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The Iliad

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Eris, goddess of Discord, was not invited to the marriage of King Peleus and ... Traditional author of the Iliad. Why do you say 'traditional author' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Iliad


1
The Iliad
  • Song of Troy
  • Adapted freely from
  • room222.net/source/EngII_Unit3_Illiad.ppt

2
Prologue THE JUDGEMENT OF PARIS
3
How it began
  • Eris, goddess of Discord, was not invited to the
    marriage of King Peleus and Thetis (a sea nymph).
  • Eris decided to make trouble at the banquet by
    throwing a golden apple marked For the Fairest
    among the guests

4
The Apple of Discord
  • Three goddesses vied for the golden apple
    Athena, Aphrodite, and Hera.
  • Zeus (very wisely) refused to judge them and gave
    the job to Paris, a young prince of Troy who was
    tending his fathers sheep.
  • Priam, Pariss father, had sent his son away
    because he (like all other men in mythology) had
    been told that his son would cause his downfall.

5
How can you judge a goddess?
  • When the goddesses approached Paris, each offered
    a bribe.
  • Hera promised him Europe and Asia
  • Athena promised that he would lead the Trojans to
    victory against the Greeks
  • Aphrodite promised him the most beautiful woman
    in all the world

6
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7
And the winner is
  • Of course, Paris chose the last bribe and awarded
    the apple to Aphrodite.
  • The most beautiful woman was Helen, wife of
    Menelaus.
  • A sacred oath had been taken by all Helens
    suitors to protect her marriage to Menelaus.
  • Paris broke the oath by visiting Menelaus as a
    friend and then eloping with Helen.

8
The Start of the Trojan War
  • Menelaus, his brother Agamemnon, and the other
    suitors of Helen (Odysseus and Achilles among
    them) began a war against Paris, Priam, and the
    city of Troy.
  • But, the gods and their disputes were just as
    responsible for the war.
  • Victory wavered for 9 years. This is where
    Homers epic poem begins

9
What is an epic poem?
  • A long poem describing events which may be true
    or only divinely inspired.

10
The most important element of an epic poem is
  • The Hero
  • Has characteristics admired by his culture
  • Often male, strong, attractive, follows a code of
    honor, a trained soldier, fights for noble
    causes, etc.
  • An ordinary man in some regards (esp. in his
    desires and hopes)
  • Becomes tragic when some error or fault brings
    about his own death or destruction of others
  • Examples of heroes Perseus, Theseus, Luke
    Skywalker, etc.

11
Who was Homer?
  • Traditional author of the Iliad

12
Why do you say traditional author?
  • No one really knows who wrote the poem.
  • Written down in the 8th century BCE (700s), but
    the events supposedly took place in the 13th
    century (1200s).
  • Most believe the story was passed down by oral
    tradition before being written down.
  • Story we know today was probably gathered from
    several sources.

13
Terms to Know and Love
  • Greek Culture

14
Guest-friendship
  • Greece had no central government or police force
    which made traveling dangerous.
  • It was considered right for a leader to protect
    and entertain travelers while in his territory.
  • Often, this would develop into a relationship of
    guest-friendship whereby the traveler (and his
    descendants) would be obligated to his hosts, and
    vice versa.

15
Areté
  • Virtue, excellence, goodness
  • Being the best you can be or reaching you
    highest human potential
  • Term applied to the person with the highest
    effectiveness, someone who uses all their
    faculties to achieve results

16
Aristeia
  • Excellence (great deeds done in battle) and the
    rewards for such

17
Kleos
  • Fame, especially undying fame
  • This is the main goal of the heroic epic.

18
Argives, Akhaians, Danaans, etc.
  • Various names used by Homer to mean Greeks
  • Reflects the disunity of Greek civilization at
    the time of the poems composition

19
Terms to Know and Love
  • Literary Terms

20
In media res
  • Latin for in the middle of things
  • Could be done because the general story and
    characters were well-known to everyone

21
Epithets
  • Noun-adjective combinations that allowed the
    reciter to describe an object or a character
    quickly and economically, in terms his audience
    would recognize
  • Ex Thetis of the silver feet, resourceful
    Odysseus, swift-footed Achilles

22
Simile and Metaphor
  • Poetic devices in which two unlike things are
    compared
  • Simile uses the words like or as
  • Ex Life is like a box of chocolates.
  • Metaphor does not use those words
  • Ex Youre a good egg.

23
Poetic Repetition
  • Many sections of the poem are repeated word for
    word.
  • May have been a device to help the reciter
    remember.
  • May have been a device to help listeners follow
    the story.

24
Archetypes
  • Universal symbols, motifs, or themes that may be
    found among many different cultures
  • Include natural forms like water, sky, sun,
    seasons
  • Colors
  • Animals (snakes, fish)
  • Types of characters (hero, villain, savior, etc.)

25
Source
  • room222.net/source/EngII_Unit3_Illiad.ppt
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