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Chapter 11: Sexual Orientation

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Some hetero and homosexuals believe that bisexuals are just not out of the closet' Bisexual individuals may change their self-identity over time. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 11: Sexual Orientation


1
Chapter 11 Sexual Orientation
  • For use with Human Sexuality Today (4th Ed.)
  • Bruce King
  • Slides prepared by Traci Craig

2
Chapter Overview
  • Prevalence
  • Defining sexual orientation
  • Origins of sexual orientation
  • Biological Explanations
  • History and Attitudes about Homosexuality
  • Coming out
  • Lifestyles and Relations
  • Marriage and Parenthood
  • Media
  • Can (Should) sexual orientation be changed?

3
Prevalence
  • Recent national cross-sectional survey
  • 22 of men and 17 of women have had same-sex
    sexual experiences
  • 9 of men and 5 of women frequently or ongoing
  • Parade magazine men 3 homosexual, 3 bisexual
    women 1 homosexual, .4 bisexual.

4
Defining Sexual Orientation
  • Behavior? Psychological? Fantasy?
    Self-identification?
  • 5.5 of women and 5 of men said the idea of
    having a same-sex sexual experience was
    appealing
  • Sexual Orientation distinct preferences
    consistently made after adolescence in the
    presence of clear alternatives.

5
Defining Sexual Orientation
  • Kinseys scale better than dichotomy.
  • Still does not distinguish psychology from
    behavior.

6
Bisexuality
  • Some hetero and homosexuals believe that
    bisexuals are just not out of the closet
  • Bisexual individuals may change their
    self-identity over time. Homosexual?Bisexual or
    Bisexual?Homosexual
  • Is it behavior? Feeling? Identity?
  • People do not seem to use just behavior when
    defining sexual orientation for themselves.

7
Bisexuality
  • A person can enjoy and engage in sexual activity
    with members of both sexes, or recognizes a
    desire to do so.
  • Distinct from heterosexuality or homosexuality,
    an independent construct not a weaker orientation.

8
Sexual Orientation,Gender Identity, and Gender
Roles
  • Gender identity is similar for homosexual,
    heterosexual and bisexual individuals
  • Gender dysphoria is neither a result, associate,
    nor cause of sexual orientation.
  • Homosexuality and Bisexuality not associated with
    reversed or atypical gender roles.

9
Origins
  • Psychoanalytic ExplanationsResolution of the
    Oedipus complex, fixation in this stage
    ?homosexuality
  • Boys with domineering, rejecting mother and
    turned to father/men for love.
  • Girls continue to have penis envy and this leads
    to masculine identification
  • Research does not support this theoretical view.

10
Psychosocial Explanations
  • Social learning theorylearned behaviors
  • Same-sex relations rewarding?homosexuality
  • Cross-sex relations rewarding?heterosexuality
  • Researchnot an attractiveness issue, not lack of
    rewards associated with cross-sex contact.
  • Initial experiences have some influence.

11
Demographics
  • Homsexual men tend to have a later birth order
  • More older brothers then more effeminate
    homosexuality
  • Not true for women
  • Birth order effects not present in adopted
    families
  • Biology must be part of the answer.

12
Biological Explanations
  • Genetic Factors Twin studieshigh concordance in
    identical twins, but support is varied
  • Anatomical Factors
  • Brainhomosexual men have larger hypothalamus
    than heterosexual men.
  • Inner earhomosexual women identical structure to
    heterosexual men
  • Biological componentbut not clear evidence as
    female homosexuals do not always follow pattern.

13
Biological Explanations
  • Hormonal Factors Anatomical differences
    influenced by hormones during infancy.
  • Levels of testosterone in adult homosexual and
    heterosexual males do not differ.
  • Effects of hormones occur early on prenatally or
    by the age of two.

14
Origins Conclusions
  • Both biological and social factors contribute to
    the development of sexual orientation.
  • The relationship is complex.
  • Perhaps biology causes a predisposition, that is
    then influenced by social factors.
  • Consequences of conclusiveness about origin.

