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Title: Residential Solar Electric System Curriculum Module


1
Residential Solar Electric System Curriculum
Module
  • Submitted by Dolores Gall, Instructional
    Specialist, Science, Technology, Engineering and
    Math Center, Anne Arundel Community College,
    Arnold, Maryland
  • Authors Dolores Gall Michael Rapport
  • This curriculum was designed to teach as a
    visiting professor at a STEM Magnet High School.
    It was originally taught in Fall 08, in thirty
    five days of one hour periods.
  • This presentation contains all Power Points,
    handouts, labs, and a grading rubric for final
    project.
  • These target students were gifted and talented
    ninth graders.

2
  • Sustainable Residential Electrical Energy Systems
  • Summary of class topics (four slides)
  • INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY, Non-renewable/renewable,
    primary (oil, gas, coal, solar) and secondary
    (electrical, ), Energy conversion, Energy
    efficiency
  • ENERGY, efficiency-common everyday devices.
    FOCUS Electrical Energyhow is it made?
    Production Pathways? Hand held generator
    activity. Consider ee operated Common devices
    appliances. Do any use trace energy when plugged
    in but not turned on? ASSIGNMENT Find an
    energy-rating sticker on one appliance in your
    home. Copy it down and bring it into next class.
    Also bring in a BGE bill (or at least copy down
    the pertinent information on the bill)
  • 3. ELECTRICAL ENERGY, concepts of Power
    (including Power equation), reading appliance
    labels and determining energy consumption. Figure
    the class average home energy consumption.
    Determine energy consumption in kWh. Discuss
    Energy Star ratings. ASSIGNMENT Do a home energy
    audit in your own home and bring in next class.
  • 4. HOME ENERGY AUDIT, Summary of class surveys.
    Now for some solutionswhat low cost, low
    maintenance solutions can you come up with to
    reduce your own home electrical energy
    consumption?

3
  • Sustainable Residential Electrical Energy Systems
  • Class topics (continued)
  • 5. SOLAR PV SYSTEM, How does it work? The basics
    (solar panel, inverter, charge controller, grid
    or non-grid connection). Introduce PV Cell kits.
  • 6. PV CELL KIT INVESTIGATIONS
  • Use of a multimeter
  • Series and parallel circuits
  • Do all PV cells perform similarly?
  • What effect does light orientation have on the
    readout?
  • Whats the differencewhite light, red, blue or
    green light, infrared, or ultraviolet?
  • AssessmentWorksheet to be completed by end of
    investigation
  • 7. PV CELL KIT INVESTIGATIONS, continued
  • How does light intensity affect performance?
  • What about shadows and shielding?

4
  • Sustainable Residential Electrical Energy Systems
  • Class topics (continued)
  • 8. PV CELL KIT INVESTIGATIONS, continued
  • Summary of all findings of investigation
  • Conclusions derived and agreed upon by class
  • 9. DESIGN A PV SOLAR RESIDENTIAL ELECTICAL
    SYSTEM
  • A model home with defined square footage is
    shown.
  • Land plat with existing landscaping is shown
  • Local building ordinances and restrictions are
    given.
  • Your group must determine the best situation for
    constructing this house and then design a PV
    system to supply the electrical energy to it.
  • AssessmentBoth hardcopy and group presentation
    required at the end of the design period.
  • 10. DESIGN A PV SOLAR RESIDENTIAL ELECTICAL
    SYSTEM
  • Time given in class for group participation
  • 11. DESIGN A PV SOLAR RESIDENTIAL ELECTICAL
    SYSTEM
  • Time given in class for group participation

5
Sustainable Residential Electrical Energy
Systems Class topics (continued) 12. DESIGN A PV
SOLAR RESIDENTIAL ELECTICAL SYSTEM Time given in
class for group participation 13. PRESENTATION
OF GROUP DESIGNS TO CLASS. AssessmentPresentation
grading rubric 14. PRESENTATION OF GROUP
DESIGNS TO CLASS. AssessmentPresentation grading
rubric  
6
  • Intro to Energy
  • Different types if energy (Primary)
  • Non-renewable
  • Renewable

