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Exploring American History Unit X Modern America


CIA and Contras plant mines in Nicaraguan Harbors. CIA war manual given to Contras- blackmail and assassination. 2nd Boland Amendment- 1984 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Exploring American History Unit X Modern America

Exploring American HistoryUnit X Modern America
  • Chapter 30 Searching for Order
  • Section 3 The Reagan Presidency

The Reagan Presidency
  • The Big Idea
  • President Reagan enacted conservative policies at
    home and took a strong anti-Communist stance in
    the Cold War.
  • Main Ideas
  • President Reagan based his policies on
    conservative ideas.
  • Reagan took a tough stand against communism in
    his foreign policy.

Iran Hostage crisis
  • The overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi of
    Iran by an Islamic revolutionary government
    earlier in the year had led to a steady
    deterioration in Iran-U.S. relations. In response
    to the exiled shahs admission (Sept., 1979) to
    the United States for medical treatment, a crowd
    of about 500 seized the embassy. Of the
    approximately 90 people inside the embassy, 52
    remained in captivity until the end of the
  • On Jan. 20, 1981, the day of President Reagans
    inauguration, the United States released almost
    8 billion in Iranian assets and the 52 hostages
    were freed after 444 days in Iranian detention
    the agreement gave Iran immunity from lawsuits
    arising from the incident.

Main Idea 1 President Reagan based his policies
on conservative ideas.
  • Republican candidate Ronald Reagan won an easy
    victory over President Carter in the 1980
  • Asked voters, Are you better off than when you
    were four years ago?
  • On the day of his inauguration, January 20, 1981,
    Iran finally released the American hostages after
    444 days of captivity.
  • Reagans approach to government based on
    conservative ideas
  • Wanted to cut taxes
  • Promised to scale back the size of government
  • Encouraged expansion in key industries by
    reducing government regulations
  • Appointed conservative justices to the Supreme
    Court, including Sandra Day OConnor, the first
    woman to serve as a Supreme Court justice

  • Reagans economic policies were based on a theory
    called supply-side economics.
  • Called for sharp tax cuts, with goal of
    increasing amount of money people and businesses
    have to invest
  • Investment would lead to economic growth and
    creation of new jobs
  • Over time, increased economic activity would
    produce increased tax revenues for government.
  • Became known as Reaganomics
  • Spending on defense increased.
  • New spending outpaced the new tax revenues.
  • Resulted in a deficit the amount by which a
    governments spending exceeds its revenues.

Election of 1984
  • President Reagan ran for reelection in 1984
    against Democratic candidate Walter Mondale.
  • Mondale chose Geraldine Ferraro as his running
    mate, the first woman to run for vice president
    on a major ticket.
  • Reagan won a landslide victory with 59 percent of
    the popular vote.
  • Economy was booming.

Main Idea 2Reagan took a hard stand against
communism in his foreign policy.
  • Central America
  • Reagan supported anti-Communist governments in
    Central America and sent aid to them as they
    fought civil wars.
  • Congress passed Boland Amendment in 1984, banning
    U.S. aid to Contras, rebels in Nicaragua.
  • Iran-Contra affair broke when it was exposed that
    some U.S. officials had continued to send aid to
    the Contras via illegal sale of arms to Iran.
  • The Soviet Union
  • Reagan took a tough stand against the Soviet
    Union by halting arms negotiations and expanding
    U.S. military.
  • When Mikhail Gorbachev became the new Soviet
    leader, he began a process of economic and
    political reforms called perestroika.
  • Reagan saw Gorbachevs desire for change and
    signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces
    Treaty, eliminating all medium-range nuclear
    weapons in Europe.

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Nicaragua 1980s
  • 1st Boland Amendment 1982
  • Can not use government funds to overthrow the
  • Only send non-military aid- food, clothing and
  • April 1984
  • CIA and Contras plant mines in Nicaraguan
  • CIA war manual given to Contras- blackmail and
  • 2nd Boland Amendment- 1984
  • bars CIA and other government agencies from
    giving military aid to the Contras.

