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4. The Canon of the Bible


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Title: 4. The Canon of the Bible

4. The Canon of the Bible
  • APTS-BIB528

2.1 Introduction
  • "Use of the Greek term "canon" comes from New
    Testament studies. It is typical of a Christian
    view of the Bible and in addition belongs to a
    very late period in the history of the formation
    of the NT canon, the 4th cent. CE. To apply the
    term "canon" to the Hebrew Bible, therefore is
    quite unsuitable. Hebrew has no term which
    corresponds to Greek "canon". Rabbinic
    discussions concerning the canonical or
    apocryphal character of certain biblical books
    such as Song of Songs and Qoheleth, turn on the
    expression "defiles the hands"." Barrera, 148

2.1 Introduction
  • "Because of its background in Judaism, the early
    Christian church was accustomed to recognizing
    the authority of written documents as scripture
    that is, the Christians believed that the
    revelation and will of God were located in a
    deposit of written materials that served both the
    cultic and moral needs of the community of faith.
    The notion that authority resided in what was
    later called the OT scriptures was never doubted
    in the earliest Christian community, even though
    the normative status of the law itself was
    questioned by many Christian (Heb 8.5-8a)."
    McDonald, 1

2.1 Definitions Canon
  • "The word 'canon' meant simply 'list', i.e. the
    list of books that counted as scripture." Barr,
  • The word canon comes from the Gk kano4n,
    measuring stick. By extension it came to mean
    rule or standard, a tool used for determining
    proper measurement. Consequently, the word has
    come to be used with reference to the corpus of
    scriptural writings that is considered
    authoritative and standard for defining and
    determining orthodox religious beliefs and
    practices. Books not considered authoritative and

2.1 Definitions Canon
  • standard are often called noncanonical or
    extracanonical. Generally speaking, the corpus
    of authoritative books is called the Bible,
    although obviously the Christian Bible (or canon)
    differs from that of Judaism. Sanders
  • "The first 'canon' is that of rules, ideals,
    norms, traditions, etc., that are believed to
    possess a certain elevated authority. It is
    generally this meaning of canon that is intended
    when we speak of a text or rule being
    "canonical," that is, possessing a certain
    recognized authority within a particular

2.1 Definitions Canon
  • community. . . . The second usage of canon is in
    connection with standard lists or enumerations,
    such as in "the biblical canon" or "the canon of
    classics of Western literature." Subsumed in
    this meaning as well is the definition of the
    accepted boundaries of a given text. At this
    level, the canon enumerates, in effect, the
    chapters or stories or traditions that are to be
    included in the document in question. For
    example, it is this canon that we speak of when
    we contrast the various canons of the book of
    Daniel." Sheppard in Kraemer, 613

2.1 Definitions Canon
  • "There are two basic uses of the word canon
    the one refers to the shape of a limited body of
    sacred literature the other refers to its
    function. Traditionally it is viewed as both an
    authoritative collection of books (norma
    normata-shape) and a collection of authoritative
    books (norma normans-function). The word shape
    refers, however, to more than the number and
    order of books contained in a communitys canon
    and the word function refers to more than how a
    community used its canon. Both terms include
    consideration of pre- and proto-canonical
    literary and historical factors as well as
    factors resulting from eventual stabilization of
    text and canon." Sanders

2.1 Definitions Defiling the Hands
  • b. Shab. 14a "And why did they impose
    uncleanness upon a book? R. Mesharshiya said
    Because originally they stored food of terumah
    with the scroll of the Torah and said 'This is
    holy and that is holy.' But when they saw that it
    came to harm, the rabbis decreed uncleanness on
  • b. Meg. 7a "Rab Judah said that Samuel said
    Esther does not defile the hands. Are we to say
    that Samuel believed that Esther was not produced
    'said' under the inspiration of the holy
    spirit? Yet Samuel said that Esther was produced
    under the inspiration of the holy spirit. It
    was produced to be recited and it was not
    produced to be written."

2.1 Definitions Defiling the Hands
  • m. Yad. 4.6 "The Sadducees say, 'We protest
    against you, O Pharisees, for you say that sacred
    scriptures defile the hands but the books of
    Hamiram Homer? Apostates? do not defile the
  • m. Eduy. 5.3 "R. Ishmael says Three things in
    which the House of Shammai are lenient and the
    House of Hillel are strict. Ecclesiastes does not
    defile the hands according to the House of

2.1 Definitions Defiling the Hands
  • t. Kel. 5.8 "The book deposited by Ezra which
    went outside the Temple Court defiles the
    hands. And not only the book of Ezra but even the
    prophets and the Homashim?"
  • "The rabbis of the second and third centuries
    seem to have found themselves confronted by a
    general religions attitude, that holy texts
    defile the hands, whose rational was obscure to
    them. A reconstruction of the origins of such an
    attitude is not therefore likely to be found by
    choosing between the various hypotheses put
    forward in ignorance by later rabbis." Goodman

2.1 Definitions Defiling the Hands
  • "I suggest, very tentatively, that the origins of
    the notion that sacred books defile the hands may
    lie in this embarrassment. According to mYad.
    4.6, the notion originated with, or at least was
    particularly espoused by, the Pharisees. If this
    is correct, it may be speculated that, in a
    fashion which may be characteristic of the
    general functioning of their application of the
    Oral Torah, the Pharisees made sense of and
    provided religious justification for what was
    already well established custom. Faced by the
    fact that ordinary Jews treated scrolls of
    scripture as

2.1 Definitions Defiling the Hands
  • too special to be used as ordinary objects, and
    unwilling to accept that such behaviour could be
    put down to the semi-idolatrous notion that
    pieces of parchment could be sacred, the
    Pharisees may have explained customary behaviour
    by asserting that the scrolls of the Torah must
    be handled with care because when touched they
    would defile the hands." Goodman, 104

2.1 Oral Torah Oral Tradition
  • "What complicates the definition and analysis of
    the oral traditions of ancient Judaism is the
    claim that Moses received at Sinai a dual Torah,
    parting writing and part not in writing. This
    latter part is called Oral Torah. In consequence,
    it is fairly widely assumed that the whole of
    rabbinic literature, correctly designated Oral
    Torah, falls within that more general category of
    oral traditions subject to investigation by
    scholars of folklore." Neusner, 59

2.1 Oral Torah Oral Tradition
  • ". . . in every sphere there always existed
    beside the written law a much more extensive and
    comprehensive body of unwritten law more or less
    exactly and permanently formulated. From out
    point of view the authority of this
    consuetudinary law was common consent or the
    prescription of long established usage. To the
    Jews . . . inasmuch as the written law took into
    its province all spheres of life, the unwritten
    law, dealing with the same subjects and often
    defining how the former should be carried out or
    enforced, was equally of religious obligation.
    And since

