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Knowledge Management

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Title: Knowledge Management


1
Knowledge Management
  • Groff and Jones, Introduction to Knowledge
    Management KM in Business, Butterworth-Heinemann
    (Elsevier), Burlington, MA, 2003.

2
1. Introducing KM
  • Knowledge is the INFINITE ASSET. Why? (It is the
    only asset that increases when it is shared.)
    (Leveraging effect.)
  • Data, Information, and knowledge
  • Tacit and explicit knowledge
  • Scope creep (ignore!)

3
Knowledge
  • is the INFINITE ASSET.
  • Why?

4
Knowledge
  • is the INFINITE ASSET.
  • Why?
  • It is the only asset that increases when it is
    shared
  • Leveraging

5
Knowledge Management
  • The tools, techniques, and strategies to retain,
    analyze, organize, improve, and share business
    expertise.
  • Relate to Best Practices!

6
Venn Diagram shows the relationship between
information and knowledge
Figure 1.1, p. 3
7
Knowledge
  • Tacit knowledge
  • Explicit knowledge

8
Tacit Knowledge
  • Personal knowledge embedded in individual
    experience and involving intangible factors such
    as personal belief, perspective, and values

9
Explicit Knowledge
  • Refers to tacit knowledge that has been
    documented.
  • It has been articulated into formal language and
    can be much more easily transferred among
    individuals.

10
  • Making tacit knowledge explicit is a key function
    of knowledge management

11
Knowledge Repository
  • Where the knowledge lives
  • Groff and Jones call it a knowledge base

12
Dialogue
  • What types of tacit knowledge do you think would
    be valuable to capture in a corporate
    (organizational) knowledge base?
  • What benefits for the company (organization) do
    you imagine could be gained from making this
    knowledge explicit?

13
In-Class Exercise Saving Money
  • Describe ways to save money
  • Create a list of three money-saving techniques
  • Document the exact procedures involved

14
In-Class Exercise
  • In your opinion, where is knowledge created?
  • In your opinion, where is knowledge really stored?

15
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16
2. Personal KM
  • Introductory story about the Romans
  • Steam engine invented
  • Julius Caesar never approved it.

17
So…
  • KM needs strong executive support
  • Innovation must be allowed to grow within an
    organization, or that organization loses its
    competitive edge
  • Freedom to fail is important!

18
Learning Objectives
  • The presentation of information can either hide
    or highlight the truth consider Kerrys and
    Bushs Vietnam War service records
  • Value the path to knowledge as much as the
    knowledge itself proper change management is
    critical
  • Know what determines the utility of a network
    technology does matter, though not as much as
    you might think
  • Learn the 6 most common tools for personal KM

19
Thoughts on KM
  • … every additional unit of knowledge used
    effectively results in a marginal increase in
    performance (Malhotra)
  • All business processes involve creation,
    dissemination, renewal, and application of
    knowledge toward meeting the goals of the
    business …
  • unfortunately, all business processes also
    involve the hoarding, distorting, and
    dissemination of disinformat5ion to support the
    goals of individual employees.
  • Dont rely on technology

20
Technology?
  • Successful knowledge transfer involves neither
    computers nor documents, but rather interactions
    between people.
  • Thomas H. Davenport, Think Tank The Future of
    Knowledge Management, CIO, December 15, 1995.

21
Dialogue
  • How did Native Americans (Australian Aborigines
    in fact, most major religious and cultural
    groups, tribes, etc.) exchange knowledge before
    their written language?
  • How was their knowledge transfer tied to their
    culture?

22
Case Study London Cholera Epidemic of 1854
  • pp. 14-15
  • Lessons of the story
  • (p. 15)

23
Goal of a Personal KM Strategy
  • To increase your productivity, innovation, and
    creative output to outdistance the competition

24
The Six Action Elements of Your Info Workflow
Figure 2.2, p. 16
25
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26
3. Capture and Corroborate
  • Information Overload (Triage)
  • Web portals

27
Dialogue, p. 33
  • How many of the following rumors have you heard?
  • Can you pick out the ones that are true? (50)

28
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29
4. Organize and Secure
  • Skip

30
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31
5. Analyze and Collaborate
  • Layers (levels) of abstraction in knowledge
  • Humans perceive things differently, based on
    their unique abstractions
  • Five key requirements for successful collaboration

32
Abstraction
  • Helps us interpret and expand complex data and
    information patterns.
  • Example barter, money, electronic money (whats
    next?)