110 min.
Nicaragua 1980s Marxist Sandanistas have taken
control- tied to Cuba.U.S. to stop the Communist
influence pressured Nicaragua to become
Democratic.CIA armed rebels to oppose the
Sandanistas- The Contras 424 min
Reagan and the Russians
  • U.S.S.R.- the Evil Empire- world problems could
    be blamed on Russia.
  • US and NATO allies put intermediate range
    missiles in Western Europe. (Cruise for ex)
  • Russia refuses to deal and remove its missiles
    and the arms talks are threatened.
  • Demonstrations in Europe and US for a freeze.
  • Sept. 1, 1983- Soviet shoot down an unarmed South
    Korean airliner killing 269
  • Soviet change leaders- Andropov and Chernenko.

(No Transcript)
Reducing Nuclear Arms- INF
  • February 1987- Gorbachev offered to sign an
    agreement eliminating both Soviet and U.S medium
    range missiles.
  • Tough Verification procedures would allow each
    country to station representatives outside the
    other countries plants.
  • December 1987- Gorbachev and Reagan signed the
    new Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
  • removed all missiles with ranges of 300-3400
    miles from Eastern and Western Europe.
  • All 2611 missiles would be destroyed- 859 US and
    1752 Soviet.
  • Did not insure peace, both nations still had
    enough long range and nuclear missile to destroy
    each other.
  • Some believed the world was less safe and perhaps
    a step away from self-destruction.

Reducing Nuclear Arms- INF - 318 min.
Strategic Defense Initiative
  • Star Wars
  • Throughout its history, the program developed new
    technology and demonstrated a vast array of the
    science and engineering required to field a
    system capable of destroying enemy missiles
  • Lasers that will shoot down enemy missiles within
    five minutes of launch. The lasers would attack
    their targets from battle stations in space, a
    few hundred miles above the Earth. A total of
    about 100 stations would really be needed
  • Mirrors would have to keep the chemical lasers
    locked onto the missile for several seconds
    before it would be destroyed
  • The 1980s US Strategic Defense Initiative program
    (better known as 'Star Wars') included several
    projects which looked at the possibility of using
    antimatter as rocket fuel or to drive space-borne
    weapons platforms.

Nuclear Weapons Chart This chart shows the world'
s current firepower. The center dot represents th
e firepower of the World War II 3 megatons.
The other dots represent the world's present
nuclear weaponry which equals 6,000 World War
II's or 18,000 megatons. The USA and the USSR sh
are this firepower with approximately equal
destructive capability.
The top left-hand circle enclosing 9 megatons
represents the weapons on just one Poseidon
submarine. This is equal to the firepower of
three World War II's and enough to destroy over
200 of the Soviet's largest cities.
The circle in the lower left-hand square
enclosing 24 megatons represents just one Trident
sub with the firepower of eight World War II's -
enough to destroy every city in the northern
Just two squares on this chart (300 megatons)
represent enough firepower to destroy all the
large- and medium-size cities in the entire
world. Fewer than 3 squares (400 megatons) repres
ent the warheads removed from missiles in the INF
treaty. Although missiles were destroyed the
warheads were preserved and are being deployed on
other delivery vehicles. There was no decrease in
destructive power. IT IS A LONG LONG WAY TO NUCLE
1980s Culture
  • The 1980s became the Me! Me! Me! generation of
    status seekers.
  • During the 1980s, hostile takeovers, leveraged
    buyouts, and mega-mergers spawned a new breed of
    billionaire. Donald Trump, Leona Helmsley, and
    Ivan Boesky iconed the meteoric rise and fall of
    the rich and famous.
  • If you've got it, flaunt it You can have it
    all! Binge buying and credit became a way of life
    and 'Shop Til you Drop' were all watchwords.

