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Regents Review Ancient Greece


Aphrodite (not really Zeus child, but he took her in) god of light, music and poetry ... Married Aphrodite. Hephaestas. Zeus' graceful, happy son by the goddess, Maia ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Regents Review Ancient Greece

The Geography of Greece
Greece has a Mediterranean climate, which has
hot, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. The
land is not good for farming, there are only a
small amount of fertile plains, so the people of
Greece were mainly shepherds and they farmed very
small areas of land. Four-fifths of Greece
consists of mountains or hills, making the
country one of the most mountainous in Europe.
The highest mountain is Mount Olympus. Some
of the major crops of ancient Greece were olive
trees, grapes and citrus fruits, and the early
civilizations of Greece grew up along the shore
and the islands of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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The country of Greece is a peninsula that is
connected to southern Europe on the tip of the
Balkan Peninsula. The Balkans is the historic and
geographic name used to describe a region of
southeastern Europe. The southern part of the
Greek mainland is almost an island and is called
the Peloponnesus. It is almost an island because
it was connected to the mainland by a small strip
of land. In 1882 a canal was cut through this
thin strip of land so now it truly is an island,
but in ancient times Peloponnesus was connected
by the Isthmus of Corinth. Greece also has a
string of islands called Crete, Rhodes and
Cyprus. They close off the Mediterranean Sea to
form a different sea called the Aegean
Sea. Greece has always been a maritime nation
a country whose living, whose entire way of life,
depends upon the sea. Water was used to ship the
things they had to buy and sell, and a major
source of the food they ate. The land was too
full of mountains to travel through, and trade by
sea was easier and faster. Since Greece did not
have enough farmland to feed their entire
population, the ancient Greeks went out in the
world as colonizers and traders.
Ancient Greece 2600 BCE - 1100 BCE
Bronze Age Greece
The first civilization to develop in ancient
Greece was in Crete, and it lasted over 1500
years, from about 2600-1100 BC. It was known as
the Minoan civilization, after a mythical ruler
named king Minos, who was a son of Zeus.
Very little was known about Minoan Crete before
archaeologists began excavations around the year
1900, where they discovered the palaces of
Knossos and Phaestos, and other ancient towns and
building. We cannot be certain about what
happened to the Minoan civilization. However
scholars have pointed to invasion of outside
forces or to the colossal eruption of the volcano
Thera as likely causes.
Crete Minoan Civilization(Palace at Knossos)
Knossos Minoan Civilization
Minoan Civilization
The next important civilization to develop was
the Mycenaean. The people lived in south and
central Greece and they came from Asia. The city
of Mycenae was built as a fortress and it was
surrounded by farming villages whose people could
always run for protection to the city if it was
being invaded.
Around 1200 BC, some Mycenaean Greeks attacked
and destroyed the city of Troy in Asia Minor.
The Mycenaean Civilization
About 500 years later Homer, a blind Greek poet,
wrote about the war in Troy in two epic poems
called the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The Mask of Agamemnon
Greek Mythology
What is Greek Mythology?
  • Greek Mythology is a collection of myths and
    legends that Greeks used to explain their world.
  • Although we now view these stories as fiction,
    the Greeks believed them to be true.

  • In the beginning there was no earth, sky or sea.
    There was only confusion and darkness, called
    Chaos. Chaos gave birth to Mother Earth. She
    eventually gave birth to a son, Uranus, also
    known as Father Heaven. Mother Earth and Father
    Heaven had many children.
  • First, they had three monstrous sons. Each had
    fifty heads and one hundred hands.
  • Then, they had three more sons. They were just
    as big and just as ugly. They were called
    Cyclops. They had one eye in the middle of their
    foreheads. They were as strong as Earthquakes
    and Tornadoes combined.
  • Finally, they had the first gods, six sons and
    six daughters called the Titans.