33
Abstraction
  • The process of taking away or removing
    characteristics from something in order to reduce
    it to a set of essential characteristics
  • The process of abstraction relies on setting a
    goal, defining a data representation, identifying
    relevant features, and categorization

34
Abstraction Research Issue
  • When contributing knowledge, what level of
    abstraction is appropriate?
  • Should multiple levels be stored in a knowledge
    repository?
  • The level of understanding (training) of the
    intended recipient may vary

35
Five Requirements for Successful Collaboration
  • Dialogue
  • Trust
  • Common goals
  • Empathy
  • Openness
  • Teamwork, common lenses, common frames

36
Critical Collaboration Skills
  • Effective and well-formatted communications
  • Effective listening active listening
  • Effective strategies for conflict resolution

37
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38
6. Storytelling and Knowledge Transfer
  • Stories exist in all organizations and are an
    integral part of defining what that organization
    is and what it means to work for it. Dave
    Snowden, Director of IBMs Institute for
    Knowledge Management
  • It seems that the easiest way to get people to
    document their knowledge is to videotape them
    talking about what they know as was done through
    the cases in Gorelick, Milton, and April,
    Performance Through Learning, Butterworth-Heineman
    n (Elsevier), Burlington, MA, 2004. Observation
    by Jay E. Aronson, 2004.

39
Learning Objectives
  • See what makes explicit knowledge easier to
    capture and share but less valuable than tacit
    knowledge major problem at consulting firms in
    the mid to late 1990s
  • Learn to use stories to illustrate extremely
    complicated concepts in brief, memorable, and
    easily repeated ways
  • Make your communications more convincing,
    contextual, and compelling through storytelling
  • See why well-crafted stories are self-propagating

40
Storytelling
  • Narrative thinking
  • Narrative decision making
  • Beach (book published by Sage)
  • Courtroom juries and judges have relied on
    storytelling for millennia

41
Storytelling The ancient art of KM
  • Words convey the mental treasures of one period
    to the generations that follow and laden with
    this, their precious freight, they sail safely
    across gulfs of time in which empires have
    suffered shipwreck and the languages of common
    life have sunk into oblivion (Anonymous)

42
Key Advantages of Storytelling
  • People tend to hear stories in a receptive mode
    rather than in a defensive mode
  • Abstract arguments are often combative in nature
  • Stories are usually more memorable than other
    forms of communication
  • Stories focus on what instinctively matters to
    people
  • Stories are not so bound by logic they thrive on
    conflict, surprises, and change
  • Stories can unleash a spirit of heroism
  • Stories help workers frame their work in loftier
    and more significant terms

43
Strong Uses for Storytelling
  • Promoting organizational change
  • Delivering communications
  • Capturing tacit knowledge
  • Transferring tacit knowledge
  • Spurring innovation
  • Building community

44
Two Main Story Types
  • Business fables Fictitious narrations
  • Business anecdotes True narrations
  • Both intentions to reveal some useful value,
    idea, or precept

45
The Heros Journey Archetype
  • Homer The Iliad, The Odyssey
  • (Listen to Mark Grahams Classic Greek on Open
    Houses Second City CD)
  • Troubadours

46
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47
7. Systems Thinking
  • Skip

48
8. Harnessing Metcalfes Law Utility Nodes 2
  • Skip
  • But I like the Just for Fun on p. 95.
  • Example 16 O in a P
  • What does it mean?
  • 16 ounces in a pound

49
9. 3D Communication
  • Skip
  • But Cute Dialogue on p. 111 (story) You are
    driving alone in your car on a wild, stormy
    night. You pass by a bus stop, and you see three
    people waiting for the bus

50
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51
10. Building in Knowledge Exchange
  • Must be built directly
  • into the organizational
  • culture with strong
  • executive support,
  • employee buy in, and definite, measurable payoffs
  • Change management must be managed properly and
    well

52
Knowledge Exchange Channels
  • Case Study The Sad Tale of the Vasa
  • (Noone would/could tell the king about the
    problem)
  • Similar problem at Greyhound with its reservation
    system

53
Cross-Selling (CRM)
  • Applebees
  • Hard Rock Café
  • CRM Customer Relationship (Resource) Management
    great new type of KM manage your customers
    well
  • Markets as conversation points touch points

54
Maximize Knowledge Exchange
  • (Now, we can use technology Web)
  • Increase collaboration along the supply chain,
    among team members, etc.
  • Communities of Practice (CoP) self-organizing
    groups
  • Social events
  • Get rid of walls get rid of elevators Chrysler,
    Auburn Hills, MI
  • Create better environments of knowledge exchange

55
Chrysler Headquarters Auburn Hills, MI
56
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57
11. Developing KM Strategies
  • Knowledge is embedded in people, and knowledge
    creation occurs in the process of social
    interaction (Karl Erik Sveiby)
  • There is better academic material on KM
    strategies
  • There are some interesting ideas here, though

