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Special Education 101 the Book


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Title: Special Education 101 the Book

Special Education 101 the Book
  • Special Education
  • September 29, 2009

Table of contents
  • Chapter 1 (WH)
  • Presentation of significant dates timeline
  • Chapter 2 (WH)
  • Birth to 3 going into KDG
  • Chapter 3 (BL)
  • Elementary school entry in SpEd
  • Chapter 4 (SGO)
  • Age 15 - 21
  • Chapter 5 (WSB)
  • Introduction of IEP
  • Chapter 6 (MB)
  • State required reports
  • Chapter 7 (JW)
  • Data
  • Chapter 8 (S)
  • Dream thoughts
  • Chapter 9 (WH)
  • Excess cost, Revenue producing and Medicaid
  • Chapter 10 (SB)

Chapter 1
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Chapter 2
Birth to 3
  • 90 days before age 3
  • Play group IEP
  • 1 week before IEP to review B-3 referral
  • IEP meeting to determine the need for evaluation
  • 4 6 weeks before 3rd birthday
  • IEP meeting to review evaluation-determine
    eligibility and make appropriate recommendations
  • 2 weeks before 3rd birthday
  • 3rd birthday If appropriate child is placed in
    one of 5 of our preschool SpEd services

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Chapter 3
What Happens When There Is A Concern About
Student Learning In Elementary Schools? In the
Stamford Public Schools all children are provided
with the differentiation needed to gain success
in the general education classroom. As children
enter each school year teachers measure baseline
skills that the children possess, in order to
gain an understanding of academic needs. These
assessments will identify for the teacher three
groups of students those at risk, those on
target with grade level skills, and those on the
far end of the learning continuum who will
require enrichment. When students are identified
as possibly at risk the teacher develops a
plan, or plans, to differentiate instruction.
The purpose of the differentiation is to ensure
that a students apparent academic needs are not
the result of loosely coupled teaching methods,
lack of instruction, curriculum implementation
that does not align with student learning style,
or even cultural/language differences. This
collection of data is the beginning of the
Response to Intervention model. A Response to
Intervention (RtI) model is an approach that
provides structured systematic planning to
address students with learning needs. In the
Response to Intervention model there are three
tiers of support. The first tier, Tier I, is
technically for all students, and approximately
80 of the students fall into Tier I support.
When in Tier I teachers monitor students
progress through periodic assessment and data
collection. As a result of this monitoring a
teacher may change teaching methods, provide
focused instruction, develop a home plan for
reinforcement of skills, and/or consult with
peers. Supports are provided in the general
education class setting. It is the teachers role
to implement strategies in the manner in which
they were developed, with fidelity. Continuous
monitoring will determine if a student requires
more support, and move onto Tier II of the model.
The Tier II support typically supports 15 to 18
of students. Tier II support may be delivered in
the general education classroom or in an
alternate setting. Tier II support is small
group instruction that is supplemental to a
students general classroom instruction and may be
from three to five times per week. As
students progress continues to be monitored a
classroom teacher may involve the support of the
Individual Learning Needs Coach (ILNC) or Coach.
The role of the Coach is to support the teacher
in using data to guide decisions in development
of systematic intervention strategies that are
Scientifically Research Based Interventions
(SRBI). The coach will act as the conduit to
other professionals in the building as well as
monitor movement through the tiers, consult with
parents, and provide input in developing
interventions. When a students progress does
not improve as predicted the Coach and the school
team may decide to increase the frequency and
duration of an intervention. The last tier in
the model, Tier III, provides a student with more
individualized supports with duration and
frequency beyond Tier II. Tier III interventions
are provided by professionals in the building,
other than the general education teacher.
Data is collected throughout the RtI model. If a
student responds favorably to the provided
interventions they will continue until they are
no longer needed. When a students progress is
not adequate and documentation of interventions
indicates that even with focused, consistent use
of evidence based interventions and methods the
students needs are pervasive, a team will refer
the student to special education for evaluation
in order to determine if the student is eligible
for special education services. Then a Planning
and Placement Team (PPT) meeting is scheduled to
discuss such a referral with the parent and to
gain consent to conduct an evaluation. On
occasion a parent may request evaluations prior
to use of the RtI model with SRBI. Then a PPT is
scheduled to discuss the parent concerns and to
determine if a referral to special education is
warranted, based on the students academic
performance. While use of SRBI prior to referral
to special education is preferred it cannot be
used as a reason to delay evaluations should a
parent have valid concerns regarding a students
daily functioning. Once a PPT is held, and
parent consents in writing to evaluations. The
district has forty-five school days to complete
the evaluations, return to PPT to determine
eligibility for special education services, and
initiate special education instruction (with
written parental consent). Eligibility is based
on the criteria for one of the 14 disability
categories offered by the state. RtI Number of
Students Supported School Year Students
Supported 2006-2007 601 2007-2008 616 2008-2009
612 Students Evaluated for Eligibility for
Special Education Services School Year Students
Eligible for Sp Ed Students NOT Eligible for Sp
Ed Total Students Evaluated 2005-2006
Pre-RtI not available not available 350 2006-2007
3 0 3 2007-2008 47 32 79 2008-2009 95 46 141
Chapter 4
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Chapter 5
  • IEP document and IEP teaching tool