Among their children was the greatest Titan,
Cronus, who gained power from his father, Uranus,
by castrating him. Then, Cronus became ruler
over heaven and Earth and married his sister,
Rhea. From their union came the Olympian gods.
  • Power changed Cronus and made him evil. He was
    so afraid that one of his sons was going to do to
    him what he did to his father that he swallowed
    all of his children immediately after their
    birth. One by one, Cronus swallowed Hestia,
    Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. When Rhea
    was pregnant with her sixth child, she thought of
    a plan. She secretly gave birth to her sixth
    child, Zeus, and gave him to Mother Earth.

Mother Earth decided that the child would be safe
if she hid him. When Cronus asked to see the
sixth child, Rhea handed him a rock wrapped in a
blanket. Just like before, Cronus swallowed the
rock without hesitation. Rhea could not wait for
the day Zeus would grow up and destroy his
  • Zeus was safely being raised by Nymphs and
  • Eventually he grew up and Rhea, his mother, told
    him about what Cronus did to his siblings. Zeus
    made a promise to his mother that he would make
    Cronus pay for what he did.

Rhea and Zeus plan
  • When Zeus returned to his mother, she disguised
    him as a servant. Rhea made a poisonous potion
    and Zeus, put it in Cronus drink. The potion
    caused Cronus to get sick and vomit. First,
    Cronus vomited up the rock. Then each of his five
    children, one by one. Zeus was a hero to his
    brothers and sisters. They were extremely
    thankful. Once everyone was freed, the six
    children decided to battle against Cronus.

The Battle
  • The war lasted ten years. Neither side could
    get the upper hand because they were equal in
    strength. Mother Earth suggested that Zeus and
    his brothers free the Cyclops and have them fight
    on their side. Zeus and his brothers did as they
    were advised and freed their uncles, the Cyclops.
    The Cyclops gave them the advantage they needed.
    Finally, the war was over. Zeus and his
    siblings were victorious.

After the battle was over
  • Now that the battle was over, the three
    brothers had to decide who was going to rule the
    universe. They decided the fairest way to choose
    was to draw lots. Hades won the underworld.
    Poseidon won the sea and Zeus won the heaven and
    became ruler of all the gods of Mt. Olympus.

The gods goddesses of Mt. Olympus
  • Mt. Olympus was the largest mountain in Greece.
    It was the home of the gods and goddesses.
  • Gods and goddesses were immortal, they could not
  • No humans were allowed on top of Mt. Olympus, but
    the Olympians were allowed on Earth.

  • Chief god
  • Lord of sky
  • God of thunder lightening
  • Married his sister Hera
  • Populated the heavens and the Earth

  • Wife and sister of Zeus
  • Goddess of marriage, protector of childbirth
  • Portrayed as extremely jealous and vindictive

  • God of the sea, horses and earthquakes
  • Lives in a palace beneath the ocean
  • Carries a three-pronged trident
  • Gave people the horse
  • Married a sea nymph named Amphitrite
  • Like his brother, he fathered many children.
  • Very fond of his sister Demeter

  • god of the underworld and the dead
  • god of wealth
  • Owned all of the precious metal on Earth
  • Wore a cap that made him invisible
  • Kidnapped his niece and made her his wife

  • Demeter means Barley-mother
  • Another name for her is Ceres, from the word
  • Goddess of the cornfield, mistress of planting
    and harvesting, lady of growing things
  • She had a son and a daughter. Her daughters
    name was Persephone.
  • Her daughter was kidnapped by Hades. (reasons for
    the seasons)

  • Zeus third sister
  • goddess of hearth family and home
  • her only job was to keep the fire lit in the
    hearth on Mt. Olympus

Zeus children
  • Zeus had eight children
  • Twins Apollo and Artemisia
  • Athena
  • Hephaestus
  • Hermes
  • Ares
  • Dionysus
  • Aphrodite (not really Zeus child, but he took her

  • god of light, music and poetry
  • most beautiful god
  • god of medicine
  • taught people the art of healing
  • fine marksman
  • could predict the future

  • goddess of hunting, wild things, unmarried girls
    and the moon
  • She decided never to marry
  • Once when she was bathing under the moonlight a
    human was watching her. She threw rain drops on
    him and changed him into a stag. Then she had
    him killed by his own dogs.

