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Moringa oleifera

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Title: Moringa oleifera


1
  • Moringa oleifera an underutilised
  • tree with amazing versatility

Newton K. Amaglo
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
2
Moringa tree general information
  • Family - Moringaceae
  • Genus - Moringa
  • Common names - horseradish tree, drumstick
  • tree,
    West India Ben
  • Number of species - 14
  • Most important - Moringa oleifera, M.

  • stenopetala
  • Origin - Sub-Himalayan tracts of the
  • Indian subcontinent
  • Occurrence, cultivation - all over the tropics
  • Growth and Size - fast growing perennial
    tree,
  • grows to
    7-12m height

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
3
Multiple uses of Moringa
  • Human food
  • Water purification
  • Pharmaceutical products
  • Animal and fish feed
  • Green manure
  • Plant growth hormone

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
4
Moringa parts and their uses
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
5
Moringa in Ghana
  • Currently Moringa can be found in every part of
    the country
  • In Volta region, it is called Yevu-ti (The white
    mans tree). It was introduced by the Germans
    during the second world war. It is being used
    mainly as live fence.
  • In Ashanti region, it is reported that the royal
    clan brought it on their return from the Sesheles
    Island.
  • it is known by the name Buid
  • In the upper west region, It is one of the
    traditional foods of the Dagatis where it is
    known as Onwukowo (chew and drink water)

Mrs Alice Kunadu Acheampong, 2004 Kumasi.
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
6
Methods of Moringa culture
  • Traditionally cultivated as
  • a backyard plant
  • It can also be grown as a hedge
  • Trials in Nicaragua have
  • shown that it is ideally suited
  • also for more intensive
  • production

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
7
Production of nutrients from intensiveM.
oleifera cultivation in Nicaragua
Source N. Foidl, personal communication
NSP-non-starch polysaccharides
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
8
Moringa a highly valued food in thetropics
9
Nutritional and energy content of Moringaleaves
from three regions ( in dry matter)
CP-crude protein, CL-crude lipid, NDF-neutral
detergent fibre, ADF-acid detergent
fibre, ADL-acid detergent lignin, GE-gross energy
(MJ/kg)
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
10
Mineral Composition of M. oleiferaleaves from
different origins
Y
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
11
Essential amino acid composition of M.oleifera
leaves from different regions (g/16gN)
FAO/WHO (1990) reference pattern suggested for
pre-school children (2-5 years old) acystine
methionine btyrosine phenylalanine
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
12
Intensive moringa leaf production
  • Moringa can be grown intensively with yields of
    up to 650 metric tons of green matter per
    hectare.
  • This compares very well to other green manure
    crops such as Lablab beans, which yield up to 110
    tons/hectare of green matter in pure stands.
  • The green matter is harvested when plants reach a
    height of 50cm or more (every 35-40 days), cut at
    a distance of 15-20cm above the ground.
  • Although losses of seedlings may be 20-30 in
    the first year, the vigorous regrowth of the
    remaining seedlings will produce 3 or 5 new
    shoots after each cutting. Up to nine harvest can
    be obtained annually.

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
13
Young Moringa Shoots about 3 weeks old
14
Moringa Shoots Ready for first Harvest
15
Moringa Shoots Cut at 20cm high
16
Moringa- Nutritional Content
  • India's ancient tradition of ayurveda says the
    leaves of the Moringa tree prevent 300 diseases.
  • Modern science confirms the basic idea.
  • Scientific research has proven that these humble
    leaves are in fact a powerhouse of nutritional
    value.
  • Gram for gram, Moringa leaves contain

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
17
Moringa- Nutritional Content- Cont.
ECHO development nodes 1997 MOH report of
health and disease analysis task team. Feb 2001
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
18
M. oleifera leaves have become arecommended food
supplement
Problem of availability and affordability in poor
far flung areas
Available and affordable to all, spectacular
results, improvement from day 10
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
19
Moringa a nutritious vegetable to afunctional
food
  • Leaf powder now recommended in Africa and
  • Asia as a nutritional supplement for
  • Lactating mothers
  • Infants and children

Photo Lowell J. Fuglie, Church World Service
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
20

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
21
Moringa shoots as green manure
  • Using moringa as a green manure can significantly
    enrich agricultural land. In this process,
  • the land is first tilled. Moringa seed is then
    planted 1-2 cm deep at a spacing of 10x10 cm or
    less.
  • After 25 days, the seedlings are plowed into the
    soil to a depth of 15cm.
  • The land is then prepared again for the crop
    desired.