7
  • Intro to Energy
  • Different types if energy (Primary)
  • Non-renewable
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Coal
  • Nuclear
  • Renewable
  • Solar
  • Wind
  • Geothermal
  • Biofuels

8
www.eia.doe.gov/.../science/formsofenergy.html
9
Different types of energy (Secondary) All
energy is either Kinetic Potential Energy can
also be Mechanical Electrical Chemical Nuclear Th
ermal Light (radiant)
10
Energy Conversions Changing one type of energy
into another type of energy.
www.unb.ca/transpo/mynet/energy.htm
11
Examples of Energy Conversions
www.bbc.co.uk/.../forces/kineticenergyrev2.shtml
www.atlantissolar.com/wind_story.html
12
www.cleanmpg.com/forums/showthread.php?t10872
13
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be
created or destroyed, it can only be converted
into different forms. The total energy in the
universe is a constant and will remain so.
Energy Efficiency useful energy or work output
x 100 total
energy output The higher the energy efficiency,
the lower the amount of energy lost to the
outside air.
14
What do you think of when someone says energy
efficiency?
flatfixlive.com/.../
15
B G E
16
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17
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18
Electric Power
  • Work done by electric current
  • Power current x voltage
  • Measured in Watts Watts amps x volts
  • Kilowatt 1000 watts
  • Kilowatt hour energy used in one hour at the
    rate of 1000 watts

19
Electric Potential (V)
  • Relative to the amount of charge
  • Electric potential electric potential energy
  • amount of
    charge
  • Also called voltage
  • Measured in voltsacross a circuit.
  • When connected, charged particles flow from
    negative to positive terminals.

20
Electric Current (I)
  • Flow of charged particles- electrons
  • Measured in amperes (amps) rate of flow of one
    coulomb of charge per second.
  • Current is measured along a circuit.
  • Voltage produces current.

21
AC/DC
  • Alternating Current-AC
  • House circuits
  • Sinusoidal graph of current vs. time.
  • Terminals alternate back and forth from neg. to
    pos. and pos. to neg.
  • 60 cycles/ second
  • Hertz cycle/second
  • Direct currentDC
  • Batteries
  • Straight line graph of current vs. time.
  • Flows from negative to positive

22
Electrical Resistance
  • Note current depends on both voltage applied and
    resistance present.
  • Resistance is opposition to current flow.
  • Depends on-1. Amt. of conductors present
  • 2. Amt. Of work being done.
  • 3. Temperature
  • Measured in ohms (?)

23
Ohms Law
  • Relationship between current, voltage, and
    resistance.
  • Current (I) Voltage (V)
  • Resistance (R)
  • Amps Volts
  • Ohms

