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Introduction to Business Systems Development

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Title: Introduction to Business Systems Development


1
Introduction to Business Systems Development
BCO1048
2
Topic 2
Computer Based Information Systems
Satzinger 4th edn. Chapter 1, 4
3
Information System Building Blocks
  • Overview
  • Define an information system
  • Describe the role of information technology in
    information systems.
  • Differentiate between front- and back-office
    information systems.
  • Classes of information system applications and
    how they interoperate.
  • Information systems architecture in system
    development.
  • Three focuses for information systems.

4
Whitten et al.
5
Information Systems Technology
  • An information system (IS) is a collection of
    interrelated components that interact to support
    and improve day-to-day operations in a business
    as well as support the problem-solving and
    decision making needs of management and users.

6

Transforming data ... .into useful
information
  • An information system is
  • people, data, processes,
  • communications, and information technology
  • that
  • support and improve the day-to-day operations
  • and
  • fulfill the problem-solving and decision-making
    information needs of managers and users

7
Computer Based Information System
  • An Information System that uses computer systems,
    devices and technology is a CBIS
  • made up of people, software,
  • hardware, databases and procedures
  • There are different types of CBISs, each serving
    the needs of different users.

8
Front/Back Office I.S.
  • Front-office information systems support business
    functions that reach out to customers (customer
    facing systems).
  • Marketing
  • Sales
  • Customer management
  • Back-office information systems support internal
    business operations and interactions with
    suppliers.
  • Human resources
  • Financial management
  • Manufacturing
  • Inventory control

9
Whitten et al Fig 2.1
10
Classes of Information Systems
  • 1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
  • 2. Management Information Systems (MIS)
  • 3. Decision Support Systems (DSS)
  • 4. Expert Systems (ES)
  • 5. Office Automation Systems (OA)
  • 6. Communication Support Systems (CSS)
  • 7. Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP)
  • 8. Customer Relationship Management Systems (CRM)
  • 9. Executive Information Systems (EIS)

11
(No Transcript)
12
1. (TPS)Transaction Processing Systems
  • Business transactions are events that serve the
    mission of the business.
  • TPS capture and process data about/for business
    transactions.
  • Operations and control of day to day information
  • Very short term
  • Uses internal information
  • Data must be precise for correct decision making
  • Sometimes called data processing systems.

13
2. (MIS) Management Information Systems
  • MIS supplements transaction processing systems
    with management reports required to plan,
    monitor, and control business operations.
  • Gives management control over ongoing functions
  • Short term up to 2-3 months
  • Internal information
  • Data is vital for correct decision making

14
3. (DSS) Decision Support System
  • Concerned with providing useful information to
    support the decision process and explore the
    impact of options
  • Provides decision-oriented information whenever a
    decision making situation arises
  • Sometimes called executive information systems
  • Designed to support unstructured decisions

15
Decision Support System
  • A data warehouse is a read-only, informational
    database that is populated with detailed,
    summary, and exception data and information
    generated by other transaction and management
    information systems
  • The data warehouse can then be accessed by users
    and managers with DSS tools that generate a
    virtually limitless variety of information in
    support of unstructured decisions

16
  • Characteristics
  • long term
  • senior management
  • uses external and internal information
  • data is not vital

17
  • 4. Expert Systems (ES)
  • Are an extension of the decision support system
  • Captures the knowledge and expertise of a problem
    solver or decision maker, and then simulates the
    thinking of that expert for those who have less
    expertise
  • Implemented with artificial intelligence
    technology that captures, stores, and provides
    access to the reasoning of the experts

18
5. Office Automation Systems
  • Office automation (OA) systems support the wide
    range of business office activities that provide
    for improved work flow and communications between
    workers, regardless of whether or not those
    workers are located in the same office

19
  • These are typically built using personal computer
    technology and software.
  • Personal information systems are those designed
    to meet the needs of a single user. They are
    designed to boost an individuals productivity.
  • Work group information systems are those designed
    to meet the needs of a work group. They are
    designed to boost the groups productivity.

