm imprinting cannot be studied

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11
Human Cloning
Non implanted somatic cell nuclear transfer clone
for stem cells in South Korea. Limited
therapeutic cloning licenses to establish stem
cells in UK. Cloning from disease patients
(diabetes, Parkinson's, etc.) being sought out at
Harvard
12
From Rael.org and Clonaid.com The Raelian
Revolution, the world's largest Atheist,
non-profit UFO related organisation - over 60,000
members in 90 countries - working towards the
first embassy to welcome people from space...
destroying the myth of god and sweeping the world
with the most politically incorrect and
fearlessly individualistic philosophy of
non-conformism. CLONAID ,the first human
cloning company in the world, was founded in
February 1997, by RAËL and a group of investors
who created the Valiant Venture Ltd Corporation
based in the Bahamas. Thousands of families have
contacted Clonaid in the last couple of years in
the hope to see a later born twin of their
deceased family member be born again. Many of
those families are families of celebrities,
business leaders and political leaders - we are
currently working on the case of a prime minister
whose son has been killed. Since March 1st, 30
human clones have been implanted, 23 pregnancies
are under way. 13 cloned babies are now alive
thanks to our dedicated team of doctors and
scientists. They are all healthy and no problem
has been found in any one of them that could be
attributed to their mode of conception. The 8
babies born in February and March of this year
are located in Australia, Mexico ( 2 of them),
Brazil, Spain, Italy, England and Hong Kong,(sic)
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