FACTS about this decade
  • Population 226,546,000 Unemployed in 1980
    National Debt 1980 - 914,000,000,000 National
    Debt 1986 - 2,000,000,000,000 Average salary
    15,757 Life Expectancy Male 69.9 Female 77.6
    Minimum Wage 3.10 BMW was 12,000 Mercedes
    280 E was 14,800 Attendance Movies 20

Interesting events
  • Toxic Shock Toxic shock syndrome is a rare,
    life-threatening bacterial infection that has
    been most often associated with the use of
    superabsorbent tampons and occasionally with the
    use of contraceptive sponges.
  • In 1980, an outbreak of toxic shock syndrome
    occurred that mostly involved young women who had
    been using a particular brand of superabsorbent
    tampons. The cause of the outbreak seemed to be
    toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph)
  • Medicare-our countrys health insurance program
    for people age 65 or older. Certain people
    younger than age 65 can qualify for Medicare,
    too, including those who have disabilities and
    those who have permanent kidney failure. The
    program helps with the cost of health care, but
    it does not cover all medical expenses or the
    cost of most long-term care. Medicare is
    financed by a portion of the payroll taxes paid
    by workers and their employers. It also is
    financed in part by monthly premiums deducted
    from Social Security checks.
  • Just Say No! Nancy Reagans active campaign
    against drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Vietnam Veterans Memorial-The official name of
    the Memorial is the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. It
    is sometimes referred to as VVM or "the Wall".
    The figures are called "The Three Servicemen".
    This is not a war Memorial but a Memorial to
    those who served in the war, both living and dead.

Interesting people
Sandra Day OConner
Wayne Williams
Nancy Reagan
  • Wayne Williams- From October 1979 to May 1981,
    Wayne Williams killed twenty-seven young black
    boys in Atlanta. At trial Williams was found
    guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Sandra Day OConner- first woman supreme court
  • Geraldine Ferraro-first woman vice-presidential
  • Jesse Jackson- first black presidential
  • Rock Hudson- famous actor who died of AIDs
  • Jim Bakker-televangelist who was sentenced to 45
    years for selling bogus lifetime vacations.
  • Nancy Reagan- President Reagans wife and first
    lady who started the Just Say No to drugs

Jim Bakker
Geraldine Ferraro
Jesse Jackson
  • 1980 study by UCLA and American Council on
    Education indicated that college freshmen were
    more interested in status, power, and money than
    at any time during the past 15 years. Business
    Management was the most popular major.
  • American education came under fire during the
    1980s. Liberals cried out against budget cuts and
    rising student costs. School districts offered
    teachers exams and exit exams became a part of
    graduating for Education majors.
  • Conservatives like E.D.Hirsch, Jr. and William
    Bennett advocated a return to the classics for
    college students and back to the basic skills for
    public school students. An attempt was made to
    improve the teacher quality by raising salaries
    slightly. Efforts to censor books tripled in the
    eighties. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ,
    The Grapes of Wrath, and Catcher in the Rye were
    among books banned in New York State. Roget's
    Thesaurus banned sexist categories mankind
    becamehumankind countryman became country
    dweller. Columbia University, the last all male
    Ivy League school, began accepting women in 1983.
    President Reagan endorsed a constitutional
    amendment to permit school prayer. It was

Medical Advances
  • Research money allowed for studies and new
    treatments for heart, cancer, and other diseases.

  • Major advances in genetics research led to the
    1988 funding of the Human Genome Project. This
    project will locate the estimated 80,000 genes
    contained in human DNA.

  • Team sports for kids were really popular
    beginning in the seventies and going through the
    present. Eighties' mothers ran carpool after
    work, kids had after school and week end
    cheerleading, baseball, football, soccer, gym,
    dance, jazz, you name it!

  • 80's Flops Ra ra and bubble skirts
    Fluorescent socks and t-shirts Drop waisted
    dresses Lace gloves Fergie bows - in the
    hair White leather fringed cowboy boots - Not
    unless you're Dolly Parton and you're boot
    scooting!80's FabulousTie sleeve and Batwing
    tops - Drop earrings - Micro minis - Big gold
    earrings - Multiple belts - Coloured tights - and
    This time round, pair coloured or camel toned
    fishnet tights with a knee length skirt, knee
    high leather boots and a turtleneck for a subtly
    funky effect. Leg warmers.

