Livestock Genetics Exploring New Opportunities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Livestock Genetics Exploring New Opportunities PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1c27a6-ZmM0M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Livestock Genetics Exploring New Opportunities

Description:

Livestock Genetics Exploring New Opportunities – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:72
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 27
Provided by: SAC138
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Livestock Genetics Exploring New Opportunities


1
Livestock Genetics Exploring New Opportunities
  • Geoff Simm
  • Sustainable Livestock Systems Research Group, SAC

RASE Seminar Investment in Agricultural
Innovation - 10 March 2009
2
Outline
  • Livestock genetics the story so far
  • Future challenges
  • New opportunities

3
Background
  • Genetic change in farm livestock
  • selection between breeds
  • crossbreeding
  • selection within breeds
  • direct genetic modification
  • Selection among breeds or crosses one-off
  • Further improvement from selection within breed

Iona Antiques, London
4
Livestock breeding structures
  • Pigs, poultry dairy cattle
  • Dominance of small number international companies
  • Aviagen, Lohmann Tierzucht (Erich Wesjohann Gp),
  • Genus ABS, PIC (Genus plc)
  • Strong focus on economic performance
  • comprehensive recording, sophisticated
    statistical analysis (BLUP), intense selection
  • Beef cattle sheep
  • Largely based on performance testing in pedigree
    herds flocks (or by eye)
  • Large number of individual breeders
  • Some companies emerging e.g. US, NZ

5
Breeding pyramid
  • Recording performance of animals at the top of
    breeding pyramid
  • e.g. growth rate, fatness, FCE, egg production
  • Identifying best animals using them as
    parents
  • Flow of genes - improved stock to tiers below
  • Highly cost effective

Model fits poultry and pig breeding especially,
but other spp too
6
Selection works...
  • Evidence from farm livestock experiments,
    industry breeding schemes from lab animal
    studies that…
  • selective breeding is very effective
  • most traits can be altered by selection
  • selection continues to give a response for many
    generations

7
Selection works...
  • Evidence from farm livestock experiments,
    industry breeding schemes from lab animal
    studies that…
  • selective breeding is very effective
  • most traits can be altered by selection
  • selection continues to give a response for many
    generations

8
Rates of genetic change expected in farm livestock
  • Typically 1 - 3 of mean per annum
  • Cumulative
  • Single trait or multi-trait index
  • Higher rates when
  • genetic variability high
  • trait not age or sex limited
  • species has high reproductive rate

After Smith, 1984
Expected response to selection for growth rate
9
Have these rates been achieved in commercial
practice?
  • Poultry ? ? ?
  • Pigs ? ? ?
  • Dairy cattle ? ?
  • Beef cattle ? (some schemes)
  • Sheep ? (some schemes)

10
Genetic change in dairy cattle / sheep
  • High rates of change (1.5 p.a.) in kg
    milk/fat/protein since mid 1970s in some
    countries e.g. USA, Canada, NZ - others since
  • World class gains in UK sheep sire referencing
    schemes

11
Genetic change in pigs / broilers
  • Annual changes - European pig breeding
    programmes
  • 2.4 in daily LW gain (20 g/d)
  • 1.6 in litter size (0.2 piglets/litter)
  • 0.8 lean meat (0.5)

McKay et al., 2000 Koerhuis Thompson, 1997
Merks, 2000
12
ACRBC 1957 Males 2001 Feed
Ross 2001 Males 2001 Feed
Day 43
Day 71
Day 85
Day 57
Havenstein, et al 2003 - NCSU
13
Value of genetic improvement to producers
  • Recent studies by SAC partners on value of 10
    years genetic improvement
  • Sheep - 29 million
  • but 111m possible with higher uptake
  • Beef cattle - 23 million
  • Internal rate of return on investment sheep
    beef 32
  • Dairy up to 147 million from adding health,
    welfare fertility traits to PLI

