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Circulatory System

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Circulatory System. Overall components are blood, blood vessels, and heart ... Circulatory System. Ontogeny & Phylogeny. First system to be functional in development ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Circulatory System


1
Circulatory System
  • Overall components are blood, blood vessels, and
    heart
  • Overall function is to transport nutrients,
    gases, hormones, waste, immunity, and temperature
    regulation

2
Circulatory System
  • Ontogeny Phylogeny
  • First system to be functional in development
  • Similar embryology in all vertebrates
  • Individual variation within species

3
Blood
  • Plasma (serum is plasma minus clotting factors)
  • Formed Elements Cells
  • Erythrocytes
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Have hemoglobin pigment to carry oxygen
  • Need iron for hemoglobin synthesis

4
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5
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6
Blood
  • Leukocytes
  • Function in immunity, antibody production
  • Phagocytosis

7
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8
Blood
  • Platelets
  • Clotting of blood

9
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10
Blood
  • Hemopoiesis Formation of blood cells
  • Sites in adult include liver, kidney, spleen and
    red bone marrow depending on class
  • Blood islands located in wall of yolk sac is
    earliest site of hemopoiesis in vertebrates
  • Hemocytoblast stem cell

11
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12
Heart
  • Develops early from splanchnic hypomere
  • Functional by 30 hours in chick (21 d incubation)
  • Functional by 4 weeks in humans (280 d gestation)

13
Heart Wall
  • Endocardium inner, smooth lining
  • Myocardium striated cardiac m., intercalated
    discs
  • Epicardium outermost layer

14
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15
Heart
  • Parietal pericardium part of pericardial sac
    that encloses the heart
  • Visceral pericardium epicardium
  • Pericardial cavity between parietal visceral
    pericardium

16
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17
Gill Breathing Fish Heart
  • Single circuit pump with 4 chambers
  • Sinus venosus pacemaker (through reptiles)
  • Atrium
  • Ventricle
  • Conus arteriosus (trunk)

18
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20
Gill breathing fish heart
  • AV valve one way valve between atrium
    ventricle to prevent backflow
  • Semilunar valve one way valve between ventricle
    conus arteriosus to prevent backflow

21
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22
Lungfish Amphibians
  • Two circuit heart
  • Divisions to divide heart into oxygenated and
    deoxygenated sides
  • Interatrial septum (partial or complete)
  • Interventricular septum/Ventricular trabeculae
    partial
  • Spiral valve tries to divide conus arteriosus

23
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25
Amniote heart
  • More complete divisions of heart, 2 circuit heart
  • Two atria, two ventricles

26
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27
Amniote Heart
  • Sinus venosus is the pacemaker through reptiles
  • Sinus venosus becomes the sinoatrial node in
    birds mammals which is the pacemaker is
    located in the wall of the RA
  • Pacemaker sets the pace for all heartbeats

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30
Amniote heart
  • Interatrial septum is complete
  • Foramen ovale is an embyronic hole in interatrial
    septum
  • Auricle is an expansion of atria in mammals only
  • Interventricular septum is complete in most

31
Key Points
  • What do you suppose the function of the auricle
    is?

32
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33
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34
Key Points
  • Why would the foramen ovale be a necessary
    structure in the mammalian fetus?

35
Key Points
  • Summarize the difference between a single circuit
    and a double circuit pump.
  • What anatomical features support the heart being
    a double circuit pump?

36
Amniote heart
  • AV valves are bicuspid tricuspid in mammals
  • Semilunar valves between ventricles and trunks

37
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38
Amniote heart
  • Fate of conus arteriosus
  • Three trunks in reptiles
  • Two trunks in birds and mammals

39
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40
Key Points
  • The conus arteriosus becomes trunks. Are trunks
    arteries or veins?
  • Name the two trunks in birds and mammals.

41
Circulation between lungs and heart
  • Pre/Postcava
  • RA
  • RV
  • Pulmonary trunk arteries
  • Lungs
  • LA
  • LV
  • Aorta
  • Systemic circulation

42
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43
Key Points
  • Without looking, trace the blood flow from
    pre/post cavas through heart, to lungs, back to
    heart to aorta.
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