24
www.greentechnolog.com
25
www.energystar.govt.nz
26
The stars in the blue band show how efficient the
air conditioner is when cooling and the stars in
the red show its efficiency when heating.
The blue box how much electricity (kWh) the air
conditioner will use for 500 hours of cooling.
The red box how much electricity (kWh) the air
conditioner will use for 500 hours of
heating. To calculate the running costs,
multiply the consumption figure (kWh) by the
current domestic electricity tariff of 15.01
cents per kWh.
27
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28
1. The Summary box shows the billing date,
payments received since your last bill was
prepared, any outstanding balance, charges for
the current billing period, and the late charge
applied if your bill is not paid by the due
date. 2. Important Information About Your Bill
Includes Your Price to Compare which is the
price per kilowatt-hour you can use to compare
prices among electric suppliers. Other timely
messages from BGE will be included in this
area. 3. The Electric Usage Profile shows your
electric use during the current period compared
to last month and last year. 4. The Gas Usage
Profile (shown only if you are supplied with
natural gas) shows your gas use during the
current period compared to last month and last
year. 5. Electric Details include your rate
schedule, the billing period covered by this
bill, the date of your last meter reading, your
electric meter number, and how much electricity
you used this billing period. 6. Electricity
Supply is the electricity itself, which is
generated in power plants and transmitted across
high voltage lines to substations. You may
purchase your electricity supply from BGE or an
alternative Electric Supplier. Electric Supply
charges are shown here.  
29
7. BGE Electric Delivery Service includes The
Customer Charge which covers expenses not
directly associated with the generation or
delivery of energy, such as billing, metering and
meter reading. This is the same amount each
month. The Distribution Charge covers the cost
of delivering the electricity to your residence.
BGE delivers your electricity no matter who
supplies it. The RSP Chg/Misc Credit relates to
the 2006 Rate Stabilization Plan. The RSP Charge
is the repayment of deferral credits provided to
help customers transition to market rates.
Important facts about the 2006 RSP charge The
repayment period began July 2007 and will
continue for approximately 10 years. All of
BGEs residential electric customers must pay the
RSP Charge on each unit of electricity consumed
during the recovery period. The actual RSP
Charge is shown in the note below. The difference
between the two rates the Miscellaneous
Credits is made up of Financing Credit -
representing certain customer benefits resulting
from BGEs method of financing the deferral.
Nuclear Decommissioning - a continuation of the
Credit previously shown as the Electric Rate
Credit on the front of the bill, which was
required by Senate Bill 1. 8. BGE Gas Delivery
Service (shown only if you are supplied with
natural gas) includes The Customer Charge
covers expenses not directly associated with the
supply or delivery of gas, such as billing,
metering and meter reading. This is the same
amount each month. The Distribution Charge
covers the cost of delivering the gas to your
residence. 9. If BGE or an alternate supplier
provides your natural gas, the Gas Commodity
Charges are shown here.
30
  • ASSIGNMENT Do a home energy audit in your own
    home and bring in next class.

31
WATTs the COST to OPERATE ? In the KITCHEN
1 kW 1000 W. EXAMPLE A typical Hair Dryer, at
maximum settings, consumes roughly 1500 W, or
1.5 kW, of electrical power. Contact BGE for
COST per kWh. Visit www.bge.com for ENERGY
INFORMATION and ENERGY SAVINGS TIPS.
On the FIRST FLOOR On the SECOND FLOOR In the
GARAGE
32
In Class Electricity Lab
  • Electricity Lab three mini light bulbs with
    sockets, six leads, one nine volt battery.
  • Connect one bulb to battery with two leads. How
    bright is it?
  • Connect two bulbs to battery (in series) using
    three leads. Do you notice a difference in the
    brightness?
  • Connect three bulbs to battery with four leads.
    Is there a difference in brightness? Why?
  • Go back to one bulb to battery with two leads.
  • Connect two bulbs to battery (in parallel) with
    four leads. Does the brightness differ from your
    other two bulb connection? Why?
  • Connect three bulbs to battery with six leads.
    Does the brightness differ from any other
    connection combo?
  • Which do you think is most efficient?
  • Which do you think costs the most to build?