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
22
Major secondary compounds in Moringa parts(DM
basis)
inverse of wt. of sample in g per ml of assay
solution that caused agglutination nd not
detectable
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
23
Level of two bioactive flavonoids inMoringa
leaves and extracts
Prof Dr Klaus Becker
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
24
Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activityof
Moringa leaf extracts and syntheticantioxidants
Prof Dr Klaus Becker
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
25
Yield percent of different solventextracts from
Moringa leaves
Prof Dr Klaus Becker
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
26
Content of carotenoids and ascorbic acid
inMoringa leaves from different regions (mg / kg
DM)
Prof Dr Klaus Becker
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
27
Chemical composition of untreated andtreated
kernels and shells of M. oleifera( in DM)
Prof Dr Klaus Becker
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa
28
Content of carotenoids and ascorbic acid
inMoringa leaves from different regions (mg / kg
DM)
Prof Dr Klaus Becker
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
29
Use of Moringa as animal feed
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
30
Effect of Moringa forage supplementation on body
mass development in cattle
From N. Foidl Nicaragua, dry season
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
31
Moringa seed extract (MSE) influences
proteindigestion by rumen microbes
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
32
Moringa forage as supplement in fatteningdiets
for pigs
From N. Foidl Nicaragua
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
33
Growth performance of tilapia fed
dietscontaining Moringa leaves
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
34
Liver retinol (vitamin A) enrichment intilapia
fed Moringa leaves
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
35
Moringa as Livestock feed Cont.
  • Care must be taken to avoid excessive protein
    intake.
  • Too much protein in pig feed will increase muscle
    development at expense of fat production.
  • In cattle feed too much protein can be fatal
    (from alteration of the nitrogen cycle.)
  • Nutrient value of Moringa leaves can be increased
    for swine and poultry through addition of an
    enzyme (phytase) to break down the phytases,
    leading to increased absorption of the phosphorus
    found in Moringa.

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
36
Moringa as Livestock feed Cont.
  • With Moringa feed, milk production was
    10liters/day.
  • -Without Moringa feed, milk production was
    7liters/day.
  • With Moringa feed, daily weight gain of beef
    cattle was 1200grams/day.
  • -Without Moringa feed, daily weight gain of
    cattle was
  • 900 grams/day.
  • The higher birth weight (3-5kg) can be
    problematic for small cattle.
  • It may be advisable to induce birth 10 days
    prematurely to avoid problems. Incidence of twin
    births also increased dramatically with Moringa
    feed 3 per 20births as opposed to the usual
    average of 11000.

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
37
Moringa leaf extract as plant growth hormone
  • The juice from fresh moringa leaves can be used
    to produce an effective plant growth hormone,
    increasing yields by 25-30 for nearly any crop
    onions, bell pepper, soya, maize sorghum, coffee
    tea, chili, melon
  • One of the active substance is zeatin a plant
    hormone from the Cytokinines group
  • This foliar spray should be used in addition to
    other fertilizers, watering and sound
    agricultural practices.

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
38
How to make the spray
  • Make an extract by grinding young moringa
  • shoots (not more than 40 days old) together
  • with a bit of water (about one liter per
    10kg
  • fresh material).
  • Filter the Solid out of the solution. The solid
    matter, which
  • contain 12-14 protein, can be used as
    livestock feed.
  • Dilute the extract with water at a 132 ratio
    and spray
  • directly onto plants. Apply about 25ml per
    plant
  • (Store in a freezer if extract is not going
    to be used
  • within five(5) hours).

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
39
Moringa leaf extract as plant growth hormone Cont.
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
40
Moringa leaf extract as plant growth hormone Cont.
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
41
Immature Pods as Vegetables
  • Immature fruits are eaten as vegetable and has
    export market value in European markets
  • The pods can also be processed into canned
    vegetables

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
42
Moringa seed oil Extraction
  • Seeds yield 38-40 of a non-drying oil, known as
    Ben Oil,
  • used in arts and lubricating watches
  • and other delicate machinery.
  • Oil is clear, sweet and odourless and never
  • becomes rancid.
  • It is useful as cooking oil, bio-fuel for diesel
  • engines, the manufacture of perfumes
  • and hairdressings.

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
43
Moringa as Livestock feed
Using moringa leaves as cattle feed (beef and
milk), Swine feed and Poultry feed.
  • Moringa leaves constituting 40-50 of feed, milk
    yields for dairy cows and daily weight gain for
    beef cattle increased 30. Birth weight,
    averaging 22kg for local Jersey cattle, increased
    by 3-5kg.
  • The high protein content of moringa leaves must
    be balanced with other energy food. Cattle feed
    consisting of 40-50 moringa leaves should be
    mixed with sugar cane, young elephant grass,
    sweet (young) sorghum plants, or whatever else is
    locally available.
  • The maximum protein and fiber content of
    livestock feed should be
  • Protein Fiber
  • Lactating cow 18 26-30
  • Beef cow 12-14 36
  • Lactating sow 16-18 5-7
  • Meat pig 12-14 5-7

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
44
Use of Moringa as water purifiers inrural tropics
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
45
Coliform removal by M. oleifera extractscompared
to effect of alums on muncipalwastewater
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
46
Water treatment
The milled kernel with oil already extracted
The milled kernel
Both are effective in treating water
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
47
Water treatment Cont.
  • The active ingredient (a polyelectrolyte) has
  • been isolated in the laboratory
  • 100kg of moringa kernels will produce about
  • 1kg of (almost pure electrolyte)
  • The seed powder can also be used to harvest
  • algae from waste water
  • The seed powder has been used in large scale
    community water treatment

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
48
Water treatment Cont.
This is a community water treatment plant in
Tanzania where 50 Alum and 50 Moringa seed
powder have been used.
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
49
Water treatment Cont.
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
50
Multiple uses and future perspectives
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of
Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West
Africa E-mail moringa_at_ luxmail.com
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