2.1 Oral Torah Oral Tradition
  • religion with all its duties and observances was
    revealed by God, the revelation necessarily
    included the unwritten as well as the written
    law. The written law, again, was all revealed to
    Moses, and it was a very natural inference that
    its inseparable complement the unwritten law,
    which shared the immutability of all revelation,
    was revealed to him at the same time. Sweeping
    statements to this effect are, however, homiletic
    hyperbole rather than juristic theory this
    character is particularly alleged only of a few
    laws." Moore, 253-254

2.1 Oral Torah Oral Tradition
  • a. Our Rabbis taught It happened that a gentile
    came before Shammai and said to him "how may
    Torahs do you have?"
  • b. He said to him "Two, a Written Torah and an
    Oral Torah?"
  • c. He said to him "With respect to the Written
    one, I believe you, but with respect to the Oral
    I do not believe you. Convert me on the condition
    that you teach me only the Written Torah."
  • d. Shammai rebuked him and sent him out in
  • e. He came before Hillel and stated the same
    condition, and he converted him.

2.1 Oral Torah Oral Tradition
  • f. On the first day he said to him in naming the
    letters of the Hebrew alphabet "aleph, bet,
    gimel, dalet." The next day he reversed them.
  • g. He said to him "But yesterday you didn't say
    it to me this way!"
  • h. He said to him "Have you not inevitably
    depended upon my words? With respect to the
    Oral Torah also depend on me."

2.2 1st Testament Name
  • "We should note in passing that the terms "Old
    Testament" and "New Testament" were not
    originally identical to the OT and NT canons.
    Although the term "new covenant" is found in both
    the OT (Jer 31.31) and the NT (Luke 22.20 1 Cor
    11.25 Heb 8.8, 13 9.15 12.24) and "first"
    covenant (Heb 9.1) is used for the "old
    covenant," the terms never refer to a body of
    literature as they came to be used in the second
    to the fourth centuries. The terms were used by
    some of the church fathers in the late second
    century but were not generally and regularly
    employed in the churches as a designation for the
    Hebrew scriptures (the OT or the scriptures of
    the "First Covenant") and the Christian
    scriptures (the New Testament or the "Second
    Covenant") until the middle of the fourth
    century. . . . " McDonald, 2

2.2 1st Testament Name
  • Irenaeus (ca. 170-180)
  • "Inasmuch, then, as in both Testaments there is
    the same righteousness of God displayed when
    God takes vengeance, in the one case indeed
    typically, temporarily, and more moderately but
    in the other, really, enduringly, and more
    rigidly . . . For as, in the New Testament, that
    faith of men to be placedin God has been
    increased, receiving in addition to what was
    already revealed the Son of God, that man too
    might be a partaker of God." (Adv. Haer.
    4.28.1-2, ANF)

2.2 1st Testament Name
  • Tertullian (ca. 160-225)
  • "If I fail in resolving this article of the
    faith by passages which may admit of dispute out
    of the Old Testament, I will take out of the New
    Testament a confirmation of our view, that you
    may not straightway attribute to the Father every
    possible (relation and condition) which I ascribe
    to the Son (Adv. Prax. 15, ANF)

2.2 1st Testament Name
  • Origen (in 220 CE in Alexandria)
  • "It appears to me, therefore, to be necessary
    that one who is able to represent in a genuine
    manner the doctrine of the church, and to refute
    those dealers the Gnostics in knowledge,
    falsely so-called, should take his stand against
    historical fictions, and oppose to them and the
    true and lofty evangelical message in which the
    agreement of the doctrines, found both in the
    so-called Old Testament and in the so-called New,
    appears so plainly and fully." (Commentary on
    John 5.4 ANF, See also 10.28 and De Prin. 4.11)

2.2 1st Testament Name
  • Eusebius (ca. 260-340 CE)
  • "In the first of these he give the number of the
    canonical scriptures of the so-called Old
    Testament, and showed as follows which are
    undisputed among the Hebrews as belonging to
    ancient tradition" (H.E. 3.9.5, LCL).
  • "At this point it seems reasonable to summarize
    the writings of the New Testament which have been
    quoted" (H.E. 3.25.1, LCL).

2.2 1st Testament the NT
  • "In the NT, Jesus quotes Isaiah (Mark 76-7
    1117 Luke 2237), Zechariah (Mark 1427) and
    Malachi (Luke 727) with conventional formulas
    for citing Scripture Paul does the same
    repeatedly with Isaiah and Psalms, and also with
    Habakkuk (Rom 117), Malachi (Rom 913), Job (1
    Cor 319) and Proverbs (Rom 12 19-20) while
    other NT writers do so with Jeremiah (Heb
    88-12), Zechariah (John 1214-15), Psalms (Luke
    410-11 John 217 631) and Proverbs (Jas 46).
    Moreover, Jesus quotes Isaiah as by a prophet
    (Matt 1314-15 John 645), Psalms as inspired
    (Mark 1236) and Isaiah and Psalms as Scripture
    (Mark 1210-11 Luke 417-21 John 1318) and in
    one or other of these ways the rest of the NT
    quotes Kings (Rom 112-4), Isaiah (in many

2.2 1st Testament the NT
  • places), Jeremiah (Matt 217-18), Hosea (Matt
    215), Joel (Acts 216-21), Amos (Acts 742-3
    1515-18) Micah (Matt 25-6), Habakkuk (Acts
    1340-l), Zechariah (John 1937) and Psalms (Matt
    1335 John 1924 Acts 225-31 425-6 Heb
    37-11 47). Jesus refers to the history of the
    prophet Jonah as a predictive sign or type (Matt
    1239-40). The Book of Revelation endorses
    various revelations and predictions of Ezekiel,
    notably the Gog and Magog prophecy (Rev 207-10
    cp. Ezek 38-39). The Book of Revelation is
    likewise deeply indebted to the prophecies of
    Daniel, which also underlie much of the teaching
    of Jesus and in Matt 2415 Daniel is mentioned
    explicitly as a prophet, in relation to his
    prediction of the abomination of desolation (Dan

2.2 1st Testament the NT
  • etc.), while in 1 Pet 1 10-12 the prophets
    seem to refer particularly to Daniel, with his
    messianic predictions (Dan 2, 7 and 9) and his
    concern about times and seasons (Dan 725
    813-14 924-27 126-13)." Beckwith,
    "Formation . . . .," 48
  • Frequency of Citations "In 1884 C. H. Toy
    identified 613 OT quotations and allusions in the
    NT, whereas Wilhelm Dittmar counted 1,640, and E.
    Hühn topped everyone with a count of 4,105. A
    rough count of the references in Nestle's Greek
    Testament yields about 950 quotations and
    allusions, and the United Bible Society's Greek
    text listed over 2,500 NT passages from nearly
    1,800 passages." Kaiser, 2

2.2 1st Testament Closed or Open?
  • ". . . the Christian church was born with a canon
    in its hands," . . . the New Testament authors
    never cite apocryphal writings directly, and it
    is probably safe to assume that that Old
    Testament they used was identical with that known
    today." . . . threefold OT existed prior to 150
    BCE. LaSor, Hubbard Bush
  • "Beckwith . . . the OT had reached its final form
    in the time of Judas Maccabeus about 164 BCE. He
    tries to establish that there was essentially no
    difference between the canons of the Pharisees,
    Sadducees, Essenes, and early Christians . . . ."

