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AP BIOLOGY

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AP BIOLOGY. CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION. 2. Type of Phospholipid determine. permeability ... AP BIOLOGY. CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION. D. Temperature Effect: 1. High ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP BIOLOGY


1
AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
CELL MEMBRANES 2008 Dr. Michael C. Potter Paul
VI Catholic High School
2
AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
CELL MEMBRANES
The cell membrane is the interface between the
internal and the external environment of the
cell. Cell membranes encase ALL living cells Cell
membranes are two molecules thick (10 nm)
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
  • Structure of Cell Membrane
  • A. Bilayer Lipid Membrane
  • 1. Amphipathic (Polar)
  • a. hydrophilic head (outside)
  • b. hydrophobic head (inside)

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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
2. Type of Phospholipid determine permeability
a. Double bond vs. Single bond b. Long
tail vs. Short tail B. Proteins Multiple
Function/Structure
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
C. Cholesterol 1. Fluidity Buffer a.
Increase viscosity at high temp b. Decrease
viscosity at low temp 2. Strengthens Membrane
a. Fills gaps between tails of lipids with
double bonds
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
D. Temperature Effect 1. High Temp-low
viscosity high permeability 2. Low
Temp-high viscosity low permeability E.
Models of Membranes 1. Davson-Danielli Model
(1935) 2. Fluid Mosaic Model (1972)
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Proteoglycans
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
II. Components of Cell Membranes A. Lipid
Bilayer B. Membrane Proteins 1. Integral
Membrane Proteins a. Three Domains Cytosoli
c Face Exoplasmic Face Membrane Spanning
Domain
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
B. Membrane Proteins 1. Integral Membrane
Proteins b. Allow Movement Thru Membrane
c. Anchor Membranes d. Act as
Receptors e. Function as Enzymes f.
Signal Transduction g. Cell-Cell
Recognition
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
B. Membrane Proteins 1. Integral
Membrane Proteins h. Types 1.
Transmembrane Proteins 2. Membrane
Associated Proteins 3. Lipid-Linked
Proteins 4. Protein Attached
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Ex. Of Glycocalyx
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
B. MEMBRANE PROTEINS Transmembrane Proteins
a. Single Pass (Glycophorin in RBC) b.
Multipass Channels, Pores, Gates ß-Barrel P
orin Proteins
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MEMBRANE PORE PROTEIN
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
B. MEMBRANE PROTEINS Membrane Associated
Proteins Exoplasmic Face Anchors Recept
ors Signaling Proteins Attachment
Proteins Recognition Proteins
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
CELL RECOGNITION (IDENT.) PROTEIN
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
B. MEMBRANE PROTEINS Membrane Associated
Proteins Cytosolic Face Attachment
Proteins (Spectrin-RBCs) Anchors Structu
ral Proteins Signaling Proteins
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Types of Cell-Cell Junctions
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
III. CELL JUNCTIONS A. OCCLUDING JUNCTIONS
Seal cells so tightly together to prevent even
a small molecule from leaking across Seen
in vertebrates Also called Tight
Junctions Example occludin, claudins
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Tight Junction Structure
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Tight Junctions
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
III. CELL JUNCTIONS B. ANCHORING JUNCTIONS
Mechanically attaches cell to its neighbors
….e.g. Desmosomes cell rivets attach to
intermediate filament Adherens Attach to
actin fibers Cadherins
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Desmosome Structure
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Desmosome
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Adherens junctions
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
III. CELL JUNCTIONS B. ANCHORING JUNCTIONS
Focal Adhesions Hemidesmosomes Bind cells
to extracellular matrix (integrin proteins)
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Integrins, Focal Adhesions Hemidesmsomes
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
  • PRINCIPAL PROTEINS OF ECM
  • Collagen
  • 2. Fibronectin
  • 3. Elastin
  • 4. Laminins
  • 5. Vitronectin
  • 6. Proteoglycans
  • 7. Hyaluronon
  • 8. Heparan Sulfate

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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Structure of Collagen
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Structure function of elastin protein
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Extracellular Matrix
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
III. CELL JUNCTIONS C. COMMUNICATING
JUNCTIONS Mediate the passage of chemical
or electrical signals from cell-cell a
direct cytoplasmic link. 1. Gap Junctions
(animals) 2. Plasmodesmata (plants) 3.
Synapses (nerve cells)
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
GAP JUNCTION STRUCTURE
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Communicating Junction
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Communicating Junction
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
PLASMODESMATA
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
PLASMODESMATA
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MOVEMENT THROUGH MEMBRANES
  • STRUCTURE OF MEMBRANE
  • 1. Bilayer Phospholipid
  • 2. Integrated Membrane Proteins
  • 3. Permeability of Membrane
  • a. Nonpolar molecules
  • b. Macromolecules
  • c. Ions

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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MOVEMENT THROUGH MEMBRANES
B. PASSIVE PROCESSES
1. Diffusion Kinetic Molecular Theory
Diffusion Gradient Dynamic Equilibrium
Energy Consideration Potential v. Kinetic
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MOVEMENT THROUGH MEMBRANES
B. PASSIVE PROCESSES (contd) 2.
Osmosis Movement of water Follows
Concentration Gradient Determined by ALL
solutes Osmotic Pressure
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
OSMOSIS
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
OSMOSIS
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MOVEMENT THROUGH MEMBRANES
B. PASSIVE PROCESSES (contd) Types of
Solutions Isotonic Isosmotic Hypertonic H
ypotonic Turgor Pressure
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MOVEMENT THROUGH MEMBRANES
C. COTRANSPORT SYSTEMS Requires Carriers
and Channels Systems from Passive to
Active Transporters consist
of Uniporters Symporters Antiporters (2o
active transport)
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MOVEMENT THROUGH MEMBRANES
D. ACTIVE PROCESSES 1. Bulk
Passage Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Exocytosis
2. Receptor Mediated Endocytosis 3.
Active Transport
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Phagocytosis
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
PINOCYTOSIS
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MOVEMENT THROUGH MEMBRANES 2. Receptor
Mediated Endocytosis Highly Specific Clathrin
Coated Pits More efficient than
pinocytosis Important in cholesterol levels
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
MOVEMENT THROUGH MEMBRANES 3. Active
Transport Uses 33 resting cell
energy Operates AGAINST gradient Must function
continuously Different systems for different
ions Selective Protein Carrier Molecules
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Gas Transport in The RBC
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
Tight Junctions
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AP BIOLOGY CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION
BASAL LAMINA Structure Lamina lucida Lamina
densa Reticular lamina
Basement Membrane
Function Structural foundation Selectively
permeable barrier Bind soluble ligands
guidance signal
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