Chapter 6
State Performance Plan (SPP) Annual Performance
Report (APR)and Special Ed Data(SEDAC/ECO/Evalua
tion Timelines/ ED166/Monitoring/etc.)
The Big Picture
  • Frozen moments in time. Three snapshots of your
    district during the school year October,
    January, and June (last day of school for your
  • Collection of student records includes SASID,
    Special Ed status (Y/N), Nexus District, Facility
    Code 1
  • Used by SEDAC during the October collection
    period for IEP students only.
  • Not used by ECO except for SDE analysis.

CT State Performance Plan
  • 6 year plan describes the States performance on
    20 indicators
  • Required by IDEA
  • More alignment with NCLB
  • SPP Submitted to OSEP in Dec. 2005
  • Must report progress to OSEP every year on all
    indicators 1-20 (Annual Performance Report -
    APR) due February 1

CT State Performance Plan
  • Out of the 20 indicators, 7 are compliance
    indicators targets are 0 or 100
  • Developed with broad stakeholder input
  • Establishes baseline data and targets for each
    year with improvement activities at the State and
    local levels

  • Indicator 1 Graduation Rate
  • Data from PSIS Un-Register and SEDAC Service Plan
    Exits Report
  • Grads / Grads 4 years of of Dropouts (by
  • Target changes every year
  • Indicator 2 Drop Out Rate
  • Data from PSIS Un-Register and SEDAC Service Plan
    Exits Report
  • Dropouts/ 9-12 graders in previous October 1
  • Target changes every year

  • Indicator 3 Participation and Performance on
    Statewide Assessments
  • 3 Sections- Districts Made AYP for SE
    Participation Performance
  • Data from CMT and CAPT AYP Files
  • Targets match NCLB Targets
  • Indicator 4 Suspension and Expulsion
  • Data from ED166
  • students with disabilities suspended/expelled
    for 11 or more days cumulatively
  • District Target lt 1.0 of SWD

  • Indicator 5 Removal from Regular Class
  • From SEDAC Combination of Federal Environments
    Variable (calculation) and TWNDP
  • 3 Actual Categories (80-100 0-40 Outplaced)
  • Targets change every year
  • Indicator 6 Preschool Settings
  • Data from SEDAC Early Childhood Settings
  • Targets not yet set feds keep changing the rules

  • Indicator 7 Early Childhood Outcomes
  • Data from ECO Calculation of amount of movement
    pre- to post- regarding age appropriate behaviors
    in the areas
  • Social Emotional Skills
  • Use of Knowledge
  • and Appropriate Behaviors.
  • Targets not yet set feds keep changing the rules
  • Indicator 8 Parent Involvement
  • From Parent Survey (6 year cycle)
  • Target changes every year

