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Alternative Animal Agriculture

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high in protein and low in fat and cholesterol. easily digestible and flavorful ... Mature males may stand as tall as nine feet and weigh as much as 330lbs. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Alternative Animal Agriculture


1
Alternative Animal Agriculture
2
Production
  • animals other than those traditionally raised
  • usually in small scale and provides a product for
    a specialty market

3
Production
  • Some producers may supplement their traditional
    operation with alternative animals.
  • Many specialty animal producers use the
    enterprise as a hobby or a part time income

4
Rabbit Production
  • have been raised for food for hundreds of years.
  • Romans produced rabbits as far back as 250 BC and
    used rabbit meat as a substantial part of their
    diet.

5
Rabbit Production
  • the Phoenicians were great sailors who did a
    great deal of trading
  • They were given credit for introducing
    domesticated rabbits as far back as 1100 BC.

6
US Rabbit Production
  • rabbits were brought into the country around 1900
    and were produced in large rabbitries in
    California.
  • Since that early beginning, the industry has
    grown all across the country.

7
Rabbit Production
  • produced by small, part-time growers.
  • Several large commercial operations in the US

8
Rabbit Production
  • experts estimate that between 7 and 10 million
    rabbits are produced each year
  • Americans consume 10 - 13 million pounds of
    rabbit meat each year

9
Rabbit Production
  • some rabbit meat consumed in the US is imported
    from Europe
  • France is the largest rabbit producer
  • Rabbit production is larger in Europe

10
Rabbit Production
  • American Rabbit Breeders Assn (ARBA) registers
    and promotes all breeds of purebred rabbits grown
    in this country.

11
Rabbit Production
  • can be raised under almost any climatic
    condition.
  • Facilities take up little space
  • raised indoors in cages called hutches

12
Rabbit Production
  • usually heated in the winter and cooled in the
    summer to provide comfort for the animals
  • in milder climates, the rabbit house may be
    insulated and not need to be heated or cooled

13
Rabbit Production
  • rabbits gain weight on relatively small amounts
    of feed
  • feed efficiency for rabbits is 2.51
  • for every 2.5 pounds of feed the animal eats, it
    gains one pound

14
Rabbit Production
  • rabbits can also be fed lower quality feed than
    some other animals
  • demand for rabbit meat is much greater than the
    supply
  • many restaurants offer dishes made from rabbit

15
Rabbit Production
  • USDA points out that rabbit meat is one of the
    most nutritious meats available
  • high in protein and low in fat and cholesterol
  • easily digestible and flavorful

16
Rabbit Production
  • also used as a source of fur
  • used by scientists in research ranging from
    medical to product testing
  • popular as pets

17
Rabbit Production
  • very prolific
  • produce young 30 days after breeding
  • raise 4 to 5 litters per year
  • litters consist of up to 8 per litter

18
Rabbit Production
  • some breeds reach sexual maturity at five months
    of age

19
Rabbit Production
  • in 1859 sailors released a pair (2) of wild
    European rabbits in Australia
  • In 30 years, over 20,000,000 rabbits inhabited
    the country

20
Rabbit Production
  • rabbits became a serious pest in both Australia
    and New Zealand
  • they have no natural predators in these countries

21
Rabbit Production
  • extreme measures have been taken to control the
    wild rabbit population
  • rabbits are slaughtered for meat at 8 weeks of age

22
Rabbit Production
  • offer great potential for developing countries
    that have ample roughage to feed animals but are
    short on grain
  • can produce much needed protein on relatively
    inexpensive feed.

23
Rabbit Production
  • US has potential to develop the rabbit meat
    market
  • consumers have trouble eating something cute and
    cuddly.