14
Benefits of genetic improvement
  • Higher value product/ lower costs
  • Producers
  • Cheaper eggs, poultry, pigmeat and milk
  • Consumers, retailers
  • Leaner (healthier) meat
  • Consumers, retailers, processors, society
  • Animal health welfare Some recent schemes
  • Animals, producers, consumers, society
  • Lower greenhouse gases per unit product
  • Society

www.statistics.gov.uk
QMS
15
Issues / lessons learned
  • Loss of breeds
  • One per month 20 at risk
  • Loss of genetic variability within some breeds
  • Risk to functional fitness with narrow
    production-orientated breeding goals
  • e.g. ascites, leg problems, disease risk,
    neonatal mortality
  • Low use of genetic improvement in some
    sectors/countries
  • Inappropriate use of some breeds in some places

sources FAO http//www.aipl.arsusda.gov/dynamic
/inbrd/current/kindx.html
16
Outline
  • Livestock genetics the story so far
  • Future challenges
  • New opportunities

17
Global livestock production
  • 70 of agricultural land
  • 30 of the ice-free land surface of planet!
  • 40 of global agricultural GDP
  • Major contributor to global environmental
    problems part of the solution
  • Consumption to double 2000-2050?
  • Population growth
  • Growth in affluence
  • Food vs feed debate
  • Especially serious given climate change


Steinfeld et al, 2006
Pics S Eady interactive.usask.ca
18
Life Cycle Analysis - Global Warming Potential
for Foods of Animal Origin
Ruminants produce most methane Beef sheep
lower product output per breeding female USP
ruminants (directly unusable) plant material ?
human food
per t carcass, 10 m3 milk, or
20,000 eggs Source Cranfield University
Genesis Faraday Partnership
19
Breeding for reduced emissions
  • Improving individual animal / system productivity
    / efficiency
  • Reducing individual animal / system losses /
    disease
  • Multiple wins!
  • Direct selection to reduce emissions
  • Feed use/digestion efficiency
  • Rumen bugs
  • Likely to be highly cost effective (Moran et al,
    2007)
  • Value animal plant genetics RD - likely future
    policy priorities inc. climate change
  • Public good rates of return 11-18 for animal
    case studies
  • c.f. 3.5 recommended Treasury rate

Langhill herd SAC Dairy Research Centre
20
Predicted climate change impacts by 2050 (IPCC,
2007)
21
Outline
  • Livestock genetics the story so far
  • Future challenges
  • New opportunities

22
New opportunities
  • More sustainable breeding goals
  • Addressing new global / local priorities
  • New data / new measurements
  • Automated data capture
  • e.g. farm slaughterhouse data
  • Video-based grading
  • closer link between carcass payment schemes
    breeding goal?
  • CT scanning of breeding stock
  • composition
  • 3D muscularity
  • prediction of meat eating quality?
  • Other new tools for assessing quality
  • New molecular genetic tools
  • Translating discoveries from biological
    revolution

23
Genome-wide selection
  • Molecular genetic tools for breeders much
    promised
  • Search for genes / markers (known sequences of
    DNA nearby)
  • often assumes few markers, large effect
  • most traits many genes involved (100-200?)
  • markers tracking only part of total genetic
    variation in trait of interest
  • Alternative - trace all segments of genome with
    000s markers (genome-wide selection - Meuwissen
    et al., 2001)

24
GM animals?
  • Widely used in medical/biological research
  • Early applications in farm animals often led to
    welfare problems
  • Public acceptability?
  • Examples of current research
  • Avian influenza resistant chickens
    (Cambridge/Roslin)
  • Pigs with reduced P needs (phytase) (Canada)
  • GH salmon (Canada)
  • Other issues cost, efficacy, suitable candidate
    traits/genes?

Roslin institute/PPL
25
Conclusions
  • Selective breeding of livestock proven,
    effective, cost-effective tool
  • we can change most animal characteristics
  • inc key traits for farmers, processors,
    retailers, consumers, policy makers, animals
  • dramatically with time
  • Wider use/uptake of genetics in some cases
    wiser use in others
  • Major global local challenges
  • Opportunities for investment in innovation
  • Public benefits (e.g. climate change mitigation)
  • Private benefits (e.g. food production)

FAO
FAO
26
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com