  • Zeus favorite
  • goddess of wisdom, strategy, protector of cities
    and civilizations
  • goddess of handicrafts and art
  • She sprang from her fathers head fully clothed
    and in armor. Hephaestus, Zeus son, had to
    release Athena by cutting his head open with an

  • god of fire
  • The only ugly god, but he was peaceful, loving
    and popular.
  • He walks with a limp because Zeus threw over the
    palace walls one day when he took his mothers
    side over Zeus.
  • Made all the Olympians thrones, armor, furniture
    and weapons
  • Married Aphrodite

  • Zeus graceful, happy son by the goddess, Maia
  • God of shepherds, merchants, travelers and
  • Very mischievous and tricky
  • Stole Apollos cows the day he was born
  • Guided the newly dead to the underworld
  • Invented the alphabet, astronomy, scales, playing
    cards and card games
  • Zeus messenger
  • Wore winged sandals and a winged cap
  • Had a son named Pan. He was half goat.

  • god of war
  • Son of Zeus and Hera
  • Loved to fight, but was a coward once he got hurt
  • Wherever he went there was violence and bloodshed
  • the curse of mortals

  • god of wine
  • Zeus youngest son
  • His mother, Semele, was a princess and a mortal
  • His mother was consumed by fire when she was
    tricked by Hera
  • He was saved by Hermes.
  • Taught people the art of wine making the
    consequences of too much wine

  • Goddess of love and beauty
  • Goddess of desire
  • Wherever she walked flowers sprang up beneath her
  • she appeared from the foam of the sea
  • Her son is Eros (Cupid)

"Hellenic" (Classical) Greece 700 BCE - 324 BCE
  • Aesop was a slave who lived in the 6th century BC
    and was famous for writing fables.

  • Famous Greek historians were Herodotus, who is
    called the Father of History. He wrote about the
    Greek-Persian wars.

Thucydides is another historian who is regarded
as the greatest because of his accuracy.
  • Greek theater was held in an amphitheater open
    air structure. They had two types of plays,
    comedies and tragedies.

The Parthenon
Greek architecture Some of the finest examples
of architecture were in Athens, like the
Parthenon, a temple to the goddess Athena and one
of the seven ancient wonders of the world.
The Parthenon
Philosophy is a Greek word that means love of
wisdom The Greeks had three famous philosophers
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
Great Athenian Philosophers
Great Athenian Philosophers
  • Socrates
  • Know thyself!
  • question everything
  • only the pursuit of goodnessbrings happiness.
  • Socrates advised his students to question
    everything. He was arrested for corrupting the
    youth and condemned to death. He died by poison.

Great Athenian Philosophers
  • Plato
  • The goal of human the goal of human beings was to
    strive for perfection. To do this, humans should
    be well developed in mind and body.
  • writings of Plato are the only specific known
    references to Atlantis, a fabled Lost City.
    People still search for Atlantis.

Great Athenian Philosophers
  • Aristotle
  • Aristotle was Platos student
  • wrote about philosophy, politics, math and
  • Golden Mean everything inmoderation.

The Ancient OlympicsAthletes Trainers
  • The Greeks started the Olympics, which were
    athletic contests that were held every four years
    at Olympia, in honor of Zeus.
  • The first Olympic games took place in 776 BC.
    They were so important to the Greeks that they
    divided their calendar into four year segments
    called Olympiads. Any wars between Greek
    city-states were stopped during the Olympics.

Greek Politics and Wars
  • Greece was divided into states that were not as
    large as the states in our country. They were
    more the size of cities. So, they were called
  • At first, the city-states were ruled by kings,
    but as the society progressed, a new form of
    government began, called democracy.

