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PAIN MANAGEMENT

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PAIN MANAGEMENT. WHAT DO WE KNOW. ABOUT PAIN? Pain Defined: ... movement of pain impulse along nerve ... Nursing Process and the Management of Pain ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PAIN MANAGEMENT


1
PAIN MANAGEMENT
2
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT PAIN?
3
Pain Defined
  • an unpleasant, subjective sensory and emotional
    experience associated with actual or potential
    tissue damage, or described in terms of such
    damage. (International Association for the Study
    of Pain)

4
Working Definition of PainAccording to McCaffery
  • whatever the experiencing person says it is,
    existing whenever he says it does
  • Self report of pain is the single most reliable
    indicator of pain intensity

5
What is the Nature of Pain
  • Much more than a physical sensation caused by a
    specific stimulus
  • Involves physical, emotional, and cognitive
    components
  • Demands a persons energy
  • Can not be objectively measured

6
Responsibility of the Nurse
  • To accept the clients report of pain
  • Do not make client prove that they are in pain.

7
Physiology of Pain
  • Transduction conversion of stimulus energy to
    electrical energy
  • Transmission movement of pain impulse along
    nerve pathways to the brain
  • Perception impulse is transmitted to higher
    brain centers and recognized as pain
  • Modulation inhibitory neurotransmitters are
    released to hinder transmission of pain
  • Why do nurses need to know about these components?

8
Types of Pain
  • Acute Pain
  • Chronic Pain
  • Cancer Pain
  • Idiopathic Pain

9
How do Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs limit
ability to offer pain relief?
10
Factors That Influence Pain
  • Physiological
  • Age
  • Fatigue
  • Genes
  • Neurological function
  • Social
  • Attention
  • Previous experience
  • Family and social support
  • Spiritual Factors
  • Psychological Factors
  • Anxiety
  • Coping style
  • Cultural Factors
  • Meaning of Pain
  • Ethnicity

11
Nursing Process and the Management of Pain
  • Why should the Nursing Process be used as a
    framework for managing pain?

12
Assessment
  • 5th Vital Sign
  • Determine clients perspective
  • History
  • Meaning
  • Physical, emotional, and social effects
  • Objectively measure the characteristics of
    clients pain

13
Characteristics of Pain(Comprehensive Pain
Assessment)
  • Onset and duration
  • Location
  • Intensity
  • Quality
  • Pain pattern
  • Relief measures
  • Contributing symptoms
  • Effects of pain on client
  • Client expectations

14
Nursing Diagnosis
  • Acute Pain
  • Chronic Pain
  • What other Nursing Diagnoses would be appropriate
    for a client experiencing pain?

15
Planning/Implementation
  • Identify interrelated problems
  • Determine goals/Outcomes
  • Involve family
  • Nonpharmacologic interventions
  • Pharmacologic interventions

16
Evaluation
  • Why is evaluation so important?
  • When do you evaluate?
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