58
Learning Objectives
  • EVERY project should be considered a KM project
  • The four key tools that support organizational
    effectiveness
  • The three most common approaches to developing
    organizational KM strategies
  • Develop an interest in using metacognitive
    strategies to improve learning
  • Understand that thinking styles are situational
    and open to improvement

59
Effective knowledge management
  • Benefits from a strategic approach, detailed
    planning, and comprehensive support structures.
  • Does not necessarily require a massive budget, a
    complete infrastructure change, an army of
    consultants, and a new software vendor

60
Every corporate project touches on one or more of
  • Coordination Harmonious interaction throughout
    the organization
  • Communication Facilitating the exchange of
    information
  • Learning Guiding and supporting the development
    of effective behaviors
  • Memory Storing, organizing, and recalling
    information

61
KM Strategy
  • Top Down
  • Bottom Up
  • Middle-Up-Down

62
Organizational Knowledge
Figure 11.2, p. 132
63
How Fear Stalls Many KM Initiatives
Figure 11.3, p. 132
64
The Four Areas of Knowledge Conversion (Nonakas
SECI Model)
Figure 11.4, p. 133
65
Thinking About Thinking Blooms Taxonomy
Figure 11.5, p. 135
66
Metacognition
  • Skip

67
Inquiry Modes
  • Skip unless there is time
  • Churchman and Miroff How do people gather and
    process information?
  • Five basic types.
  • Use the Inquiry Mode Questionnaire (InQ) InQ
    Educational Materials, Inc., www.inq-hpa.com

68
Thinking Styles
  • Key behavioral cues
  • Situational, not functional
  • Everyone can expand and improve

69
Five Thinking Styles
  • Realists
  • Analysts
  • Idealists
  • Synthesists
  • Pragmatists

70
Realists
  • Inductive and task-oriented
  • Rely on facts and expert opinion
  • Prefer data to theory
  • Mental models derived chiefly from observation,
    expert opinion and their own experience
  • Style is empirical
  • Best for well-defined problem situations for
    which there is strong consensual position on the
    nature of the problem
  • Very practical at handling resources and excels
    at setting near-term objectives

71
Figure 11.6
72
Analysts
  • See the world as structured, organized and
    predictable
  • Believe that their should be one well-planned
    method for doing anything
  • Style is prescriptive and method-oriented,
    operating with models and formulas
  • Typically prefer data to theories
  • When in doubt, gather more data
  • Best for well-structured problems where explicit
    problem-solving formulas exist

73
Figure 11.7
74
Idealists
  • Welcome a broad range of views
  • Experience reality as the whole into which new
    data are assimilated, based on similarities to
    things they already know.
  • Style is assimilative, receptive, and
    need-oriented, assigning equal value to both data
    and theory
  • Often listen to intuition rather than just
    relying on the facts
  • Shun conflict and are always trying to be
    accommodating
  • Better at handling situations that are value-laden

75
Figure 11.8
76
Synthesists
  • Focus their thinking on ideas and find
    connections among things that other people see as
    having little or no relationship
  • Style is challenging, speculative, integrative,
    and process-oriented
  • Ask what if and why not, and regard data to be
    meaningless without interpretation
  • Skilled at handling controversial issues without
    discouraging debate and creativity

77
Figure 11.9
78
Pragmatists
  • See the world as constantly changing and largely
    unpredictable, requiring a flexible, whatever
    works approach to problem solving
  • Style is adaptive, incremental, and
    payoff-oriented
  • Not ones for great long-range plans and tend to
    be short-range, practical thinkers
  • Tend to employ a piecemeal approach to life
  • Well-suited for solving complex issues, but
    somewhat difficult to identify

79
Figure 11.10
80
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81
12. The Ethics of KM
  • Knowledge management is an ongoing evolutionary
    process. Once its part of your business model,
    it will always be part of your business model
    David Keller, Marketing VP at Zoneworx Inc.
  • Organizations can use storytelling to give
    examples of ways that people are demonstrating
    positive results while operating within ethical
    boundaries
  • Case Study 5 Monkeys in a Cage, p. 150

82
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83
13. Metrics and Taming Wicked Problems
  • Some problems are so complex that you have to be
    highly intelligent and well informed just to be
    undecided about them Laurence J. Peter
  • Cognitive Mapping / Banxia Software Corp., Fran
    Ackermann

84
KM Metrics
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

85
Taming the Wicked Problem
  • Five Taming Technique that dont work (also see
    Chapter 2 of Turban and Aronson, DSSIS, 6th ed.)
  • Redefine the problem
  • Declare victory
  • Rig the metrics
  • Stay in your foxhole
  • Go shopping (for software, etc.)

86
Case Study Taming a Wicked ERP Problem
  • Also Hersheys Chocolate ERP case

87
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88
14. Careers in KM
  • Skip

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90
END OF PPT PRESENTATION
  • END OF PPT PRESENTATION

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