  • Indicator 9 Disproportionate Representation in
    Special Education
  • Data from SEDAC/PSIS Race Analysis
  • Over and Under-Representation
  • ALL Races including White
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 0
  • Indicator 10 Disproportionate Representation in
    6 Disability Categories
  • Data from SEDAC/PSIS Race Analysis
  • LD, ID, ED, SLI, OHI, and AU
  • Over and Under-Representation
  • ALL Races including White
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 0

Indicator 9/10 VS. 15
  • Disproportionate Representation (Ind.9/10)
  • Over- and Under-Representation
  • All Races
  • RRI gt 2.0 or RRIlt -4.0
  • Disproportionality due to inappropriate Policies,
    Practices or Procedures
  • 15 - Significant Disproportionality
  • Over-Representation only
  • All Races
  • RRI gt 4.0 for 2 consecutive years
  • Disproportionality driven by numbers only.

  • Indicator 11 Evaluation Timelines
  • From Evaluation Timelines Report
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 100
  • Indicator 12 FAPE at Age 3
  • Data from SEDAC (FAPE at 3 Variable)
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 100
  • Indicator 13 Post-Secondary Transition Goals and
  • Data from SEDAC (16 years old)
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 100

  • Indicator 14 Post-Secondary Outcomes
  • From Special Education EXITERS Survey
  • Target changes every year
  • Indicator 15 General Supervision
  • Noncompliance corrected within One Year
  • Data from ALL DATA SOURCES
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 100
  • Indicator 16 Complaints
  • Data from State Complaints System
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 100

  • Indicator 17 Due Process Hearings
  • Data from State Complaints System
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 100
  • Indicator 18 Resolution Sessions
  • Data from State Complaints System
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 100
  • Indicator 19 Mediations
  • Data from State Complaints System
  • COMPLIANCE Indicator 100

  • Indicator 20 Timely/Accurate Data
  • District Reported Data from
  • ECO
  • Evaluation Timelines
  • Exit Data (PSIS/SEDAC)
  • Assessment/NCLB Data
  • ED 166
  • ED 162/163 Certified/Non-Certified Staff Files
  • State Directly-Collected Data
  • Complaints/Mediations/Due Process Data
  • Exiters Survey
  • Parent Survey

  • Timely and Accurate - a holistic system analysis,
    the indicator is not about minor edits/errorsbut
    instead is about systemic failure to report
    and/or follow reporting directions/guidelines. 
  • Timely 1) submission of file by due date (no
    extensions) 2) passed general edit checks and
    provided complete data.
  • a) district did not report placeholder data
  • b) there are no missing data (i.e., failure to
    report an entire field or school, etc.) and
  • c) the data pass all reasonability tests
    (comparisons to state data and last years
    datano unexplained significant changes in counts
    or percents of students within various data
  • Accurate District corrects data errors within
    the edit checking timeframe established for each
    data collection.
  • Accuracy includes the return of any required
    attestations to the data submitted (i.e., federal
    sign-off submitted).

Special Ed State Dept of Education Data Collection
Chapter 7
IDEA Award Grant History
Overall Decrease in SPED Population 1
Overall Identification Decrease 2 Negative
Impact of Selected Disabilities
Current Out of District School Placements
  • American School for the Deaf
  • Boston Higashi School
  • Boys and Girls Village _at_ Hayden School
  • CT Center for Child Development (CCCD)
  • Cooperative Educational Services (CES)
  • CT Childrens Medical Center (CCMC)
  • Chapel Haven
  • Childrens Center Hamden
  • CREC- River Street School
  • Crotched Mountain Rehab. Center
  • Eagle Hill
  • Edison School
  • Foundation School
  • Gersh Academy
  • Giants Steps
  • GOW School
  • Grove School
  • High Road School-Norwalk
  • Hyde School
  • Lorraine D. Foster School
  • Marvelwood School
  • McCarton Schoo
  • Mead School
  • Melmark School
  • Oak Hill School for the Blind
  • Pathway School
  • Perkins School
  • Seton Academy
  • Spaulding Youth Center
  • St. Vincents Special Needs Center
  • Swift Middle School
  • Thames Academy
  • The Childrens Village
  • The Learning Clinic
  • Villa Maria Educational Center
  • Westfield Day School
  • Winston Prep School
  • Woodhouse Academy