2.2 1st Testament Closed or Open?
  • "Jesus must be seen against the background of the
    Judaism of his time. . . . the Old Testament
    Canon itself had not yet been closed, but was, in
    part at any rate, still fluid." Campenhausen, 2
  • Problem of Jude 14 (1 Enoch 1.9) "Dieter Georgi
    is more on target when he contends that if such a
    widely accepted closed biblical canon of the
    scriptures (the closed twenty-two-book Hebrew
    biblical canon of Judaism) did exist . . . , then
    there would not be such multifarious opinions
    about the matter in the early church, nor would
    that be such diverse styles of interpretation of
    this literature in Jewish writings from 300 BCE
    to 100 CE." McDonald, 27-28

2.2 1st Testament Internal-Progression
  • "It is generally agreed that Israel had
    acknowledged the authoritative nature of some
    sacred writings by the time of the Josiah reforms
    in 621 BCE (2 Kgs 22.8-13), which were probably a
    result of the finding of the book of
    Deuteronomy." McDonald, 28
  • "When, on the occasion already referred to, Moses
    read the book of the covenant to the Israelites
    at the foot of Mount Sinai, they responded with
    an undertaking to keep the divine commandments
    to them what Moses read was the word of God
    (Exod. 243-7). When, at a later date, the
    law-code of Deuteronomy was put beside the ark
    of the covenant of Yahweh (Deut. 3126), this
    was to be a token of its sanctity and a reminder
    to the people of the solemnity of their
    obligation to continue in the way which God

2.2 1st Testament Internal-Progression
  • had commanded them. When the same law-code,
    probably (the book of the law), was found in
    the temple in the reign of Josiah, it was read by
    the kings decree to a great concourse of the
    people of Judah and Jerusalem the king entered
    into a solemn undertaking to perform the words
    of the covenant that were written in this book
    and all the people joined in the covenant (2
    Kings 231-3)." Bruce, 36-37

2.2 1st Testament Internal-Progression
  • "Within the corpus of the writings themselves
    there is both the assertion of the writers that
    their writings have been received from and guided
    by the revelatory and inspiring work of the Holy
    Spirit and the assertion that what has been
    written was to be collected with the other books
    that had made a similar claim and were likewise
    treated as authoritative." Kaiser, 39
  • Exod 17.14 "write this for a memorial in a book
    and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua"
  • "The sacredness of this text was emphasized by
    placing the first completed portion of the OT
    alongside the ark in the Holy of Holies (Deut

2.2 1st Testament Internal-Progression
  • Another copy was given to the king (Deut
    17.18-19). Meanwhile, Joshua was urged "not to
    let this Book of the Law depart for his mouth
    he was to meditate on it day and night so that
    he would be careful to do everything written in
    it (Josh 1.8)." Kaiser, 40
  • Addition to the "Book of the Law of God" in
    Joshuas time (Josh 24.26)
  • 1 Sam 10.25 mentions Samuel writing and
    "deposited them before the Lord" The kings role
    of copying the scroll noted in Deut 17.18 and
    mentioned in 2 Kgs 11.12 follows this process.

2.2 1st Testament Internal-Progression
  • ". . . finding of the Book of the Law in the
    Temple in the reign of Josiah (2 Kgs 228 232,
    24 2 Chr 3415, 30), indicate that the custom of
    keeping sacred writings in the sanctuary
    continued in the First Temple and the Second
    Temple would have been the natural location for
    the library of the nations religious records
    said to have been gathered together after the
    Exile by Nehemiah, and for that more certainly
    assembled after the Antiochene persecution by
    Judas Maccabaeus (2 Mace 213-15). In the first
    century C.E., when the Second Temple was coming
    to the end of its history, we have evidence, at
    which we shall be looking, both from Josephus and
    from rabbinic literature, that the Scriptures
    were laid up there, and also that the priestly
    and Levitical genealogies were compiled and kept
    there." Beckwith, Formation, 42

2.2 1st Testament 3-Part Canon
  • Part 1 The Law Torah
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy

2.2 1st Testament 3-Part Canon
  • Part 2 The Prophets (Former Prophets)
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • 1 2 Samuel
  • 1 2 Kings
  • Part 2 The Prophets (Latter Prophets)
  • Isaiah
  • Jeremiah
  • Ezekiel
  • The Twelve (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah,
    Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai,
    Zechariah, Malachi)

2.2 1st Testament 3-Part Canon
  • Part 3 Hagiographa (Writings)
  • Psalms Lamentations
  • Job Esther
  • Proverbs Daniel
  • Ruth Ezra
  • Song of Songs Nehemiah
  • Ecclesiastes 1 2 Chronicles

2.2 1st Testament 3-Part Canon
  • H. E. Ryle, The Canon of the Old Testament, 1892
  • The Law (Torah) no later than 400 BCE
  • Prophets (Nebi'im) by the late 3rd century, no
    later than 200 BCE
  • Hagiographa (Ketubim) no later than the so-called
    council of Jamnia in 90CE
  • D. N. Freedman Prophetic collection recognized
    by 6th century BCE
  • Blenkinsopp Former Prophets by 6th century,
    while Latter Prophet were later.

2.2 Wisdom of Jesus ben Sira
  • Many great teachings have been given to us
    through the Law and the Prophets and the others
    that followed them, and for these we should
    praise Israel for instruction and wisdom. Now,
    those who read the scriptures must not only
    themselves understand them, but must also as
    lovers of learning be able through the spoken and
    written word to help the outsiders. So my
    grandfather Jesus, who had devoted himself
    especially to the reading of the Law and the
    Prophets and the other books of our ancestors,
    and had acquired considerable proficiency in
    them, was himself also led to write something
    pertaining to instruction and wisdom, so that by
    becoming familiar also with his book those who
    love learning might make even greater progress in
    living according to the law.