24
Llama production
  • native to South America
  • belong to the same family as camels
  • in Chile, Peru and Bolivia were raised by the
    ancient Incas for work animals

25
Llama production
  • well adapted to the cool, thin mountain air of
    the Andes mountains
  • can adapt to most climatic conditions

26
Llama production
  • have developed into an animal industry in the US
    over the past 15 years
  • estimated that there are about 20,000 llamas in
    the US and the number is growing

27
Llama production
  • llamas stand three to four feet high at the
    shoulders
  • weigh between 250 and 400 pounds when mature
  • can carry heavy packs for long distances

28
Llama production
  • can go longer than many animals without water
  • can survive on low quality forage
  • two types of fibers in their coats - long guard
    hairs

29
Llama production
  • short fibers that keep the animal warm
  • fiber length may range from 3-10 inches

30
Llama production
  • used as pack animals in the western US for
    camping and hunting trips into the mountains
  • hair is made into rope

31
Llama production
  • Alpaca - close relative to the llama is desired
    for its high quality wool which is made into rugs
    and blankets

32
Fish Bait Production
  • earthworms are grown in beds that have been built
    up by loose porous materials
  • include shredded paper, shredded cardboard,
    garden compost, grass clippings

33
Fish Bait Production
  • straw, well decayed manure
  • the pH of the bedding is closely monitored and
    kept slightly acidic ( pH 6.8)

34
Fish Bait Production
  • beds are kept moist
  • lights are used to prevent the worms from
    crawling out of the beds
  • worms are sensitive to light and only come out at
    night

35
Fish Bait Production
  • if the worms sense light they will stay in the
    bottom of the bed
  • worms are fed vegetable scraps and cornmeal

36
Fish Bait Production
  • worms mature at about two months of age
  • packed and marketed with about 100 worms or 25
    night crawlers per container

37
Fish Bait Production
  • earthworms are also sold to gardeners because
    they help improve the soil
  • create pores in the soil to improve air and water
    movement

38
Fish Bait Production
  • also produce castings (manure) which helps enrich
    the soil

39
Crickets
  • raised in wooden boxes
  • floors are covered with sand in which the adults
    lay their eggs
  • sand is covered with fine wood shavings or other
    shredded material

40
Crickets
  • heat lamps are used to warm the sand until the
    eggs hatch
  • crickets are caged and shipped to bait outlets
    where they are sold to fishermen

41
Ostrich Production
  • ostriches are the largest existing bird in the
    world. Mature males may stand as tall as nine
    feet and weigh as much as 330lbs. The sheer size
    of the bird makes them valuable for meat,
    feathers and leather.

42
Ostrich Production
  • the leather is of exceptional quality in that it
    is very soft, durable texture. The plumage of
    the male is quite attractive and is used in
    decorating and clothing.

43
Ostrich Production
  • eggs are currently too valuable to use for any
    purpose other than brooding
  • the potential exists for eggs to be used as a
    food source.
  • One egg equals the content of 24 chicken eggs.

44
Ostrich Production
  • raised to a limited extent in the U.S. Because
    of their low numbers, they are quite expensive to
    buy.
  • Allows people to make a good profit by selling
    young ostriches to people to raise

45
Ostrich Production
  • the birds have to be kept within a high fence and
    require protection from cold weather.
  • Sand must be provided for the females to build
    their nests and lay their eggs.

46
Ostrich Production
  • the adults are hardy and resistant to disease,
    but the chicks are susceptible and are therefore
    watched under close supervision.

47
Ostrich Production
  • one drawback to raising ostriches is that the
    animal can be quite dangerous.
  • They defend themselves by flailing their legs and
    kicking.

48
Ostrich Production
  • their toenails are sharp and can severely injure
    or even kill a person they attack.
  • Extreme caution has to be taken in the daily
    feeding and care of the birds.

