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A Troubled Nation Expands Outward

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Title: A Troubled Nation Expands Outward


1
Chapter 19
  • A Troubled Nation Expands Outward
  • 1893 1901
  • We are only just beginning to realize that the
    great heroes who have advanced human destiny are
    not its politicians, generals, and diplomatists,
    but the scientific discoverers and inventors who
    have put into mans hands the instrumentalities
    of an expanding and controlled experience, and
    the artists and poets who have celebrated his
    struggles, triumphs, and defeats in such
    language, pictorial, plastic, or written, that
    their meaning is rendered universally accessible
    to others. John Dewey, on the study of history
    and geography

2
"The People's Party is the protest of the
plundered against the plunderers -- of the victim
against the robbers. Tom Watson 1892 ". . .
if the great industrial combinations do not deal
with us they will have somebody to deal with who
will not have the American idea." Samuel Gompers
c. 1916 "No concession can be made to the
minority in this country without a surrender of
the fundamental principle of popular government.
The people have a right to have what they want,
and they want prohibition." William Jennings
Bryan 1923 "I hold that if the Almighty had
ever made a set of men that should do all the
eating and none of the work, He would have made
them with mouths only and no hands and if He had
ever made another class that He intended should
do all the work and no eating, He would have made
them with hands only and no mouths." Abraham
Lincoln 1859
3
"O Lord our Father, our young patriots, idols of
our hearts, go forth to battle-be Thou near them!
With them-in spirit-we also go forth from the
sweet peace of our beloved firesides to smite the
foe. O Lord our God, help us to tear their
soldiers to bloody shreds with our shells help
us to cover their smiling fields with the pale
forms of their patriot dead help us to drown the
thunder of the guns with the shrieks of their
wounded, writhing in pain help us to lay waste
their humble homes with a hurricane of fire help
us to wring the hearts of their unoffending
widows with unavailing grief help us to turn
them out roofless with their little children to
wander unfriended the wastes of their desolated
land in rags and hunger and thirst, sports of the
sun flames of summer and the icy winds of winter,
broken in spirit, worn with travail, imploring.
Thee for the refuge of the grave and denied
it-for our sakes who adore Thee, Lord, blast
their hopes, blight their lives, protract their
bitter pilgrimage, make heavy their steps, water
their way with their tears, stain the white snow
with the blood of their wounded feet! We ask it,
in the spirit of love, of Him who is the Source
of Love, and who is the ever-faithful refuge and
friend of all that are sore beset and seek His
aid with humble and contrite hearts. Amen."
Mark Twain Spanish American War
4
Howard Zinn "One of the things that I got out
of reading history was to begin to be disabused
of a notion of what democracy is all about. The
more history I read, the more it seemed very
clear to me that whatever progress has been made
in this country on various issues, whatever
things have been done for people, whatever human
rights have been gained, have not been gained
through the calm deliberations of Congress or the
wisdom of presidents or the ingenious decisions
of the Supreme Court. Whatever progress has been
made in this country has come because of the
actions of ordinary people, of citizens, of
social movements. Not from the Constitution."
"The Bill of Rights says nothing about the
right to work, to a decent wage, to housing, to
health care, to the rights of women, to the right
of privacy in sexual preference, to the rights of
peoples with disabilities. . . . We should look
beyond the Bill of Rights to the UN's Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, which says that all
people, everywhere in the world, are entitled to
work and decent wages, to holidays and vacations,
to food and clothing and housing and medical
care, to education, to child care and maternal
care."
5
Howard Zinn on Karl Marx
Perhaps the most precious heritage of Marxs
thought is his internationalism, his hostility to
the national state, his insistence that ordinary
people have no nation that they must obey and
give their lives for in war, that we are all
linked to one another across the glove as human
beings. This is not only a direct challenge to
modern capitalist nationalism, with its ugly
evocations of hatred for the enemy abroad, and
its false creation of a common interest for all
within certain artificial borders. It is also a
rejection of the narrow nationalism of
contemporary Marxist states, whether the Soviet
Union, or China, or any of the others.
6
"Marx's critique of capitalism in those
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts did not need
any mathematical proofs of surplus value. It
simply stated (but did not state it simply) that
the capitalist system violates whatever it means
to be human. The industrial system Marx saw
developing in Europe not only robbed them of the
product of their work, it estranged working
people from their own creative possibilities,
from one another as human beings, from the
beauties of nature, from their own true selves.
They lived out their lives not according to their
own inner needs, but according to the necessities
of survival. This estrangement from self and
others, this alienation from all that was human,
could not be overcome by an intellectual effort,
by something in the mind. What was needed was a
fundamental, revolutionary change in society, to
create the conditions -- a short workday, a
rational use of the earth's natural wealth and
people's natural talents, a just distribution of
the fruits of human labor, a new social
consciousness -- for the flowering of human
potential, for a leap into freedom as it had
never been experienced in history." Howard Zinn
Failure to Quit, pg. 147
7
"Civilization is a method of living, an attitude
of equal respect for all . . ."  Jane Addams "We
are living in a dangerous world. Our state of
civilization is such that mankind already is
capable of becoming enormously wealthy but as a
whole is still poverty-ridden. Great wars have
been suffered. Greater wars are imminent, we are
told. Do you not think that in such a
predicament every new idea should be examined
carefully and freely?" Bertolt Brecht What he
was prevented from saying to the House Committee
on Un-American Activities His plays include
Galileo, The Good Woman, Mother
Courage "Liberties are not given they are
taken." Aldous Huxley   One day in London Marx
refused to a "Marx Club" organized by Pieper
saying "Thanks for inviting me to speak to your
Karl Marx Club. But I can't. I'm not a
Marxist." "Je ne suis pas un Marxiste." Karl
Marx
8
". . . Hofstadter did not share the view of more
recent scholars that progressivism was an impulse
fundamentally different from, indeed antithetical
to, populism. Instead, he portrayed the two
movements as part of the same broad current of
reform." Alan Brinkley, American Retrospectives
page 52 "wie es eigenlich gewesen ist" as it
actually/truly is Historian Von
Rankin "Hofstadter's treatment, which
embraced his deep suspicion of agrarianism,
hypothesized that the angry farmers in the South
and Middle West were hard-pressed Protestants and
petty capitalists unable to come to terms with
the realities of a worldwide market economy and
turned -- as did other groups with declining
status -- to xenophobia and anti-Semitism. . . .
Populism had a dark side that could be seen as
contributing to America's authoritarian and
xenophobic tradition." Martin Ridge, American
Retrospectives
9
Bibliography
  • Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward 2000 - 1887
    1887
  • http//eserver.org/fiction/bellamy/intro.html
    free version
  • James Chace, 1912 Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and
    Debs The Election That Changed The Century
    2004
  • Walter LaFeber, The American Age 1989
  • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
  • William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of
    American Foreign Policy 1988