Out of District Students by Disability/Race
Chapter 7
In District Special Education Busing Cost
Mar 2009
Jun 2009
Jun 2010
Mar 2010
Dec 2009
Dec 2008
  • Total Costs Increase from 1,622K to 1,986K.
  • 22 Buses used each year
  • Service only SPS sites
  • Aides 21 08-09 vs. 24 09-10
  • CT State Statute 10_76d_19(a) requires
    children to be on bus no longer than 1 hour.
  • Cost of Bus is 80K Aide

Chapter 7
Out of District Special Education Busing Cost
Mar 2009
Jun 2009
Jun 2010
Mar 2010
Dec 2009
Dec 2008
  • Total Costs 1,555K vs. 1,655K
  • Servicing 26 sites from Mass NY
  • 29 Vehicles at an average cost between 50K -
    72K a year
  • Total Aides 12 vs. 14
  • Appox. 100 children
  • Costs are in direct correlation to SPS
    inability to meet the needs of the children.

Chapter 8
I Have a Dream..
  • I dream of bringing students placed in Out of
    District placements back to the Stamford Public
  • How many could we return to Stamford?
  • Which students could return given an appropriate
    program was here to receive them?
  • What would it take?
  • What would we need in order to do this?
  • How can we immerse our students in their own
    community and have them be safe and successful?
  • How many could return to Stamford?
  • Which students could return given an appropriate
    program was here to receive them?

I Have a Dream.. Pg 2
  • Our immediate look would be in investigating
    those students who have been placed out for
    academic needs, simply because their intensive
    educational needs could not be addressed within
    our existing programs. Those are students who
    are typically eligible for special education
    support services under the Learning Disabled or
    Other Health Impaired Primary Disabilities.
  • What would it take? What would we need in order
    to do this?
  • These students needs could be met in a
    multidisciplinary approach which utilizes
    educational, psychotherapeutic, behavioral,
    environmental and group techniques. The educator
    team model would have
  • Ratio no greater than 81
  • Social Skills development curriculum
  • Academic competence
  • Executive Functioning Strategizing
  • Emotional Growth/therapeutic supports

I Have a Dream...pg.3
  • This endeavor would require
  • Location with a minimum of 10 classrooms and 5
    service rooms (Full model)
  • Ten to fifteen special education teachers with
    experience in implementing behavior management
    techniques, scientific research based literacy
    practices and scientific research based math
    practices. The teachers would also be
    responsible for evaluations, reports, ongoing
    progress monitoring and IEP development/implementa
  • One full time psychiatrist to mange the
    social/emotional component of the students
    profile through direct therapy and consultation
    to the districts mental health staff.
  • One full time social worker to work on daily
    functioning and family engagement, as well as
    liaison between school and community.
  • One full time school psychologist to deliver
    group and individual counseling as well as parent
  • Other related services needed Speech and
    Language Pathologist, OT, PT, Assistive
  • One full time administrator

I Have a Dreampg. 4
  • How can we immerse our students in their own
    community and have them be safe and successful?
  • We would need
  • One full time Transition Coordinator to work with
    outside agencies, provide transitional
    assessments and vocational training and work with
    the therapeutic/academic team in social skill
    development and vocational explorations.
  • Exploration of access to typical peers

Chapter 9
School Years
Medicaid Award History
Chapter 10
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Special Ed.
What is the definition of inclusion?
  • All students in a school are part of the school
  • Feeling of belonging among other students,
    teachers, and support staff
  • A developmental approach to address the learning
    needs of all with a specific focus on those who
    are vulnerable to marginalization and exclusion

Inclusion means that all students belong
  • Inclusive education is based on the simple idea
    that every child and family is valued equally and
    deserves the same opportunities and experiences
  • Inclusive education is about children with
    disabilities-whether the disability is mild or
    severe, hidden, or obvious-participating in
    everyday activities, just like they would if
    their disability were not present

All children learn in different ways
  • Inclusion is about providing the help children
    need to learn and participate in meaningful ways.
    Sometimes, help from friends or teachers works
    best. Other times, specially designed materials
    or technology help. The key is to give only as
    much help as needed.

