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Physical Child AbuseMaltreatment

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Between 1962-1966 all states passed laws forbidding child abuse by parents. 1974 Congress passed Child Abuse & Prevention-Treatment Act ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Child AbuseMaltreatment


1
Physical Child Abuse/Maltreatment
  • Dr. Michelle L. Meloy

2
Historical Perspectives of Child Abuse What
was...
  • Arrests were likely only in cases of permanent
    injury or death
  • Cultural heritage religious teachings
    sanctioned corporal punishment
  • Legal notions of progeny as the property of
    fathers
  • Spare the rod, spoil the child
  • Honor thy father and mother

3
Historical Perspectives of Child AbuseWhat
was...
  • Social movements in the 1800s/1900s resulted in
    legal shifts to criminalize the behavior
  • Child abuse rediscovered in 1960s by pediatric
    radiologists Battered Child Syndrome
  • BCS believed to be a cyclical pattern of physical
    abuse perpetrated by parents who had also been
    beaten as children
  • Typical victim Under 3 years, traumatic injuries
    to head and limbs with claims that injuries were
    caused by falling
  • Term was gradually replaced by child abuse or
    child maltreatment

4
Criminalization Reporting Laws
  • Between 1962-1966 all states passed laws
    forbidding child abuse by parents
  • 1974 Congress passed Child Abuse
    Prevention-Treatment Act
  • Because victims are often too young or vulnerable
    to report the abuse, mandatory reporting laws now
    exist in all 50 states
  • Heres an example of a local child abuse case

5
Criminalization Reporting Laws
  • Child Neglect Ranges from abandonment to failure
    to provide for childs basic needs in 3 areas
    physical, emotional, educational
  • Physical Abuse Physical injury resulting from
    punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning,
    shaking or otherwise causing harm
  • Sexual Abuse Any sexual activity with a child or
    exploitation into sex work or pornography
  • Emotional Abuse Care providers causing serious
    emotional-cognitive-behavioral damage to child

6
Child Abuse The Numbers
  • 2008 900,000 confirmed cases of child abuse
  • Death resulted in 1,500 of these victims
  • Shaken-baby syndrome affects between 1,200- 1,600
    children every year
  • debate over shaken-baby syndrome
  • As of Spring 2008 confirmed child abuse cases
  • neglect/maltreatment 64
  • physical abuse 16
  • sexual abuse 9
  • emotional abuse 7

7
Victim Facts
  • Slightly over half (52) of child abuse victims
    are female (48 male)
  • Slightly over half (53) of child abuse victims
    are under the age of 7
  • Children under the age of 4 are most likely to be
    seriously injured or die as a result of injuries
  • 2008 CDC data suggests Blacks, American Indians
    or Alaskan natives and Multiracial children are
    overrepresented as victims

8
Risk factors for victimization
  • Younger children (under 7)
  • Children with disabilities
  • Families that are socially emotionally isolated
  • Substance abuse in family
  • Undereducated parents
  • Prior parental history of domestic violence
  • Poverty
  • Unemployment or underemployment
  • Community violence

9
Risk factors for victimization
  • Stressed disorganized family settings
  • Young, single parents w/out biological
    connections to child
  • Violence-prone socialization pro-violent
    attitudes
  • Stress or depression among parents or caregivers
  • Poor parent-child relationships and negative
    interactions
  • Parental thoughts and emotions supporting
    maltreatment behaviors

10
Risk Factors For Offending
  • Age Younger parents
  • Gender Mothers appear to be the perpetrators in
    slightly more than half of reported cases
  • Familial Relationship Most offenders are
    parents to the victim. Victimizations by
    strangers are rare
  • Relationship status of parent Single parents
    are over represented among abusers
  • Environmental factors High rates of poverty,
    stress, cycle of violence characteristics

11
Low risk or preventive environments
  • Family support
  • Nurturing parents
  • Stability in supportive and pro-social
    relationships
  • Rules, monitoring and expectations of child
  • Parental employment
  • Adequate housing
  • Access to health care and social services
  • External community support
  • Child abuse awareness and prevention program

12
Consequences of Child Abuse Snapshot
  • Physical abuse as a child by parents - doubles
    the odds of physical abuse as an adult
  • Direct costs 24 billion annually
  • Indirect costs 69 billion annually
  • Brain injuries
  • Emotional problems
  • Physical problems
  • Sleeping disorders
  • Panic attacks
  • Stress disorders
  • Crime
  • Long-term effects

13
Consequences of Child Abuse Developmental
  • Inability to control emotions or frequent
    outbursts
  • Submissive behavior
  • Academic difficulty
  • Interpersonal difficulties
  • Unusual eating or sleeping behaviors
  • Aggressive or sexually provocative behavior
  • Socially or emotionally inappropriate behavior
  • Lack of response to affection

14
Consequences of Child AbuseCriminogenic
  • Chances of being arrested as a juvenile increase
    by 58 compared to non-abused children
  • Abused children are 28 more likely to be
    arrested when they reach adulthood
  • Abused children are 30 more likely to be
    arrested for a violent offense

15
Consequences of Child AbuseVictimization Repeats
  • Victims of child physical abuse or child sexual
    abuse are more likely to be physically or
    sexually abused as adults
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