10
Concepts
  • William Appleman Williams open v. closed
    door US policy
  • John Hay a splendid little war The Platt
    Amendment Link Jose Marti to todays Cuba
  • Charles M. Sheldon urged readers to rethink their
    actions by asking What would Jesus do? WWJD
  • Mark Hannahs campaign techniques Segretti,
    Rove, Tuck
  • White Mans Burden. -- clergymen like Josiah
    Strong urged that Americans help Christianize and
    civilize the world
  • Most Americans put aside their doubts and
    welcomed the new era of aggressive nationalism
  • Australian ballot

11
1894, Coxeys Army Farmers Alliance Free Silver
Wm Jennings Bryan in 1896 v. McKinley Granger
laws Greenback party inflation, Gerardos
house in Mexico 1980s Interstate Commerce Act
interstate v. intrastate commerce National
American Woman Suffrage Association Pendleton
Civil Service Act Prohibition Party Sherman
Antitrust Act Sound money, standards, specie,
constant dollar Fiscal policy v. monetary
policy Jack Londons The Iron Heel Substantive
due process v. procedural due process
12
Text Identifications
  • Grover Cleveland, William McKinley
  • George Pullman, Eugene Victor Debbs, Pullman
    strike
  • Ida Wells-Barnett, Booker T. Washington, Atlanta
    Compromise
  • Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
  • Yellow press, William Randolph Hearst,
    Sp-American War
  • Stephen Crane
  • Theodore Roosevelt next weeks chapter

13
The Cooperative Commonwealth
  • Edward Bellamys Looking Backward described a
    utopian society in which the economy was under
    the collective ownership of the people.
  • His people enjoyed short workdays, long
    vacations, and retired at age 45.
  • The Point Loma community, established near San
    Diego in 1897
  • was a communal society that provided both private
    and shared housing
  • no one earned wages
  • sought self-sufficiency through agriculture
  • received donations from admirers and wealthy
    members.