33
The "photovoltaic effect" is the basic physical
process through which a solar cell converts
sunlight into electricity.
34
www.solarquote.co.uk/
35
Sunlight is composed of photons, or "packets" of
energy. These photons contain various amounts of
energy corresponding to the different wavelengths
of light. When a photon is absorbed, the energy
of the photon is transferred to an electron in an
atom of the solar cell. With its newfound
energy, the electron is able to escape from its
normal position associated with that atom to
become part of the current in an electrical
circuit.
36
www.solarquote.co.uk/
37
As sunlight hits the cell, its photons begin
"knocking loose" electrons in both silicon
layers. These newly freed electrons dart around
each layer but are useless for generating
electricity unless and until they reach the
electric field at the junction.
The electric field pushes electrons that do reach
the junction towards the top silicon layer. This
force essentially slingshots the electrons out of
the cell to the metal conductor strips,
generating electricity.
38
http//www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/solar_electric
ity/basics/how_pv_system_works.htm
39
Although a PV array produces power when exposed
to sunlight, a number of other components are
required to properly conduct, control, convert,
distribute, and store the energy produced by the
array. Major components include items such as a
DC-AC power inverter, battery bank, system and
battery controller, auxiliary energy sources and
sometimes the specified electrical load
(appliances). In addition, an assortment of
balance of system (BOS) hardware, including
wiring, overcurrent, surge protection and
disconnect devices, and other power processing
equipment.
40
www.sunlionenergysystems.com/energy-systems.asp
41
www.sunlionenergysystems.com/energy-systems.asp
42
You will need 5 or 6 hours of unblocked sun that
is roughly centered around solar noon.  If you
have blockages during this 6 hour period, you
might consider 1) moving the collector to a
better location, 2) trimming the obstacle (good
for trees -- not so good for buildings and
mountains), 3) aiming the collector such that it
gets more unobstructed sun
43
www.builditsolar.com
44
www.solarpathfinder.com
In planning a solar collector location, it is
important to make sure that the sun will shine on
the collector during all the parts of the year
that you want it to. 
45
www.solarpathfinder.com
46
Solar Azimuth Chart
47
EXPERIMENT I DO SIMILIAR SOLAR CELLS BEHAVE
SIMILARLY?
The purpose of this experiment is to
investigate whether similar solar cells, under
identical conditions, behave similarly. EQUIPMENT
6 PV Solar Cells MULTIMETER A flashlight or
other convenient LIGHT SOURCE PROCEDURE DATA/ANALY
SIS CONCLUSIONS. 1. Why is it important to
perform the VOLTAGE and CURRENT measurements
for each Solar Cell under identical conditions
? 2. Based on the DATA/ANALYSIS, do similar PV
Solar Cells, under identical conditions,
behave similarly ? An EXAMPLE of a POWER OUTPUT
calculation. Suppose for a given Solar Cell, V
0.50 v and I 300 mA 0.3 A, then POWER OUTPUT
IxV (0.3 A)x(0.50 v) 0.15 W
48
EXPERIMENT II HOW DOES LIGHT INTENSITY affect
SOLAR CELL PERFORMANCE ?
The purpose of this experiment is to
investigate how light intensity affects the
performance of a solar cell. EQUIPMENT A PV
Solar Cell MULTIMETER A flashlight or other
convenient LIGHT SOURCE Other equipment as
needed. PROCEDURE DATA/ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS. 1.
Describe how you varied the LIGHT INTENSITY from
BRIGHT to MODERATE to DIM.
2. Based on the DATA/ANALYSIS, how does LIGHT
INTENSITY affect the performance of the solar
cell ? An EXAMPLE of a POWER OUTPUT
calculation. Suppose for a given Solar Cell, V
0.50 v and I 300 mA 0.3 A, then POWER OUTPUT
IxV (0.3 A)x(0.50 v) 0.15 W
49
EXPERIMENT III HOW DOES SHADING or SHIELDING
affect the PERFORMANCE of the SOLAR CELL ? The
purpose of this experiment is to investigate how
shading or shielding affects the performance of
the solar cell.
EQUIPMENT A PV Solar Cell MULTIMETER A
flashlight or other convenient LIGHT SOURCE A
piece of dark paper PROCEDURE DATA/ANALYSIS CONCLU
SIONS. 1. Based on the DATA/ANALYSIS, how does
shading or shielding affect the
performance of the solar cell ? FOLLOW-UP
INVESTIGATION. Perform an experiment to
determine, at 25 SHADING, whether there is any
area of the cells surface which is more
important in affecting the cells performance.
An EXAMPLE of a POWER OUTPUT calculation.
Suppose for a given Solar Cell, V 0.50 v and I
300 mA 0.3 A, then POWER OUTPUT IxV (0.3
A)x(0.50 v) 0.15 W
50
EXPERIMENT IV HOW DOES ORIENTATION or TILT of the
SOLAR CELL SURFACE, relative to the DIRECTION of
the INCIDENT SOURCE, affect the PERFORMANCE of
that CELL ? The purpose of this experiment is to
investigate how the orientation or tilt of the
solar cell surface, relative to the incoming
light, affects the performance of the solar cell.
EQUIPMENT A PV Solar Cell MULTIMETER A
flashlight or other convenient LIGHT SOURCE A
protractor APPARATUS
PROCEDURE DATA/ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS. 1. Based
on the DATA/ANALYSIS, describe how the tilt of
the solar cell surface, relative to the
direction of the incident light, affects the
performance of the solar cell ?
51
EXPERIMENT V HOW DOES the COLOR or SPECTRUM of
the LIGHT ILLUMINATING the SOLAR CELL affect the
CELLs PERFORMANCE ? The purpose of this
experiment is to investigate whether the
performance of the Solar Cell is affected by the
SPECTRUM or COLOR of the light illuminating the
Cell.
EQUIPMENT A PV Solar Cell MULTIMETER A
flashlight or other convenient LIGHT SOURCE Color
Filter Set PROCEDURE DATA/ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS. 1.
Based on the DATA/ANALYSIS, does the COLOR or
SPECTRUM of the Light illuminating the Solar
Cell affect the Performance of the Cell ? If so,
describe the connection. COMMENT Multiple
Filters, same COLOR ? An EXAMPLE of a POWER
OUTPUT calculation. Suppose for a given Solar
Cell, V 0.50 v and I 300 mA 0.3 A, then
POWER OUTPUT IxV (0.3 A)x(0.50 v) 0.15 W
52
Design your own Residential Solar Electric System
Project
  • Brand new house-connected to grid installation.
  • Latitude longitude given
  • Arial view of plat with square footage-orientation
    is key
  • House style and size given-where will the PV
    cells be mounted?
  • Average monthly usage1200 kWh
  • Research companies, prices, incentives, rebates,
    styles of PV cells
  • Complete every item on the rubric
  • Prepare a PowerPoint to present your design to
    the class.