2.2 Wisdom of Jesus ben Sira
  • You are invited therefore to read it with
    goodwill and attention, and to be indulgent in
    cases where, despite our diligent labor in
    translating, we may seem to have rendered some
    phrases imperfectly. For what was originally
    expressed in Hebrew does not have exactly the
    same sense when translated into another language.
    Not only this book, but even the Law itself, the
    Prophecies, and the rest of the books differ not
    a little when read in the original.

2.2 Wisdom of Jesus ben Sira
  • When I came to Egypt in the thirty-eighth year of
    the reign of Euergetes and stayed for some time,
    I found opportunity for no little instruction. It
    seemed highly necessary that I should myself
    devote some diligence and labor to the
    translation of this book. During that time I have
    applied my skill day and night to complete and
    publish the book for those living abroad who
    wished to gain learning and are disposed to live
    according to the law.

2.2 Wisdom of Jesus ben Sira
  • Sirach written in Hebrew 190-180 BCE
    Translated by grandson into Greek not long after
    132 BCE Prologue is possibly a later addition.
  • Sirach 391-3 "He seeks out the wisdom of all
    the ancients, and is concerned with prophecies
    he preserves the sayings of the famous and
    penetrates the subtleties of parables he seeks
    out the hidden meanings of proverbs and is at
    home with the obscurities of parables."

2.2 Wisdom of Jesus ben Sira
  • Sirach 44-50 ". . . the sage composed a long
    poem in praise of famous men from biblical times.
    The order in which he lauds the ancients
    discloses the sources from which he drew and the
    sequence in which he found the he borrows from
    the five books of Moses, Joshua, Judges, 1-2
    Samuel, 1-2 Kings (he offers some parallel
    material from Chronicles and Isaiah), Jeremiah,
    Ezekiel (Sir 49.9 may mention Job, but the text
    is problematic), the Twelve Prophets, Ezra, and
    Nehemiah. If Chronicles (and possibly Job) were
    removed from the list, it would coincide with the
    order of the books in the Hebrew Bible. The only
    difference is that some books later accepted as
    canonical are absent (for example, Ruth, Song of
    Solomon, Esther)." VanderKam, 142-143

2.2 Wisdom of Jesus ben Sira
  • "It will be noted that Ben Sira followed the
    Judean (as distinct from the Alexandrian, that is
    LXX) Jewish order of each book in the Torah and
    Prophets." Orlinsky, 487
  • "Leiman, Canonization, 94-95, has shown that
    according to y. Sanhedrin 100b, Sirach was not
    considered inspired and was withdrawn, yet the
    rabbis continued to use it and some even cited it
    as scripture." McDonald, 36

2.2 2 Maccabees 2.13-15
  • "The same things are reported in the records and
    in the memoirs of Nehemiah, and also that he
    founded a library and collected the books about
    the kings and prophets, and the writings of
    David, and letters of kings about votive
    offerings. In the same way Judas also collected
    all the books that had been lost on account of
    the war that had come upon us, and they are in
    our possession. So if you have need of them, send
    people to get them for you." NRSV

2.2 2 Maccabees 2.13-15
  • "In the second letter that appears at the
    beginning of the book (written not much after 100
    BC), the residents of Judea write to a certain
    Aristobulus and the Egyptian Jews . . . .
    According to the writer, Nehemiah collected books
    in his time (the mid-fifth century BC) and Judah
    did the same in his day (about 166-161 BC). What
    this collecting means is not said, but Nehemiah
    is credited with assembling particular kinds of
    books "the books about the kings and prophets,
    and the writings of David, and letters of kings
    about votive offerings." It is tempting to see in
    these groupings the historical and prophetic
    books (Joshua, Judges, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, and
    the prophets), the Psalms, Ezra (which contains
    royal letters having to do with offerings in the
    temple). The author is, however, not explicit on
    the point." VanderKam, 144

2.2 2 Maccabees 2.13-15
  • Roger Beckwith, The Old Testament Canon of the
    New Testament Church, 1985 "Formation of the
    Hebrew Bible," in M. J. Mulder, ed., Mikra Text,
    Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the
    Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early
    Christianity (Minneapolis Fortress Press, 1990)
  • Leiman, Sid Z., The Canonization of the Hebrew
    Scriptures, 1976.

2.2 2 Maccabees 2.13-15
  • "Leiman believes that vv. 14-15 . . . support his
    view that Judas (or Judah) Maccabeus collected
    the sacred books and was himself instrumental in
    the closing the third category of the Hebrew
    canonical books, the Hagiographa. He concludes
    that "the literary activity ascribed here to
    Judah Maccabee may, in fact, be a description of
    the closing of the Hagiographa, and with it the
    entire biblical canon. Although he acknowledges
    that the surviving literature reveals no literary
    activity or actions leading to a collection of
    scriptures, he nevertheless suggests that the
    "canonization" may have been a response to
    Antiocus Epiphanes' attempt to destroy the Hebrew
    scriptures (see 1 Macc 1.56-57). "

2.2 2 Maccabees 2.13-15
  • "The basic problem with Leiman's argument is that
    there is no evidence for a "canonization" process
    going on during the period of the second or first
    century BCE in the land of Israel. Precisely how
    and when did the Maccabees canonize Daniel, or
    any other books? It is presently only an
    unfounded assumption that books that Judas
    Maccabeus saved (2 Macc 2.13-15) are identical
    with that later closed collection of scriptures
    identified in b. B. Bat. 14a-15b. . . . There is
    no identification of that collection and the
    first identification of a subsequent collection
    is considerably later in the time of Josephus. .
    . ." McDonald, 38

2.2 Philo, On the Contemplative Life 3.25-26, 28
  • And in every house there is a sacred shrine which
    is called the holy place, and the monastery in
    which they retire by themselves and perform all
    the mysteries of a holy life, bringing in
    nothing, neither meat, nor drink, nor anything
    else which is indispensable towards supplying the
    necessities of the body, but studying in that
    place the laws and the sacred oracles of God
    enunciated by the holy prophets, and hymns and
    psalms, and all kinds of things by reason of
    which knowledge and piety are increased and
    brought to perfection. Therefore they always
    retain an imperishable recollection of God, so
    that not even in their dreams is any other object
    ever presented to their eyes except the beauty of
    the divine virtues and of the divine powers.
    Therefore many

2.2 Philo, On the Contemplative Life 3.25-26, 28
  • person speak in their sleep, divulging and
    publishing the celebrated doctrine and sacred
    philosophy . . . . And the interval between
    morning and evening is by them devoted wholly to
    meditation on and to practice virtue, for they
    take up the sacred scriptures and philosophize
    concerning them, investigating the allegories of
    their national philosophy, since they look upon
    their literal expressions as symbols of some
    secret meaning of nature, intended to be conveyed
    in those figurative expressions.