14
Chapter Objectives
  • Identify some of the ways workers responded to
    economic hard times in 1894.
  • Identify some of the various responses by the
    courts and by women to economic difficulties of
    the 1890s.
  • Explain the significance of Plessy v. Ferguson.
  • Explain American foreign policy during this
    chapter Hawaii through the Spanish American
    War.
  • Explain the reasons the United States became
    involved in the Spanish-American War.
  • Explain Americas prosecution of the Spanish
    American War and its outcome.
  • Explain the significance of the 1896 and 1900
    presidential elections.

15
I. The Panic of 1893 and Its Consequences
  • Depression hits average working families hardest,
    but repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act fails
    to help
  • Wilson-Gorman Tariff also fails to help
  • Coxeys Army invades Washington but is repulsed
  • Court injunction halts Pullman Strike
  • Republicans prevail in 1894 elections

16
Great Railway Strikes sketch
17
Understanding the Crisis of the 1890s
  • Agricultural Protest
  • Farmers Alliance
  • The Peoples Party
  • Omaha Platform, 1892
  • The Challenge of the Depression
  • Coxeys Army, 1894
  • The Battle of the Standards the Election of
    1896
  • William Jennings Bryan, Cross of Gold speech

18
The Limits of Government
  • The Weak Presidency
  • The Inefficient Congress
  • The Federal Bureaucracy and the Spoils System
  • Inconsistent State Government
  • California 80 Assembly members, 40 St. Senators
  • Weak major system, strong mayor, commissioners

19
  • Hard times bring economic and social unrest
  • Business tycoons take over failing companies,
    concentrating wealth even further
  • Womens clubs, suffrage societies, and
    prohibition supporters increase
  • Experiments alter city and state governments
  • Courts continue to protect big business
    substantive due process
  • Pragmatism grows in popularity
  • Realism evolves as literary form, often blaming
    technology for societys ills
  • Supreme Court upholds segregation in Plessy v.
    Ferguson
  • White attempts at Americanizing Indians almost
    wipes out Native American culture

20
II. Foreign Policy and National Politics
  • Conditions in Hawaii, Venezuela, and Cuba bring
    suitability of Monroe Doctrine into question
  • Election of 1896 enlivened by campaigns of Bryan
    and McKinley
  • Opponents shaken up by McKinleys easy victory,
    and Republicans dominate

21
Election of 1896
22
The Election of 1896
William Jennings Bryan carried most of the rural
South and West, but his free silver campaign had
little appeal to more urban and industrial
regions, which swung strongly to Republican
candidate William McKinley.
23
III. The McKinley Presidency Achieving World
Power
  • Spanish-American War most significant event of
    McKinleys presidency
  • Causes include sinking of Maine, yellow
    journalism, and Delôme letter
  • Americans appear eager for war and are gratified
    by its brevity
  • Peace treaty gives America territories Guam,
    Puerto Rico, and Philippines

24
Spanish American War
25
  • Four-year rebellion in Philippines ensues
  • Imperialism re-emerges as national issue
    Carnegie, Addams, Ford, Twain
  • Open Door policy in China leads to failed Boxer
    Rebellion there
  • America looks again to building canal in Central
    America
  • McKinley begins second administration amid great
    hopes for future

26
IV. The United States on the Eve of the 21st
Century
  • Nation debates proper direction for new century
  • Organization of unions appears to be on horizon