53
Residential Solar Electric System Project Grading
Rubric Project Grades
Possible Points Earned
Points Total
300
___________ Student Name ________________________
__ Group members ________________________
_________________________
________________________
__
54
  • Residential Solar Panel Manufacturers There are
    others
  • Kyosera http//www.kyocerasolar.com/
  • Evergreen Spruce http//www.evergreensolar.com/ap
    p/en/products/item/39
  • General Electric Company (GE) http//www.gepower
    .com/prod_serv/products/solar/en/prepkg_sys/resid_
    sys.htm
  • BP http//www.bp.com/modularhome.do?categoryId8
    050contentId7035481
  • Suntech http//www.suntech-power.com/
  • Sharp http//solar.sharpusa.com/solar/products
    /0,2472,4-0,00.html
  • SunPower http//www.sunpowercorp.com/
  • GreenBrilliance http//www.greenbrilliance.com/
  • Atlantis Energy http//www.atlantisenergy.org/
  • Your system
  • 40 Kilowatts per day
  • 2000 square foot house
  • Latitude---39.166749? N
  • Longitude-----76.625989? W
  • See the plat for tree locations.
  • Things you should include in your design to hand
    in (one packet per group)
  • Placement and orientation of the house on the
    plat of land. (Why?)
  • Placement and orientation of the solar electric
    system to the house. (Why?)

55
Model House, Anne Arundel Community College
Architecture Department, Student Project
56
Model House, Anne Arundel Community College
Architecture Department, Student Project
57
Model House, Anne Arundel Community College
Architecture Department, Student Project
58
Model House, Anne Arundel Community College
Architecture Department, Student Project
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