2.2 Philo, On the Contemplative Life 3.25-26, 28
  • "Philo was a Jewish philosopher who lived in
    Alexandria, Egypt, from about 20 BC until around
    AD 50. In his treatise On the Contemplative Life,
    he describes a Jewish group in Egypt called the
    Therapeuatae. . . . Philo seems to be familiar
    with the categories mentioned by Jesus ben Sira's
    grandson Philo's "laws" and "oracles . . . of
    prophets" sound very much like the grandson's
    "Law and Prophets," while Philo's "psalms and
    anything else" could correspond with the
    grandson's even less specific "the others." That
    "psalms" are mentioned before "anything else" may
    indicate that he book of Psalms was considered
    the most important or at least the first of the
    nonlegal, nonprophetic works." VanderKam, 145

2.2 Philo, On the Contemplative Life 3.25-26, 28
  • "It is clear that Philo himself regarded the law
    most highly. Leiman correctly has noted that
    Philo has some 2,000 references to the Torah and
    only 50 to the rest of the books of the Hebrew
    Scriptures. Later in the Mishnah. that changes to
    a 2 to 1 ratio of citations of the Torah over the
    rest of the books. Leiman has also observed that
    Philo's exegesis is confined to the Torah, but I
    disagree with his conclusion that the practice
    was simply a characteristic of Jewish exegesis in
    the first century and has no bearing on the shape
    of his canonical collection. . . . The Torah had
    an obvious priority, and all other books took a
    lesser role in the canonical or authoritative
    status of ancient Judaism." McDonald, 40

2.2 Philo, On the Contemplative Life 3.25-26, 28
  • "Umnoi, as Conybeare remarks, is Philo's regular
    name for the Psalms and that here again it
    refers not simply to the Psalter but to the
    Hagiographa in general is suggested by Philo's
    appeals to Job and Proverbs as Scripture, and by
    the Qumran community's appeals to Proverbs and
    Daniel as Scripture. . . . The only problem is
    what is meant by 'the other books (or things)
    whereby knowledge and piety are increased and
    completed'. These also are evidently books, both
    because of the context and because they 'increase
    knowledge', and the most likely explanation is
    that they are books outside the canon to which
    the Therapeutae nevertheless ascribe almost equal
    authority." Beckwith, Canon, 118

2.2 Luke 24.44
  • Then he said to them, "These are my words that I
    spoke to you while I was still with you -- that
    everything written about me in the law of Moses,
    the prophets, and the psalms must be fulfilled."
  • "In Luke 2444 the phrase ". . . Law of Moses,
    Prophets and Psalms . . ." is reported said by
    the resurrected Jesus to the disciples in one of
    his last meetings with them. The inarticulate
    psalmois in the Lukan phrase could indicate any
    collection of Jewish religious hymns, but it
    probably designated a collection of psalms such
    as we know in the biblical book of Psalms,

2.2 Luke 24.44
  • but not in all probability the stabilized
    Psalter witnessed in 4th-5th-century- CE and
    later LXX mss or in 10th-century- CE and later
    Masoretic mss, as the various scrolls and
    fragments of psalms among the Dead Sea Scrolls
    would suggest." Sanders
  • "This is the only reference in the NT for a
    tripartite canon of the Hebrew scriptures, but it
    manifestly does not include all of the literature
    that eventually made up the third part,
    especially Ezra-Nehemiah, the Chronicles, the
    wisdom and psalmic literature, and Daniel. . .
    .this passage is a further support that the third
    part of the Jewish biblical canon had not yet
    been clearly defined in the time of Jesus or
    later when Luke was writing his gospel. Since
    there is no clear

2.2 Luke 24.44
  • evidence for the threefold division of the
    Hebrew scriptures before the second century CE or
    even later in the talmudic period when we
    frequently find references to this division of
    the Jewish scriptures, it is best not to argue
    dogmatically about those divisions and especially
    about their contents prior to the ministry of
    Jesus. There is little evidence that the Psalter
    itself was complete before the fall of Jerusalem
    in 70 CE, even though there were major sections
    of it that were fairly stable in the Jewish
    communities from the Persian period." McDonald,

2.2 Matthew 23.35 Luke 11.50-51
  • Matt 23.35 so that upon you may come all the
    righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of
    righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of
    Barachiah, whom you murdered between the
    sanctuary and the altar."
  • Luke 11.50-51 "so that this generation may be
    charged with the blood of all the prophets shed
    since the foundation of the world, from the blood
    of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, who perished
    between the altar and the sanctuary. Yes, I tell
    you, it will be charged against this generation."

2.2 Matthew 23.35 Luke 11.50-51
  • ". . . his utterance about all righteous blood
    from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah,
    which is found in Mat 23.35 and Luke 11.51, in
    all probability implies that for Jesus and his
    hearers the canon began with Genesis and ended
    with Chronicles, seeing that the murder of Able
    is recorded near the beginning of the former book
    (Gen 4.3-15) and the murder of Zechariah near the
    end of the later book (2 Chron 24.19-22). This
    appears to reflect the traditional Jewish
    arrangement of the books (recorded in the Talmud
    . . . ), whereby Chronicles is not place with
    Samuel and Kings, in the second group of books,
    but is put in the third and last group, as its
    concluding item." Beckwith, Canon, 115

2.2 Matthew 23.35 Luke 11.50-51
  • "Jesus mentions two examples Abel's death is
    recorded in Gen 4.8, while that of Zechariah son
    of Jehoiada occurs in 2 Chr 24.20-22 (the Bible
    has no martyrdom of a Zechariah son of Barachiah
    Zechariah son of Berechiah is the prophet whose
    words appear in the book that bears his name). "
    VanderKam, 146
  • If he wished to find examples from the earliest
    and latest points on the biblical time line, he
    would not have selected Zechariah, for there were
    later instances (for example Gedaliah in 2 Kings
    25.22-26). But, even if we grant the point, the
    statement in Matthew still does not say which
    books came between Genesis and 2 Chronicles in
    such lists." ibid.

2.2 Matthew 23.35 Luke 11.50-51
  • "Freedman has contented convincingly that the
    Chronicles is not the last book in the Hebrew
    biblical canon, but stands first in the Writings.
    This position is supported by the major medieval
    manuscripts including the standard MT Aleppo
    Codex and the Leningrad Codex. A further
    substantiation for Freedman's position is the
    fact that the last paragraph of 2 Chronicles is
    the first paragraph in Ezra. This clearly
    suggests that 1 and 2 Chronicles were first in
    the sequence and indicates that the books were
    separate spatially, since if the books had been
    connected there would have been no need for the
    repetition. The primary historical books that are
    connected, that is the Samuels and the Kings,
    have not repetitive texts connecting the books."