27
(No Transcript)
28
Some Thoughts on National and International
Foreign Policy September 13, 2006
29
 Two major questions of ethics in international
relations are the question of who the subject of
morality is individuals, groups or states and
the question of what duties such subjects have
beyond borders.  Accordingly, writers on the
ethics of international relations tend to fall
into three categories.  At one extreme are the
realists who, while not completely rejecting
morality, believe that states are the dominant
actors in world affairs and that the only
appropriate behaviour in international affairs is
the pursuit of national interest, and the balance
of power.  In this view, ones responsibility to
fellow citizens far outweighs the obligation to
human beings in general.  At the other extreme
are the cosmopolitans, who assert that
individuals, not states, are the ultimate
subjects of morality and that values and
responsibilities transcend borders. 
Cosmopolitans also believe that moral principles
are authoritative where demands of morality
conflict with those of sovereignty, the former
take precedence over the latter.  In between the
realists and the cosmopolitans are the
internationalists for whom states have a
privileged moral status but who claim that states
are bound by the principle of respect for the
sovereignty of other states.   Patrick Hayden
30
We must love one another or die.  Poet W. H.
Auden September 1, 1939 "If I had lost the
war, I would have been tried as a war criminal." 
US WWII General Curtis LeMay Is a democracy,
such as we know it, the last improvement possible
in a government?  Is it not possible to take a
step further towards recognizing and organizing
the rights of man?  There will never be a free
and enlightened State until the State comes to
recognize the individual as a higher and
independent power, from which all its own power
and authority are derived, and treats him
accordingly.  Henry David Thoreau
31
"Remember Smedley Butler?  He was perhaps the
most decorated Major General in Marine Corps
history.  In the early part of this century, he
fought and killed for the United States around
the world.  Butler was awarded two Congressional
Medals of Honor.  Then, when he returned to the
United States he wrote a book titled "War is a
Racket" which opens with the memorable lines
'War is a racket. It always has been. . . . I was
a high class muscleman for Big Business, for Wall
Street and for the Bankers,'  Butler said. 'In
short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for
capitalism.  In a speech in 1933, Butler said
the following  'I helped make Mexico, especially
Tampico, safe for American oil interests in 1914.
I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for
the National City Bank boys to collect revenues
in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen
Central American republics for the benefit of
Wall Street. The record of racketeering is long.
I helped purify Nicaragua for the international
banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912. I
brought light to the Dominican Republic for
American sugar interests in 1916. In China I
helped to see to it that Standard Oil went its
way unmolested'."  Russell Mokhiber and Robert
Weissman
32
It is not the critic that counts not the one
who points out how the strong person stumbles, or
where the doer of deeds could have done them
better.  The credit belongs to the person who is
actually in the arena, whose face is marred by
the dust and sweat and blood who strives
valiantly who errs, and comes short again and
again, because there is no effort without error
and shortcoming but who does actually strive to
do the deeds who knows the great enthusiasms,
the great devotions who spends himself or
herself in a worthy cause who at the best knows
in the end the triumph of high achievement, and
who at the worst, if he or she fails, at least
while daring greatly, so that his or her place
shall never be with those cold and timid souls
who know neither victory nor defeat. Theodore
Roosevelt
33
". . . We have about 50 of the world's wealth,
but only 6.3 of its population. . . In this
situation, we cannot fail to be the object of
envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming
period is to devise a pattern of relationships
which will permit us to maintain this position of
disparity without positive detriment to our
national security. To do so, we will have to
dispense with all sentimentality and
day-dreaming, and our attention will have to be
concentrated everywhere on our immediate national
objective. We need not deceive ourselves that we
can afford today the luxury of altruism and
world-benefaction. . . We should cease to talk
about vague and -- for the Far East -- unreal
objectives such as human rights, the raising of
the living standards, and democratization. The
day is not far off when we are going to have to
deal in straight power concepts. The less we are
then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better."
George Kennan, Head of the State Dept planning
staff in the early post-World War II period (This
was a top secret internal document written in
1948.)
34
"All of us have heard this term 'preventive war'
since the earliest days of Hitler. I recall that
is about the first time I heard it. In this day
and time...I don't believe there is such a thing
and, frankly, I wouldn't even listen to anyone
seriously that came in and talked about such a
thing."  President Dwight Eisenhower, 1953, upon
being presented with plans to wage a preventive
war to disarm Stalin's Soviet Union "Our
position is that whatever grievances a nation may
have, however objectionable it finds the status
quo, aggressive warfare is an illegal means for
settling those grievances or for altering those
conditions."  Supreme Court Justice Robert
Jackson, the American prosecutor at the Nuremberg
trials, in his opening statement to the
tribunal "Truth never damages a cause that is
just." Mohandas K. Gandhi
35
Be Angry at the Sun 1941  "That public men
publish falsehoods Is nothing new. That America
must accept Like the historical republics
corruption and empire Has been known for years. .
. . Be angry at the sun for setting If these
things anger you. Watch the wheel slope and
turn, They are all bound on the wheel, these
people, those warriors. This republic, Europe,