It is every childs right to be included
  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    clearly states that all children with
    disabilities should be educated with non-disabled
    children their own age and have access to the
    general education curriculum.

How did we get here?
  • In the early 1900s, students with I.D. were
    institutionalized for their own good
  • Brown vs. BOE- separate cannot be equal
  • 1970s-lawsuits that start the deinstitutionalizat
    ion movement

What are the findings of the P.J. case?
  • Eighty(80) percent or more of the school day with
    nondisabled students
  • A reduction in the identification of students
    with intellectual disability by LEA, by racial
    group, by ethnic group or by gender group
  • An increase in the percent of the school day that
    the students with intellectual disability spend
    with nondisabled students
  • An increase in the percent of students with
    intellectual disability who attend the school
    they would attend if not disabled (i.e. home
  • An increase in the percent of students with
    intellectual disability who participate in school
    sponsored extracurricular activities with
    nondisabled students

What are the characteristics of inclusive
  • All students are welcome in general education
  • Student classroom populations reflect the
    composition of the community at large
  • All students share the same learning experiences
    while pursuing individually appropriate learning
    outcomes with necessary supports and

More Characteristics
  • Shared educational experiences take place in
    typical settings
  • There is a balance between academic, functional,
    social, and personal goals of educational
    outcomes in educational settings
  • Students take advantage of natural supports and
    use specialized supports only as needed

What is the teachers role?
  • I have come to the frightening conclusion that I
    am the decisive element in the classroom. It is
    my personal approach that creates the climate.
    It is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a
    teacher I possess tremendous power to make a
    childs life miserable or joyous. I can be a
    tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration.
    I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all
    situations it is my response that decides whether
    a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, or a
    child humanized or de-humanized.

What is the administrators role?
  • Administrators can provide the vision of how a
    school will look if it educates all of its
    students ( Bauwens Horcade, 1995)
  • They may need to restructure the school day to
    include release and planning time for
    collaborators, scheduling changes, and various
    forms of technical assistance ( Wood, 1992)

What is the Para Educators role?
  • Support students to promote as much autonomy as
  • Fade supports as soon as possible
  • Be conscious of proximity- dont hover
  • Facilitate natural interactions
  • Model appropriate communication and social
    interaction skills ( Giangreco and Sailor, 1995)

  • Be proactive
  • Rules
  • Routines
  • Classroom management
  • Planning
  • Accountability

Implementing the Inclusive Classroom
  • Behavior/Disruptions
  • Accommodations/modifications
  • Responsibility

  • Visual supports
  • Cooperative groups
  • Graphic organizers
  • Frames
  • Learning analysis/task analysis
  • Sticky note strategy
  • Color-coding ( highlighters, post-its, tape)
  • Students chart and monitor progress
  • Adapting books/worksheets
  • Rate of speech/questioning techniques

Best Practices for including ALL Students
  • School climate structure
  • Collaborative planning
  • Social responsibility
  • Curriculum planning
  • Delivery of instructional support services
  • Individualized instruction
  • Transition planning
  • Family-school collaboration
  • Planning for continued best practice improvement

Chapter 11
Future concerns
  • Preschool population growth(340 B-3)
  • DCF placement Increases foster home placements
  • No Increase in IDEA Funding(currently near 25)
  • Impact of LD Eligibility Guidelines
  • Classroom Space for Preschool services
  • Content Competent Staff
  • IEP Development(170)

Chapter 12
  • Questions
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