2.2 Matthew 23.35 Luke 11.50-51
  • "It is only in the second century CE that we
    first read of the contents and order of the three
    parts of the Hebrew biblical canon . . . . We
    should also note in passing that since there are
    no other martyrdoms in the Hagiographa that it
    does not matter where the Chronicles stand in
    that collection. Jesus' point would not be
    altered." McDonald, 47

2.2 4 Ezra 14.23-48
  • 4 Ezra 14.45-48 And when the forty days were
    ended, the Most High spoke to me, saying, "Make
    public the twenty-four books that you wrote
    first, and let the worthy and the unworthy read
    them but keep the seventy that were written
    last, in order to give them to the wise among
    your people. For in them is the spring of
    understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the
    river of knowledge." And I did so."

2.2 4 Ezra 14.23-48
  • "4 Ezra was written after AD 70, the year in
    which the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the
    temple. It contains an extended meditation on the
    profound issue raised by the destruction.
    According to the author, the scriptures were also
    lost in the calamitous event so that they would
    have to be revealed again if Israel was to enjoy
    their guidance. Ezra, the putative hero of the
    book, prayed that the Holy Spirit would inspire
    him to write all that had been recorded in God's
    law (used in a comprehensive sense for all of
    scripture). He prepared materials for the task,
    downed a powerful drink, and, with his spirit and
    mouth thus loosened, he dictated ninety-four
    books to five scribes without a break over a
    forty-day period." VanderKam, 146

2.2 Jamnia/Jabneh
  • "The term "synod" or "council" is inappropriate.
    The academy at Jamnia, established by Rabbi
    Johanan ben Zakkai shortly before the fall of
    Jerusalem in AD 70, was both a college and a
    legislative body, and the occasion in question
    was a session of the elders there."
  • "The date of the session may have been as early
    as AD 75 or as late as AD 117."
  • "As regards the disputed books, the discussion
    was confined to the question whether Ecclesiastes
    and Song of Songs (or possibly Ecclesiastes
    alone) make the hands unclean, i.e. are divinely

2.2 Jamnia/Jabneh
  • "The decision reached was not regarded as
    authoritative, since contrary opinions continued
    to be expressed throughout the second century."
    Beckwith, Canon, 276

2.2 Cessation of Prophecy?
  • "The issue of whether prophecy (and thus,
    inspired literature) was thought to have ended
    near the time of Artaxerxes is still debated.
    Evidence from all of the voices of Judaism during
    that period indicates that some thought prophecy
    had ended, but others thought it continued."
    McDonald, 50

2.2 Cessation of Prophecy?
  • 1 Macc 441-46 Then Judas detailed men to fight
    against those in the citadel until he had
    cleansed the sanctuary. He chose blameless
    priests devoted to the law, and they cleansed the
    sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an
    unclean place. They deliberated what to do about
    the altar of burnt offering, which had been
    profaned. And they thought it best to tear it
    down, so that it would not be a lasting shame to
    them that the Gentiles had defiled it. So they
    tore down the altar, and stored the stones in a
    convenient place on the temple hill until a
    prophet should come to tell what to do with them."

2.2 Cessation of Prophecy?
  • 1 Macc 9.27 So there was great distress in
    Israel, such as had not been since the time that
    prophets ceased to appear among them.
  • 1 Macc 14.41 . . . The Jews and their priests
    have resolved that Simon should be their leader
    and high priest forever, until a trustworthy
    prophet should arise, . . . .

2.2 Cessation of Prophecy?
  • "Leiman maintains that all primary literature of
    Jewish antiquity claims that there was a
    cessation of prophecy in Israel by the close of
    the fifth century BCE. Subsequent writings that
    became a part of the canonical or sacred
    collection of writings for the Jews, he claims,
    were viewed as canonical, but not as inspired
    since prophecy had ceased in Israel. Several
    passages in the canonical writings, as well as in
    the rabbinic texts, claim that prophecy had
    ceased (e.g. Ezek 13.9 Zech 13.2-6 Dan 3.38
    LXX 9.24 Ps 74.9). Similar claims appear in 1
    Macc 4.46 9.27 14.41, as well as in Josephus .
    . . ." McDonald, 51

2.2 Cessation of Prophecy?
  • N.B. Joel 2.28-29 Ezek 13.9 36.26-27 37.14
    39.29 Ps 74.9 Zech 13.2-6.
  • Josephus (Adv. Ap. 1.41) "From Artaxerxes to our
    own time the complete history has been written
    but has not been deemed worthy of equal credit
    with the earlier records, because of the failure
    of the exact succession of the prophets."
  • But see also, Josephus Ant. 13.331-13 J.W.
    6.286, 6.300-309.

2.2 Cessation of Prophecy?
  • David Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity, 1983
    (Contra Leiman)
  • Many of the texts that Leiman refers to are
    post-canonical literature and do not antedate the
    second century CE.
  • Early Judaism had greater variety than many
    scholars have previously thought.
  • Not all the texts Leiman cites actually claim
    that prophecy ceased in Israel

2.2 Cessation of Prophecy?
  • Samuel Sandmel, Judaism and Christian Beginnings,
  • "Outside the circle of the Rabbinic Sages the
    view that prophecy had ended simply did not
    exist." (p. 174)
  • Qumran Community!
  • The gift of prophecy in the church (1 Cor
    12.4-11, 28 Rom 12.6 Eph 4.11).
  • Wisdom of Jesus ben Sira (Ecclesiasticus)

2.2 Cessation of Prophecy?
  • John Barton, "Prophecy (Postexilic Hebrew),"
    Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992
  • If one is dealing with the "phenomenon of
    inspiration such as existed in the 8th century,"
    then there is little evidence that it ever died
    out in the postexilic Israel, even though the
    forms of expression did change and the prophets
    the expressed their oracles as additions to
    existing collections of prophetic writings.

2.2 Josephus (AD37-AD100)
  • It therefore naturally, or rather necessarily,
    follows (seeing that with us it is not open to
    everybody to write the records, and that there is
    no discrepancy in what is written seeing that,
    on the contrary, the prophets alone had this
    privilege, obtaining their knowledge of the most
    remote and ancient history through the
    inspiration which they owed to God, and
    committing to writing a clear account of the
    events of their time just as they occurred) it
    follows, I say that we do not possess myriads of
    inconsistent books, conflicting with each other.
    Our books, those which are justly accredited, are
    but two and twenty, and contain the record of all

2.2 Josephus (AD37-AD100)
  • Of these, five are books of Moses, comprising the
    laws and the traditional history from the birth
    of man down to the death of the lawgiver. This
    period falls only a little short of three
    thousand years. From the death of Moses until
    Artaxerxes, who succeeded Xerxes as King of
    Persia, the prophets subsequent to Moses wrote
    the history of the events of their own times in
    thirteen books. The remaining four books contain
    hymns to God and precepts for the conduct of
    human life.
  • From Artaxerxes to our own time the complete
    history has been written, but has not been deemed
    worthy of equal credit with the earlier prophets,
    because of the failure of the exact succession of
    the prophets.