  • The word democracy comes from the Greek words
    demos, which means people, and krattos, which
    means rule.
  • So, a democracy is a government in which the
    people rule their own countries through free
    elections and a system of representation.

The city of Athens, on the mainland of Greece,
had the best example of democracy in ancient
Greece. It was not perfect though, because women
could not vote, foreigners could not become
citizens, and the rich had more power than the
poor and poor farmers often lost their land to
the rich when they owe them money. Last of all,
the society was based on slavery.
  • Solon
  • This way of life caused a lot of unhappiness
    after a while, and the Greek people were about to
    have a civil war, so they elected a leader named
  • Solon canceled all the money the farmers owed and
    freed the Greek citizens who were slaves because
    they owed money. He made so many reforms that he
    is looked upon as the father of democracy.

Golden Age of Pericles460 BCE 429 BCE
  • Pericles In the 5th century BC, Pericles came
    to power in Athens. He is considered the
    greatest statesman in ancient Greek history
    because he believed that the majority should
  • Pericles believed in four things
  • Rule by the majority
  • Everyone is equal before the law
  • Personal freedom
  • The right to get ahead through a persons ability
    instead of social class

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  • The city state of Sparta was ruled more like a
    military camp than a democratic society.
  • Spartan boys were taken from their parents and
    sent to military school. The boys were raised to
    be strong and disciplined and to bear hunger and
    pain without complaining.
  • When they grew up, every Spartan man had to serve
    as a soldier for Sparta until they were 30 years
    old. After they did this, they were allowed to
    marry and have a family.

Helots ? Messenians enslaved by the
Persian Wars 499 BCE 480 BCE
Greek Persian Wars
  • The greatest enemies of the Greeks were the
    Persians. They fought four battles to protect
    their country from the Persians. The kings of
    Persia were Darius I and his son Xerxes.
  • The Greeks finally won the last battle against
    Xerxes at a city called Thermopylae.

Persian Wars Famous Battles
  • Marathon (490 BCE)
  • 26 miles from Athens
  • Thermopylae (480 BCE)
  • 300 Spartans at the Mountain pass
  • Salamis (480 BCE)
  • Athenian navy victorious

Peloponnesian Wars
  • Although everyone in Greece was living in the
    same country, they could not always get along
    together. After banding together to fight the
    Persians, the city states of Sparta and Athens
    began a war.
  • This was called the Peloponnesian War. It lasted
    for 27 years.
  • The Spartans won.

Macedonia Under Philip II
  • In northern Greece, a strong Greek state
    developed in Macedonia. Between the years 359 BC
    and 336 BC, Macedonia had a very strong king
    named Phillip II. He became the ruler of all of
    Greece by 338 BC.
  • Phillip II united the Greek city states.
  • Phillip II was murdered and his son Alexander
    inherited the throne.

"Hellenistic" Greece 324 BCE - 100 BCE
Alexander the Great
  • Alexander was only 20 years old when he inherited
    the throne of his father. He decided that he
    wanted to rule more land than just Greece and
    went out the attack the Persian empire. He beat
    them and then kept on conquering lands and
    people. He conquered Pakistan and Egypt where he
    declared himself pharaoh and founded a city named
    after him called Alexandria. By the time he was
    done, Alexander had an empire that covered 2
    million square miles.

Alexander the Greats Empire
  • It was such a large empire that it was difficult
    to rule and hold together. Alexander ruled it
    for only 13 years and died at the age of 33.
    After he died, his generals fought among each
    other to have the power to rule the empire, but
    it did not last.

Alexander the Great in Persia
The Hellenization of Asia
  • The empire that Alexander the Great created
    spread the Greek culture throughout the world.
    This blending of Greek and Middle Eastern
    cultures was called the Hellenistic civilization.
  • Finally, the Greek way of life is a part of our
    heritage and it is from the Greeks that we have
    adopted many of our ideas of democracy.

The Breakup of Alexanders Empire
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