15
History and Attitudes
  • Ancient Greece?pederasty adult men and boys
    engaging in same sex behaviors.
  • Roman Empire?Same sex marriage legal in the upper
    class and pederasty common.
  • Jewish culture?female homosexuality no spillage
    of seed.
  • St. Augustine procreation only

16
History and Attitudes
  • Late 1800shomosexuality/mental illness
  • Frontal lobotomies, forced castration or
    hysterectomy, ECT, hormone injections
  • 1960sno psychological differences
  • 1973APA removed homosexuality as a mental
    illness from the DSM
  • 18 states have laws against oral anal sex.
  • Stonewall1969 Gay Rights Movement

17
History and Attitudes
  • Catholic Churchthe behavior is a sin
  • Southern Baptistssinners can receive forgiveness
    through personal faith
  • Anglican Churchloved by god, but incompatible
    with scripture
  • US Military dont ask, dont tell
  • 1999?this policy is a failure

18
Sexual Prejudice
  • 1990s 60 of Americans?same sex is always wrong
  • 2000 only 46?homosexuality is a sin
  • 80?deserve job protection
  • 78?equal rights in housing
  • NYC Children of the Rainbow
  • Victims of hate crimes at least 1,000 per year
    reported
  • 1998 Matthew Shepard

19
Sexual Prejudice
  • 90 of gay men have been verbally abused or
    threatened
  • 33 of men at a liberal and tolerant college had
    used physical violence of name-calling directed
    at homosexuals.
  • Homosexual teens have a suicide rate and
    depression rate of about 18-28

20
Sexual Prejudice
  • Homophobia negative attitudes due to irrational
    fear
  • Sexual prejudice socially reinforced and also
    includes negative attitudes
  • Men are more sexual prejudiced than women. Also
    more directed toward gay men than toward lesbians.

21
Sexual Prejudice
  • Enforcing morality? then why arent lesbians also
    targeted
  • Homophobic men show arousal when shown male
    homosexual videos.
  • Affirmation of manhood via overt acts of sexual
    prejudice
  • Other cultures accept same-sex affection among
    friends and family, but not so in America

22
Coming Out
  • Stages to disclosing ones homosexuality
  • FirstSelf-recognition of homosexuality
  • SecondGetting to know others to end isolation
  • ThirdTelling friends and family
  • PFLAG
  • Fourthcomplete openness about ones
    homosexuality

23
Lifestyles and Relations
  • Gay community typically well-educated,
    professional careers, and openly homosexual.
  • Urban areas
  • 60 of gay men with partners live in one of 20
    cities.

24
Lifestyles and Relations
  • 5 categories or lifestyles
  • Close-coupled?1 partner and happy being gay
  • Open-coupled?primary partner and also dating and
    happy being gay
  • Functional?multiple partners, date, enjoy
    independence, and comfortable with being gay
  • Dysfunctional?sexually active but not happy
  • Asexual?single few partners and not interested in
    partners.

25
Lifestyles and Relations
  • No differences between homosexual and
    heterosexual couples in satisfaction and
    commitment.
  • Few role models for young homosexuals about how
    to be in relationships
  • Similar to heterosexual couples in behavior
  • Kiss, caress, oral-genital sex, and (for men)
    anal sex.
  • Lesbian couples spend more time touching and
    caressing than heterosexual couples where the
    male is present and goal oriented.

26
Homosexuals and Marriage
  • 25 of gay men and 40 of lesbians have been
    married to heterosexual partners.
  • Desire for family, societal pressure, negative
    feelings about homosexuality, affection for
    partner.
  • Few partners know, low chance of monogamy
  • When partners find out?deceived, painful
    emotionally

27
Homosexuals and Marriage
  • Purpose of marriage? Procreation? Ban marriage
    for infertile couples too?
  • Defense of Marriage Actunion of a man and a
    woman
  • 32 states have banned same sex marriage
  • Vermont? civil unions

28
Homosexuals as Parents
  • 27 of the homosexual community have children
  • 39 of Americans are in favor of adoption rights
    for homosexual parents
  • Children do not show gender identity conflicts,
    nor adjustment problems, and are not more likely
    to be gay.
  • Harassment by peers in school.
  • APA Sexual orientation should not be a basis for
    custody.

29
Media Portrayal
  • Birdcage vs. Philadelphia
  • Portraying the stereotype
  • In Out vs. Ellen
  • Will Grace Queer as Folk
  • Slowly changing depictions of gay and lesbian
    characters on TV and in movies.
  • Becoming more inclusive

30
Can (should) sexual orientation be changed?
  • 50 of American believe that willpower, therapy,
    or religion can change sexual orientation
  • 11 of gays and lesbians also believe this
  • Exodus Internationallong term success?
  • Experts agree it is simply not possible to change
    someones sexual orientation
  • APA reparative therapy is harmful
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