2.2 Josephus (AD37-AD100)
  • We have given practical proof of our reverence
    for our own Scriptures. For although such long
    ages have now passed, no one has ventured either
    to add, or to remove, or to alter a syllable and
    it is an instinct with every Jew, from the day of
    his birth, to regard them as the decrees of God,
    to abide by them, and if need be, cheerfully to
    die for them." Against Apion, 1.37-43 LCL

2.2 Josephus (AD37-AD100)
  • Genesis-Deuteronomy Joshua-Kings Psalms!
  • Leiman Kaiser
  • (1) Five Books of Moses Gen Exo Lev Num Deut
  • (2) Thirteen Books of the Prophets Jos Jud-Ru
    12 Sam 12 Kgs Isa Jer-Lam Eze Twelve Dan
    Job 12 Chr Ezr-Neh Est
  • (3) Four Hymns and Precepts Psa Prov SOS Ecc

2.2 Josephus (AD37-AD100)
  • "...in the case of Josephus there may simply have
    been only 22 books to count as canonical by the
    beginning of the fourth quarter of the 1st
    century CE (Talmon 1987 68). It is clear that
    too much certainty about Josephus canon has been
    drawn from AgAp 1.37-43." Sanders

2. The Canon of the Bible
  • 2.2 The Canon of the First Testament
  • Sadducees, Qumran, Rabbinic, Greek Bible The
    Christian OT Canon

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 1.1 Traditionally the Sadducees' canon was
    considered to be limited to the Torah since
    resurrection is not mentioned in the Pentateuch.

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 1.2 "The idea that the Sadducees (like the
    Samaritans) acknowledged the Pentateuch only as
    holy scripture is based on a misunderstanding
    when Josephus, for example, says that the
    Sadducees admit no observance at all apart from
    the laws he means not the Pentateuch to the
    exclusion of the Prophets and the Writings but
    the written law (of the Pentateuch) to the
    exclusion of the oral law (the Pharisaic
    interpretation and application of the written
    law, which, like the written law itself, was held
    in theory to have been received and handed down
    by Moses). It would be understandable if the
    Sadducees did not accept Daniel which contains
    the most explicit statement of the resurrection
    hope in the whole of the Old Testament." Bruce,

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 2. Josephus
  • 2.1 "The Sadducees teach that the soul dies along
    with the body, and they observe no tradition
    apart from the written laws. Whenever they
    assume office, however, they submit to the
    formulas of the Pharisees, because the masses
    would not tolerate them otherwise." Ant. 18.16
  • 2.2 "What I would now explain is this, that the
    Pharisees have delivered to the people a great
    many observances by succession fro their fathers,
    which are not written in the

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • law of Moses and for that reason it is that the
    Sadducees reject them and say that we are to
    esteem those observances to be obligatory which
    are in the written word, but are not to observe
    what are derived from the tradition of our
    forefathers." Ant. 13.297

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 3. Not only the Torah
  • 3.1 "My guess is that Josephus implication that
    the Sadducees rejected anything that was not
    written in the laws of Moses (that is, from Ex.
    12 to the end of Deuteronomy) is an
    overstatement, and that in fact they rejected the
    Pharisaic traditions of the fathers, as well
    as, of course, the special Essene revelations.
    Put another way, they rejected non-biblical
    traditions of which they did not approve,
    especially those that characterized the other
    parties." E. J. Sanders, Judaism Practice
    Belief 63BCE-66BC, 334

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 3.2 ". . . as the more or less parallel account
    of the Sadducees in Ant. 13.10.6, or 13.297,
    explicitly states, the contrast is not between
    the Laws of Moses and the other books of the
    canon but between the Laws of Moses and oral
    tradition. Josephus elsewhere states that "all
    Jews", presumably including the Sadducees, accept
    the 22 books of the canon (Against Apion 1.8 or
    1.39-43)." Beckwith, The Old Testament Canon . .
    . , 88

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 3.3 "Based on this text alone, the Sadducees
    could have rejected the Prophets, the Writings,
    and the oral traditions of the Jews." McDonald,
    The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon, 68

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • 3.4 "It seems . . . that for as long as the
    Temple stood there was no essential disagreement
    among the different Jewish schools about the
    public canon. And if that was so, the very
    rivalry between the schools must have been one of
    the main factors responsible. This rivalry,
    between Pharisees, Sadducees and Essences, had
    first become important about the time of the
    high-priesthood of Jonathan Maccabaeus (152-142
    BC), as a statement to that effect by Josephus
    (Ant. 13.5.9, or 13.171-3) and other evidence
    indicates. From then onwards it is likely, in
    view of the intensity of rivalry, that the canon
    remain unaltered until the suppression of the
    first Jewish revolt and the destruction of the
    Temple in AD 70,

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • as a result of which events the Essenes and
    Sadducees lost most of their influence, and the
    Temple Scriptures were dispersed. Any literature,
    consequently, which is referred to as canonical
    by Pharisaic or Essene writers, or both, during
    the period of just over two centuries preceding
    the destruction, was probably canonical
    throughout the period of all three schools and
    though, when the period had ended, it would have
    been possible for the Pharisees to have added
    further books to the canon, they would hardly
    have thought such action appropriate after the
    canon had remained unchanged for so long. Both
    their traditionalism and their continuing
    veneration for the Temple would have restrained
    them. Certainty, they are

1. The Canon of the Sadducees
  • not likely to have celebrated their triumph by
    making concessions to Essenism, and it follows
    that any book included in the later form of the
    Pharisaic canon, which is also reckoned canonical
    by Essene writers of the Temple period, is a
    probable part of the common heritage of both
    schools, dating back to the time before their
    longstanding rivalry began." Beckwith, The Old
    Testament Canon . . . , 90-91

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.1 Introduction
  • "The so-called Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered
    between 1947 and 1961 (with perhaps others yet to
    come in), include the scrolls and tens of
    thousands of fragments of scrolls found in the
    eleven caves just N of the Wadi Qumran at the NW
    end of the Dead Sea, as well as others found in
    Judean desert caves (Murraba(at, H9ever,
    S9e)elim, Mishmar) containing literature dating
    between the two Jewish Revolts (70 to 135 CE), in
    the Palace/Fortress at Masada (68-73), and in
    caves in the Wadi ed-Daliyeh SE of Nablus."
    Sanders, "Canon," ABD

