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Military Technology

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The First Modern War. The U.S. Civil War (1861-1865) Technological weapons and innovations ... The Civil War. The Last Ancient War. World War I (1914-1918) WWI ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Military Technology


1
Military Technology
  • Selected Themes

2
Leave the Generals Alone
  • A continuation of political activity by other
    means.
  • Carl von Clausewitz

3
Athena and Ares
  • Athena goddess of Wisdom
  • Usually portrayed as warrior
  • Represents rational, purposeful action
  • Ares god of War (Combat)
  • Represents irrational action for own sake
  • Represents brutality of combat

4
Pre-gunpowder castles in Europe
  • High curtain walls - defense against scaling
  • Walls could be thin - curtain walls
  • Crenellations - shields for archers
  • Machicolations - "bay windows"
  • Round towers
  • Strong defensive advantage

5
Typical Pre-Cannon Fort, 1200s, Istanbul
6
Pre-Gunpowder Fort, Turkey
7
Bronze Cannon, Istanbul
8
Early Mortar, Germany
9
Wooden Cannon, Germany
10
Cannons and Castles
  • Early firearms crude and weak (1300's)
  • By 1400's, firearms were more powerful
  • Curtain walls thickened, often faced with timber
    or earth
  • Crenellations and Machicolations removed
    (voluntarily or by cannon fire)
  • Moats widened

11
Iron Cannonballs
  • Iron is twice as dense as stone and doesnt
    shatter as easily.
  • Iron cannonballs caused early cannon to burst due
    to the higher pressures in the barrels
  • By 1450, better gunpowder and metallurgy made
    iron cannonballs usable

12
Iron Cannonballs
  • Curtain walls replaced by lower earthen
    structures
  • Round towers modified to triangular to remove
    "dead spot," then to arrowhead shape or
    "Oreillon."
  • Final result by 1500 - "star fort."

13
The Blind Spot
14
Oreillons
15
Star Fort
16
From Castle to Fort Wurzburg, Germany
17
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20
Fortification, Vatican
21
Star Fort
22
Fort McHenry, Maryland
23
Fort Monroe, Virginia
24
The Arms Trade, 1500
  • Freelance engineers often went from town to town
    designing forts
  • Same engineers were frequently hired in wartime
    as consultants by attackers.

25
Fortified Town, Holland
26
Fortified Town, Nicosia, Cyprus
27
Fort Pulaski, Georgia
28
Fort Pulaski, Georgia
29
Cannon are no Use if They Dont Hit Anything
  • Gunners Quadrant, 1537
  • Triangulation-Frisius, 1533
  • Plane-table, 1551
  • Cross-staff for elevation
  • Theodolite - Leonard Digges, 1571, first
    efficient surveying instrument horizontal and
    vertical circles.

30
Artillery Survey Tools, 1700
31
Stimuli to map-making
  • Artillery technology
  • Henry VIII seizes church lands, 1536 - stimulus
    to surveying in England
  • Copper engraving makes better map printing
    possible
  • Christopher Saxton - national atlas of England,
    1579 - first in W. Europe.
  • Maps often made for military purposes, frequently
    classified

32
Feeding the Troops
  • Early Armies subsisted by foraging for food
  • Problems with local population (Even in WWII
    there were famines in Holland and Greece caused
    by Nazi requisition of food supplies)
  • Impractical with large armies
  • Armies had to keep moving because they exhausted
    local food sources

33
Napoleon offers prizes for better food
preservation
  • Nicholas Appert, ca. 1800. Put food in champagne
    bottles, boiled
  • In 1810 he was awarded a prize of 12,000 francs
    on condition he publish his method
  • British introduce metal cans
  • Cans in use by 1812 for military and exploration

34
Cans Become Widespread
  • Cans on sale in shops by 1830. Originally
    upper-class status symbols. (A single can cost
    2/3 of a week's rent on a house)
  • No can openers yet! Cans had to opened with a
    chisel.
  • Nobody knew yet why the process worked

35
The First Modern War
  • The U.S. Civil War (1861-1865)

36
Technological weapons and innovations
  • Telecommunications
  • Photojournalism
  • Aerial observation (Balloons)
  • Submarines (C.S.S. Hunley)
  • Steam and iron-clad ships
  • Railroads
  • Rapid-fire weapons

37
C.S.S. Pioneer, New Orleans
38
C.S.S. Hunley
39
Other Modern Elements
  • War of maneuver rather than pitched battles
    strategic planning
  • First major war in which balance of power
    described in terms of technology
  • War telescoped 19th century into four years
  • Early battles would have been familiar to
    Napoleon,
  • Ended with W.W.I style trench warfare.

40
  • I fear our people do not yet realize the
    magnitude of the struggle they have entered upon,
    nor its probable duration, and the sacrifices it
    will impose upon them... Their the Union's
    resources are almost without limit...They have
    also a navy that in a little while will blockade
    our ports and cut us off from the rest of the
    world. They have nearly all the workshops and
    skilled artisans of the country....We have no
    ships, few arms, and few manufacturers. We will
    not succeed until the financial power of the
    North is completely broken, and this can occur
    only at the end of a long and bloody war. The
    conflict will be mainly in Virginia. She will
    become the Flanders of America before this war is
    over...I wish I could talk to every man, woman
    and child in the State now, and impress them with
    these views.
  • ---Robert E. Lee

41
The Civil War
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43
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44
The Last Ancient War
  • World War I (1914-1918)

45
WWI Technology quite advanced
  • Radio
  • Airplanes
  • Tanks
  • Chemical Weapons
  • Machine Guns
  • Submarines
  • Radio

46
Total failure to revise tactics to meet new
technology
  • Mass charges against machine gun fire.
  • Feeling that one more push or more willpower
    would earn victory.
  • Allies lost more men on the Somme in one day than
    U.S. lost in Korea.
  • Desperate attempts by soldiers in field to
    redefine old concepts of courage and valor.
  • Cavalry charges
  • Static trench warfare
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