49
Laboratory Animal Prod.
  • Lab animals are used by scientists for conducting
    experiments for things such as food, medicines,
    and cosmetics
  • considerable controversy over the use of animals
    for experimentation

50
Laboratory Animal Prod.
  • No one can deny the benefits that humans have
    brought about through animal research
  • animals are raised under strict conditions

51
Laboratory Animal Prod.
  • The animals have no genetic defects
  • harbor no disease organisms
  • tainted animals would cause a well designed
    experiment to have skewed results

52
Honey bees
  • classified as an insect
  • because of insect like characteristics
  • also classified as an important agricultural
    animal

53
Honey bees
  • many crops would not survive without the help
    from bees
  • most ag animals rely on bees to pollinate the
    plants that they eat

54
Honey bees
  • bees assist pollination by scattering pollen from
    one plant to the next as they gather nectar and
    pollen
  • most insects work on flowers and go from one type
    of flower to another

55
Honey bees
  • bees work a particular kind of flower for a
    period of time
  • this process ensures that blossoms are thoroughly
    pollinated

56
Honey bees
  • fruit growers hire beekeepers to bring in
    truckloads of bees in the spring when the trees
    are blooming
  • bees are kept in wooden boxes called hives

57
Honey bees
  • each hive is a separate colony of bees
  • beekeepers can move the hives around to different
    orchards for a small fee.

58
Honey bees
  • in addition, the beekeeper harvests hundreds of
    pounds of honey each year
  • bees produce and store honey for food during the
    winter
  • honey is made from nectar the bees gather from
    flowers

59
Honey bees
  • different flowers produce different nectar
  • makes different colors and flavors of honey
  • bees store honey in six sided cells joined
    together to create a honeycomb

60
Honey bees
  • the cells are made from wax the bees produce
  • beekeepers help bees get started by placing
    foundations comb frames on which they build the
    rest of the comb

61
Honey bees
  • the frames are hung into boxes called supers
  • beekeeper needs to keep enough space between the
    supers so the bees dont fuse them together

62
Honey bees
  • this is usually about 3/8 inch
  • enough space for two bees to work back to back

63
Honey bees
  • beekeeper must pry the supers apart in order to
    remove them
  • bees fuse them together with propoils - a sticky
    substance from tree sap

64
Honey bees
  • honey is harvested by extracting it from the
    cells without damaging them
  • empty frames are put back into the super
  • the super is put back into the hive

65
Honey bees
  • bees fill the frames again
  • harvested honey is processed, packaged and sold

66
Types of bees
  • within a colony there are three types of bees
  • queen
  • drones
  • workers

67
Queen
  • exists to lay eggs for the hive
  • she lays thousands of eggs in her lifetime
  • other bees feed and care for her

68
Queen
  • she is recognized as queen because she is larger
    and slender
  • kept in the lower part of the hive called the
    brood chamber

69
Queen
  • entrances are large enough for the workers to
    pass through but too small for the queen to pass
    through
  • prevents the queen from laying eggs in the comb -
    honey

70
Queen
  • lays eggs in larger cells called brood cells
  • eggs hatch into larvae and are fed by the worker
    bees
  • larvae develop into pupae and then into adults

71
Drones
  • are male bees whose specific purpose is to mate
    with the queen
  • when the new queen emerges she goes on a maiden
    flight
  • during the flight she mates with all the drones

72
Drones
  • drones are then removed from the hive by worker
    bees
  • are not allowed to winter in the hive
  • in spring, new drones will hatch

73
Workers
  • sterile females
  • some collect nectar and pollen
  • some care for the queen
  • some scout the area for pollen
  • some serve as guard bees at the service entrance

74
Workers
  • serve short six week lives
  • so continual reproducing is done by the queen and
    drones

75
Queen
  • can be produced commercially in small hives
    called nukes

76
New Queens
  • when a hive becomes crowded
  • bees produce a special large cell called a queen
    cell
  • larva in this cell is fed a special substance
    called royal jelly

77
New Queens
  • when the new queen emerges the old queen will
    leave with a portion of the bees
  • called a swarm
  • and form a new colony

78
Africanized bees
  • nicknamed the killer bee
  • aggressive nature
  • scientists from Brazil imported the killer bee to
    cross with regular bees

79
Africanized bees
  • the idea was to produce a hybrid of honey bee
    that would be more productive
  • will invade a bee colony
  • kill the queen and replace her with their own
    queen

80
Africanized bees
  • her eggs will hatch into African bees
  • adapted to tropical climates
  • do not thrive in temperate climates
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