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • ". . . manuscripts, albeit fragmentary and
    incomplete, of the books of the Pentateuch, the
    Prophets, especially the Twelve, dating from the
    second century BC, which rule out categorically
    speculations about extremely late additions to
    prophetic works. Indeed it is probable that no
    canonical work postdates the Maccabean age. An
    exception, at least theoretically, may be made in
    the case of the Book of Esther, missing at
    Qumran. More likely, however, Esther was rejected
    by the sectaries, as suggested by H. L. Ginsberg,
    or is missing purely by chance. Ecclesiastes,
    sometimes dated in the second, or even in the
    first century BC, by older scholars, appears in
    one exemplar from Cave IV (4QQoha) which dates
    ca. 175-150

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • BC. Since the text of the manuscript reveals
    textual development, it is demonstrably not the
    autograph, and hence the date of composition must
    be pushed back into the third century or earlier.
    A second-century BC copy of the canonical Psalter
    (4QPsaa), though fragmentary, indicates that the
    collection of canonical psalms was fixed by
    Maccabean times, bearing out the current tendency
    to date the latest canonical psalms in the
    Persian period." F. M. Cross, The Ancient
    Library of Qumran, 121-22

Hebrew Bible Manuscripts
Gen (15) 1-2 Sam (4) Pro (2) Dan (8)
Exod (17) 1-2 Kgs (3) Job (4) Ezra (1)
Lev (13) Isa (21) SoS (4) Neh (0)
Num (8) Jer (6) Ruth (4) 1-2 Chron (1)
Deut (29) Ezek (6) Lam (4)
Jos (2) Twelve (8) Qoh (3)
Judg (3) Psa (36) Est (0)
Hebrew Scrolls According to Caves
Cave 1 (17) Cave 7 (1)
Cave 2 (18) Cave 8 (2)
Cave 3 (3) Cave 9 (0)
Cave 4 (137) Cave 10 (0)
Cave 5 (7) Cave 11 (10)
Cave 6 (7)
2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.2 Biblical Scrolls
  • Some scrolls contain more than one book.
  • 7 copies of Greek biblical scrolls.
  • ". . . the total for the biblical manuscripts is
    202 copies, or about one-quarter of the eight
    hundred manuscripts found at Qumran." VanderKam,
  • 19 other manuscripts found at other Judean desert

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.2 Other Biblical Manuscripts
  • Targums Lev (4Q156) Job (4Q157), (11Q)
  • Tefillin 4Q128-48, 1 - 1Q 3 5Q 1 8Q 4
    more from ?
  • Mezuzot 7 4Q149-55 1 Q8

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.3 Other Manuscripts
  • Tobit 4Aram, 1Heb (4Q196-200)
  • Sirach 2Q18 but 11QPsa had Sirach 51.
  • Letter of Jermiah Baruch 6 (7Q2)
  • 1 Enoch Aram (4Q) 7- the Book of the Watcher
    (chps. 1-36), Book of Dreams (83-90), Epistle of
    Enoch (91-107) 3 Astronomical Book (chps.
    72-82). None contained the Similitudes of Enoch
    (chps. 37-71)

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.3 Other Manuscripts
  • Jubilees 2 1Q 2 2Q 1 Q3 9/10 4Q 1
    11Q. (15/16 total)
  • Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Testament
    of Naphtali (4Q215) Testament of Judah (3Q7
    4Q484, 538) Testament of Joseph (4Q539),
    Testament of Levi (4Q213-14 1Q21)
  • The Genesis Apocryphon

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.3 Other Manuscripts
  • Noah Text 1Q19 4Q246(?), 534.
  • Jacob Text 4Q537
  • Joseph Text 4Q371-73
  • Qahat Text 4Q542
  • Amram Texts 4Q543-48
  • Moses Texts 1Q22, 29 2Q21 4Q374-75, 376 (?),
    377, 388a, 389, 390
  • Joshua Text 4Q378-79
  • Samuel Text 4Q160 6Q9

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.3 Other Manuscripts
  • David Text 2Q22
  • Jeremiah Texts 4Q383-84(?)
  • Ezekiel Texts 4Q384(?)-90, 391
  • Daniel Texts 4Q242 Prayer of Nabonidus, 243-45,

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.4 Commentaries
  • Habakkuk Commentary (1QpHab)
  • Nahum Commentary (4Q169)
  • Psalm 37 Commentary (4Q171, 173)
  • Florilegium (4Q174) 2 Sam 7 Psa 1, 2
  • Testimonia (4Q175) Deut 5.28-29 18.18-19 Num
    24.15-17 Deut 33.8-11 Josh 6.26
  • Melchizedek Text (11QMelch)
  • Genesis Commentary (4Q252)

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.5 Legal Texts
  • The Damascus Document Cairo Genizah A B
    4Q266-73 5Q12 6Q15.
  • Manual of Discipline 1Q 4Q255-64 5Q11, ?5Q13
    combination of DDMD 4Q265.
  • Temple Scroll (11QTemple)
  • Works of the Torah (4QMMT) 4Q394-99

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.6 Writings for Worship
  • The Cycle of Worship "The first Psalms scroll
    from Cave 11 says that King David composed '52
    songs for the Sabbath offerings". Thus, he wrote
    one for each sabbath in a solar year. Another
    document, which has been called "The Angelic
    Liturgy" or Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice"
    (4QShirShabb), presents thirteen such poems,
    enough to cover one-fourth a year." (8 copies in
    Cave 4, 1 in Cave 11 and 1 at Masada) VanderKam,

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.7 Writings for Worship
  • The Cycle of Worship Calendar Texts (4Q317-30)
  • Poetic Compositions
  • Thanksgiving Hymns (1Q, 4Q427-33) These are 25
    individual psalms of thanksgiving.
  • Other Poems Psalms of Joshua (4Q378-79),
    Apocryphal Psalms (4Q380-81), liturgical works
    (4Q392-93), "my soul, bless (4Q434-38), prayer
    and poetic texts (4Q286-93, 439-56), other
    similar compositions (11Q11, 14-16)

2. The Canon at Qumran
  • 2.1 Survey of Qumran Manuscripts
  • 2.1.8 Eschatological Works
  • (I Enoch Apocalypse of Weeks chps. 91, 93,
    Animal Apocalypse chps. 83-90, Jubilees chps.
    23, Daniel, etc.)
  • The War Rule (1QM, 4Q491-96)
  • Texts about t
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