  • Big Hair
  • Skater hair and flat tops and Punk
  • Painter hats and pierced ears.
  • Michael Jackson Thriller coat
  • OP, Izod, Argyle- Hawaiian and Rugby Shirts.
  • Parachute pants.
  • Converse Hightops
  • Pegged jeans
  • Jelly shoes
  • Zubaz and spandex
  • Valley Girl
  • Michael Jackson glove and Miami Vice look
  • Swatch watches
  • Rubiks cube
  • Pacman, Nintendo, and Gameboy
  • Smurf, ET, and Cabbage Patch Dolls
  • Sneakers

  • Cable TV and MTV
  • Slam dancing and break dancing
  • Vogueing (posing)
  • Pop, rock, new wave, punk, country, and
    especially rap or hip hop
  • Milli Vanilli, M. C. Hammer , Vanilla Ice, and
    L.L. Cool J.

  • Nerds- Revenge of the Nerds, Lucas, Stand by Me,
    and Peggy Sue Got Married. TV joined the nerd
    ranks with ABC's hit series Head of the Class
  • In 1981, VCR sales rose 72 in 12 months.
  • By 1989, 60 percent of American households with
    televisions received cable service.
  • Huge or memorable movies of the decade included
    On Golden Pond, Tootsie, Arthur, Stephen
    Spielberg Movies like E.T. THE EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL,
    The Big Chill, Flashdance, Beverly Hills Cop, Out
    of Africa, Back to the Future, Cocoon, The
    Breakfast Club,Platoon,Star Trek, Good Morning
    Vietnam, Fatal Attraction, Rain Man, and Driving
    Miss Daisy.

  • Anti-family sitcoms like Roseanne and
    Married...with Children
  • Tabloid tv with Geraldo, Phil, Sally, and Oprah
  • Stand up comics included Gary Shandling, Jane
    Curtin, George Carlin, Jackie Mason, Bill Cosby,
    Jerry Seinfeld, and Tracy Ullman
  • Info-tainment includedNightline with Ted Koppel,
    CNN Cable News,and 20/20 with Hugh Downs and
    Barbara Walters. 60 Minutes which had first aired
    in 1968 was bigger than ever.

  • Food of the 80s included the popular fast food
    places like Taco Bell and
  • McDonald's McDLT and McRib. Kids loved Sweetarts,
    Skittles, Nerds, Runts, Hubba Bubba Chewing Gum,
    and Five Alive.

Soviets Invade Afghanistan
  • The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year
    war fought between the Soviet Red Army, Afghan,
    and foreign fighters in Afghanistan. The
    'shooting' war is generally held to have started
    December 24, 1979. Soviet troops ultimately
    withdrew from the area between May 15, 1988 and
    February 2, 1989. The Soviet Union officially
    announced that all of its troops had left
    Afghanistan on February 15.
  • The CIA invested US2.1 billion over a 10-year
    period to create an anti-Soviet resistance.
  • USSR- 15,000 Killed,53,000 Wounded
  • Afghanistan- 90,000 Killed, 90,000 Wounded,
    Roughly 1.3 Million Civilian deaths.
  • One of these benefactors of the war was Osama bin
  • Resistance fighters, called mujahidin, saw the
    Christian or atheist Soviets controlling
    Afghanistan as a defilement of Islam as well as
    of their traditional culture. Proclaiming a
    "jihad"(holy war), they gained the support of the
    Islamic world. The US gave them weapons and
    money. The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics
    against the Soviets.
  • U.S stops grain sales to USSR and boycotts Moscow

John Lennon shot and killed
  • John Lennon was shot and killed in New York. The
    gunman, Mark Chapman, apparently shouted 'I am
    the Catcher in the Rye' just before dropping to
    the ground and firing the weapon.
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