Asia. Let boys want pleasure, and men Struggle
for power, and women perhaps for fame, And the
servile to serve a Leader and the dupes to be
duped. Yours is not theirs."  Robinson
Jeffers In war, truth is the first casualty. 
Aeschylus
36
"On a visit to Europe a few days before he was
assassinated by elite government forces in San
Salvador in November 1989, Father Ignacio
Ellacuria, rector of the University of Central
America, addressed the West on the underlying
issues. You 'have organized' your lives around
inhuman values, he said. These values 'are
inhuman because they cannot be universalized. The
system rests on a few using the majority of the
resources, while the majority can't even cover
their basic necessities. It is crucial to define
a system of values and a norm of living that
takes into account every human being." Noam
Chomsky "Our political culture has a conception
of democracy that differs from that of the
Brazilian bishops. For them, democracy means that
citizens would have the opportunity to inform
themselves, to take part in inquiry and
discussion and policy formation, and to advance
their programs through political action. For us,
democracy is more narrowly conceived the citizen
is a consumer and observer but not a participant.
The public has the right to ratify policies that
originate elsewhere, but if these limits are
exceeded, we have not democracy, but a 'crisis of
democracy,' which must somehow be resolved." Noam
Chomsky
37
I know if I dont write about something within a
couple of years it will be lost in these piles.
The trouble is, all of us feel like this. Youre
so far out of the mainstream that the few people
who follow these issues closely and who write
about them know that if they dont deal with
something, its out of history. Noam
Chomsky "Whoever wishes to foresee the future
must consult the past for human events ever
resemble those of preceding times. This arises
from the fact that they are produced by men who
ever have been, and ever shall be, animated by
the same passions, and thus they necessarily have
the same results."Machiavelli
38
"When a candidate for public office faces the
voters he does not face men of sense he faces a
mob of men whose chief distinguishing mark is the
fact that they are quite incapable of weighing
ideas, or even of comprehending any save the most
elemental--men whose whole thinking is done in
terms of emotion, and whose dominant emotion is
dread of what they cannot understand. So
confronted, the candidate must either bark with
the pack or be lost... All the odds are on the
man who is, intrinsically, the most devious and
mediocre--the man who can most adeptly disperse
the notion that his mind is a virtual vacuum. The
Presidency tends, year by year, to go to such
men. As democracy is perfected, the office
represents, more and more closely, the inner soul
of the people. We move toward a lofty ideal. On
some great and glorious day the plain folks of
the land will reach their heart's desire at last,
and the White House will be adorned by a
downright moron." - H. L. Mencken, in the
Baltimore Sun, July 26, 1920. Asked whether
America is bound by any international system,
legal framework or code of conduct, the US
defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld replied 'I
honestly believe that every country ought to do
what it wants to do ... It either is proud of
itself afterwards, or it is less proud of
itself.'
39
I think that in the long run, our non-violent
approach and the moral supremacy of the
Czechoslovak people over the aggressor had, and
still has moral significance.  In retrospect it
could be said that the peaceful approach may have
contributed to the breakup of the aggressive
bloc. . . . My conviction that moral
considerations have their place in politics does
not follow simply from the fact that small
countries must be moral because they do not have
the ability to strike aback at bigger powers. 
Without morality it is not possible to speak of
international law.  To disregard moral principles
in the realm of politics would be a return to the
law of the jungle.  Alexander Dubcek, August
1990 "When you look at a corporation, just like
when you look at a slave owner, you want to
distinguish between the institution and the
individual. So slavery, for example, or other
forms of tyranny, are inherently monstrous. But
the individuals participating in them may be the
nicest guys you can imagine - benevolent,
friendly, nice to their children, even nice to
their slaves, caring about other people. I mean
as individuals they may be anything. In their
institutional role, they're monsters, because the
institution's monstrous. And the same is true
here."  Noam Chomsky
40
The majority rules and law rests on numbers, not
on intellect or virtue. . . while theoretically
holding that no vote of the majority can
authorize injustice, we practically consider
public opinion the real test of what is true and
false and hence, as a result, the fact which
Tocqueville has noticed, that practically our
institutions protect, not the interest of the
whole community but the interests of the
majority. Abolitionist Wendell Phillips "Never
do anything against conscience even if the state
demands it."  Albert Einstein   "It is the
responsibility of intellectuals to speak the
truth to justice and to expose lies."  Noam
Chomsky
41
". . . refuse to settle for simple explanations
for complex problems. . . . Honest history
answers our questions only by asking something of
us in return."  Text author Edward L. Ayers "And
in the general hardening of outlook that set in .
. . practices which had been long abandoned -
imprisonment without trial, the use of war
prisoners as slaves, public executions, torture
to extract confessions . . . and the deportation
of whole populations - not only became common
again, but were tolerated and even defended by
people who considered themselves enlightened and
progressive."  George Orwell, Nineteen
Eighty-Four   "Justice, justice . . . both for
the ends and the means."  Ron Suskind "It is
uncertain if we have the national leadership and
the collective intelligence and will to confront
issues that can't simply be solved by avoidance
or the 'invisible hand' of the free market."  
Dr. Randal Beeman 2005
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