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Title:

Cardiovascular System

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... System. Cardiovascular System Components. Circulatory system ... Circulatory System. Heart. Pumps blood. Arteries and arterioles. Carry blood away from heart ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cardiovascular System


1
Cardiovascular System
2
Cardiovascular System Components
  • Circulatory system
  • Pulmonary system
  • Purposes
  • Transport O2 to tissues and remove waste
  • Transport nutrients to tissues
  • Regulation of body temperature

3
Circulatory System
  • Heart
  • Pumps blood
  • Arteries and arterioles
  • Carry blood away from heart
  • Capillaries
  • Exchange nutrients with tissues
  • Veins and venules
  • Carry blood toward heart

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Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits
  • Systemic Circuit
  • Left side of heart
  • Pumps oxygenated blood to body via arteries
  • Returns deoxygenated blood to right heart via
    veins
  • Pulmonary Circuit
  • Right side of heart
  • Pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs via pulmonary
    arteries
  • Returns oxygenated blood to left heart via
    pulmonary veins

8
Cardiac Cycle
  • Systole
  • Contractile phase of heart
  • Electrical and mechanical changes
  • E.g. blood pressure changes
  • E.g. blood volume changes
  • Diastole
  • Relaxation phase of heart
  • Takes twice as long as systole
  • E.g. resting HR 60
  • Systole 0.3 s
  • Diastole 0.6 s

9
Arterial Blood Pressure
  • Expressed as systolic/diastolic
  • Normal 120/80 mmHg
  • High 140/90 mmHg
  • Systolic pressure (top number)
  • Pressure generated during ventricular contraction
  • Diastolic pressure
  • Pressure during cardiac relaxation

10
Blood Pressure
  • Pulse Pressure (PP)
  • Difference between systolic and diastolic
  • PP systolic - diastolic
  • Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
  • Average pressure in arteries
  • MAP diastolic 1/3 (systolic diastolic)

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Causes of High Blood Pressure
  • Age
  • Race
  • Heredity
  • Diet
  • Stress
  • Inactivity

16
Electrical Activity of the Heart
  • Contraction of heart depends on electrical
    stimulation of myocardium
  • Impulse is initiated on right atrium and spreads
    throughout the heart
  • May be recorded on an ECG

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Electrocardiogram
  • Records electrical activity of the heart
  • P wave
  • Atrial depolarization
  • QRS complex
  • Ventricular depolarization
  • T wave
  • Ventricular repolarization

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Diagnostic use of the ECG
  • ECG abnormalities may indicate coronary heart
    disease
  • ST-segment depression may indicate myocardial
    ischemia

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Heart Rate
  • Range of normal at rest is 50 100 b.m
  • Increases in proportion to exercise intensity
  • Max. HR is 220 age
  • Medications or upper body exercise may change
    normal response

23
Central Circulation Maintenance
  • Important for older or deconditioned adults
  • Moderate, continuous, rhythmic aerobic activity
    encourages venous return
  • Strenuous activity and held muscle contractions
    should be avoided
  • Taper or cool down should follow each activity
    session to encourage venous return

24
Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
  • The heart will pump all the blood returned to it
    by the venous system. Central circulation must be
    maintained and the veins must continuously return
    blood to the heart.

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Features that Encourage Venous Return
  • One-way valves in veins
  • Vasoconstriction of blood flow to inactive body
    parts
  • Pumping action of skeletal muscles in arches of
    feet, calves, thighs, etc.
  • Pressure changes in chest and abdomen during
    breathing
  • Maintenance of blood volume by adequate fluid
    replacement
  • Siphon action of vascular system

27
Features that Inhibit Venous return
  • Heat stress requiring additional blood flow to
    the skin for core temp. maintenance
  • Dehydration from sweating or from limiting fluid
    intake (dieting, making weight)
  • Held muscle contractions that cause blood to pool
    in the extremities
  • A Valsalva maneuver which increases pressure in
    the chest to a high level
  • Changing from a horizontal to a vertical position
    abruptly

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Autonomic Nervous System Control of Heart Rate
  • Sympathetic control
  • Stimulates fight or flight response
  • Speeds up heart rate and stroke volume
  • Sympathetic tone 100 bpm
  • Parasympathetic control
  • Connected to vagus nerves
  • Slows down heart rate
  • Parasympathetic tone 60 100 bpm

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Skeletal Muscle Pump
  • Rhythmic skeletal muscle contractions force blood
    in the extremities toward the heart
  • One-way valves in veins prevent backflow of blood

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Components of Blood
  • Plasma
  • Liquid portion of blood
  • Contains ions, proteins, hormones
  • Cells
  • Red blood cells
  • Contain hemoglobin to carry oxygen
  • White blood cells
  • Platelets
  • Important in blood clotting
  • Hematocrit
  • Percent of blood composed of cells

35
Oxygen Delivery During Exercise
  • Oxygen demand by muscles during exercise is many
    times greater than at rest
  • Increased oxygen delivery accomplished by
  • Increased cardiac output
  • Redistribution of blood flow to skeletal muscle

36
Redistribution of Blood Flow
  • Increased blood flow to working skeletal muscle
  • Reduced blood flow to less active organs
  • Liver, kidneys, GI tract

37
Circulatory Responses to Exercise
  • Heart rate and blood pressure
  • Depend on
  • Type, intensity, and duration of exercise
  • Environmental condition
  • Emotional influence

38
How to have a heart attack
  • Everyones doing it, so it must be the in thing
    to do

39
Be Old
  • Relative risk of CHD increases with age

40
Have a family history of CHD
  • The more blood relatives one has with CHD, and
    the younger they are (were), the higher the
    relative risk

41
Heredity influences your cardiovascular fitness
  • Genetics is important - pick your parents
    carefully
  • High/low responders to training
  • If you do the process, the product will follow,
    within your limitations

42
Be a Man
  • Males have 5-6 times the relative risk of CHD of
    females
  • Why? Estrogen may be protective

43
Unalterable Risk Factors for CHD
  • Age
  • Family History
  • Sex

44
Alterable Risk Factors
  • Things you can do something about

45
Be fat
  • Obesity increases CHD risk
  • How much fat is too much?
  • Males - 25
  • Females 30

46
Eat a high fat diet
  • High fat foods increase plaque within arteries
    and contribute to atherosclerosis

47
Have High Cholesterol
  • Total cholesterol/HGH ratio above
  • Males 4.5/1
  • Females 4/1
  • Increases relative risk of CHD

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Have High Blood Pressure
  • High blood pressure forces the heart to work
    harder
  • How high is too high?
  • 140/90

50
Smoke
  • Smokers are more likely to die of heart attack
    than cancer
  • Smoking is the single most important alterable
    risk factor

51
Be a Type A personality
  • Type A personalities are
  • High-strung
  • Achievement-oriented
  • Aggressive
  • Time-conscious

52
Live a stressful lifestyle
  • No one, lying on their deathbed, has said they
    wished they had spent more time at the office.

53
Have Other Hypokinetic Diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Ulcers
  • Obesity

54
Dont Exercise
  • If you get the urge to exercise, lie down until
    the feeling passes.

55
Field Tests of CV Fitness
  • 12 minute run
  • 1.5 mile run/walk
  • Step test
  • Bike ergometer test
  • Rockport walk test
  • PACER test
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