20
6. (CSS)Communication Support Systems
  • Allow employees to communicate with each other
    and with customers and suppliers
  • Eg. Email, video conferencing systems

21
7. (ERP)Enterprise Resource Planning
  • ERP software product is a fully integrated
    information system that spans most basic business
    functions required by a major corporation.
  • ERP software vendors include
  • Baan, J. D. Edwards, Oracle, Peoplesoft, SAP

22
8. (CRM) Customer Relationship Management
  • Systems and process that support marketing, sales
    and service involving direct and indirect
    customer interaction
  • Helps improve customer loyalty
  • The competition is just a click away

23
9. (EIS)Executive Information Systems
  • Information systems for executives
  • monitoring the competitive environment
  • strategic planning

24
Whitten et al, Fig 2.2
25
Electronic Commerce
  • E-commerce / EC involves conducting both internal
    and external business over the Internet,
    intranets, and extranets.
  • includes the buying and selling of goods and
    services, the transfer of funds, and the
    simplification of day-to-day business processes
    all through digital communications.
  • 3 basic types include Marketing,
    Business-to-consumer (B2C), Business-to-business
    (B2B)

26
Legacy Systems
  • Older information system applications that have
    become crucial to the day-to-day operation of a
    business and that may use old or outdated
    technologies.
  • Can be adversely affected by technology and
    economic forces. E.g. Year 2000, Euro
  • Can be replaced by alternative solutions.
  • E.g. ERP, E-Commerce

27
Information Systems Architecture
  • Information systems architecture provides a
    unifying framework into which various people with
    different perspectives can organize and view the
    fundamental building blocks of information
    systems.

28
Perspectives or Stakeholders
  • System owners (clients) pay for the system to be
    built and maintained.
  • System users use the system to perform the work
    to be done.
  • System designers design it to meet the users
    requirements.
  • System builders construct, test, and deliver the
    system.
  • Systems analysts facilitate the development of
    information systems and computer applications by
    bridging the communications gap that exists
    between non-technical system owners and users and
    technical system designers and builders.
  • IT vendors and consultants sell hardware,
    software, and services to businesses for
    incorporation into their information systems.

29
Focuses for Information Systems
  • Datathe raw material used to create useful
    information
  • Processesthe activities (including management)
    that carry out the mission of the business
  • Interfaceshow the system interfaces with its
    users and other information systems

30
Information System Perspectives and
Focuses Whitten et al Fig 2.3
31
The DATA Focus
Whitten et al Fig 2.4
32
The Data Focus
  • System owners perspective
  • Business knowledge
  • System users perspective
  • Data requirements
  • System designers perspective
  • Database schema
  • System builders perspective
  • Database management system

33
The PROCESS Focus
Whitten et al Fig 2.5
34
The Process Focus
  • System owners perspective
  • Business functions are ongoing activities that
    support the business
  • A cross-functional information system supports
    relevant business processes from several business
    functions without regard to traditional
    organizational boundaries such as divisions,
    departments, centers, and offices

Continued ...
35
The Process Focus
  • System users perspectives
  • Business processes are the work performed by
    the system
  • Process requirements are a representation of the
    users business processes in terms of activities,
    data flows, or work flow
  • A policy is a set of rules that govern a business
    process and a procedure is a step-by-step set of
    instructions and logic for accomplishing a
    business process

Continued ...
36
The Process Focus
  • System designers perspectives
  • An application schema is a model that
    communicates how selected business processes are,
    or will be, implemented using the software and
    hardware
  • Software specifications represent the technical
    design of business processes to be automated or
    supported by computer programs to be written by
    system builders

37
The Process Focus
  • System builders perspectives
  • Application programs are language-based,
    machine-readable representations of what a
    software process is supposed to do, or how a
    software process is supposed to accomplish its
    task
  • Prototyping is a technique for quickly building a
    functioning, but incomplete model of the
    information system using rapid application
    development tools

38
The INTERFACE Focus
Whitten et al Fig 2.6
39
The Interface Focus
  • System owners perspective
  • System users perspectives
  • Interface requirements are a representation of
    the users inputs and outputs.
  • System designers perspective
  • User dialogues describe how the user moves from
    window-to-window, interacting with the
    application programs to perform useful work.
  • System builders perspective

40
Information System Building Blocks
Whitten et al. Fig 2.7
41
The Role of the Network in IS
Whitten et al Fig 2.8
42
A CommunicationsFocus in IS
43
Homework
  • From Satzinger et al.
  • - Read and summarize
  • pages 8-28
  • - Complete
  • Review questions 5, 11 (page 30)
  • Thinking Critically 10 (page 30)
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