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Politics Organization


Political Organization is the basic way power is embedded in a society. ... Camp of Australian Aborigines: taken in 1895 in the Grafton district, New south ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Politics Organization

Chapter 12
  • Politics Organization Power

Political Organizations
Features of Political Organization
Recruitment Principles
  • Political Organization The existence of groups
    for purposes such as decision making and
  • Political Organization is the basic way power is
    embedded in a society.

Identity markers
Internal Organization
4 - Types Of Political Systems
  • Uncentralized systems
  • Bands (foraging groups)
  • Tribes (horticulturalist pastoralists)
  • Centralized systems (intensive agriculture)
  • Chiefdoms
  • States

Shoshoni tepies, circa 1900.
The state's (government's) position in the economy
(No Transcript)
  • Small group of politically independent, though
    related, households.
  • The least complicated form of political
  • Found among foragers and nomadic societies.
  • Small, numbering at most a few hundred people.

Foragers of the Agta people in the Phillippines
Camp of Australian Aborigines taken in 1895 in
the Grafton district, New south Wales, by G.W.
  • No need for formal political systems.
  • Decisions are made with an emphasis on achieving
  • Those unable to get along with others of their
    group move to another group where kinship ties
    give them rights of entry.
  • Flexible membership

Bushmen in the Kalhari
  • Egalitarian no social stratification
    between leaders and followers. no real .
    Everyone has access to the skills
    materials needed to survive.

  • Tribes consist of small, autonomous local
    communities, which form alliances for various
  • Economy based on crop cultivation or herding.
  • Horticulturalists
  • Pastoralists
  • Leadership among tribes is informal.
  • General leader head man or big man or woman.

Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota (Sioux)chief and
holy man, circa 1885.
The Big (Head) Man or Woman
  • Part-time leader.
  • Decides when to move the heards when to plant
    when to harvest when to have feasts.
  • Responsible for handling internal and external
  • Each smaller group usually has its own head
    man and acts autonomously for that group.

Big Man from New Guinea, wearing his official
Pashtun Tribes
  • Pashtun society consists of many tribes and
    clans which were rarely politically united,
    until the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747.
  • The are characterized by the practice of
    Pashtunwali and have been the dominant group
    in Afghanistan for more than 250 years.
  • They are the worlds largest (patriarchal)
    lineage ethnic group with an estimated
    population of 42 million.
  • There are 60 major Pashtun tribes more
    than 400 sub-clans.

Ahmad Shah Durrani established the Durrani Empire
in 1747.
Pashtun tribes men from Zarghun, Quetta, Pakistan
- November 2004
Navajo Tribal Council
  • Shown here is a meeting of the Navajo Tribal
    Council, a nontraditional governing body created
    in response to requirements set by the U.S.
    government in order for the Navajo to exercise
    national sovereignty.

  • Bands and tribes are both
  • centralized.
  • associated with industrialism.
  • dependent on age groups for political
  • uncentralized and egalitarian.
  • hierarchical in social organization.

Answer D
  • Bands and tribes are both uncentralized and

  • In the band, disputes are settled informally
    through ___________
  • gossip.
  • ridicule.
  • direct negotiation.
  • mediation.
  • all of these choices

Answer E
  • In the band, disputes are settled informally
    through gossip, ridicule, direct negotiation and

  • The chief is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of
  • The office of the chief is usually for life and
    often hereditary.
  • The chiefs authority serves to unite his people
    in all affairs and at all times.
  • Highly unstable as lesser chiefs try to take
    power from higher ranking chiefs.

  • Usually intensive agriculturalists.
  • Transitional between tribes states.
  • Office of Chief is independent of the person.
  • Shared common lineal descent.

Mbop Mabiinc maMbeky (ruled 1939-1969), King
(Chief) of the Kuba, Nsheng, Belgian Congo Eliot
Elisofon. 1947, National Museum of African
Art Smithsonian Institution 22923, P 5/8
Georgia Chiefdoms
  • Approximately 900-1200 A.D. Agricultural
    chiefdoms developed in Georgia (Macon Plateau,
    Woodstock, vining, etc).
  • Approximately 100,000 people distributed in a
    (perhaps) a dozen independent chiefdoms.
  • Both Patralinial Matralinail hereditary
  • 95 of the indigenous people were wiped out
    within two centuries after European contact
    (plagues slavery).

Political Beginnings Aristotle
  • Politics comes before everything else.
  • Man is by nature a political animal.
  • The State is by nature prior to the families
  • Classified good bad politics.

  • The most formal of political organizations.
  • Political power is centralized in a government,
    which may use force to regulate the affairs of
    its citizens and its relations with other states.
  • Since their first appearance 5,000 years ago,
    states have shown a tendency toward instability
    and transience.

A Nation without a State
  • The Kurds, most of whom live in Iran, Iraq, and
    Turkey, are an example of a nation without a
  • There are more than 25 million Kurds.
  • Kurds have a distinct culture.

Political Organization Membership
Political Organization Membership
Political Organization Government
  • The form of social organization typical of
    hunter-gatherers is the _________, whereas
    horticulture and pastoralism are usually
    associated with the form of social organization
    called the _________.
  • tribe/chiefdom
  • tribe/state
  • tribe/band
  • band/chiefdom
  • band/tribe

Answer E
  • The form of social organization typical of
    hunter-gatherers is the band, whereas
    horticulture and pastoralism are usually
    associated with the form of social organization
    called the tribe.

Political Organization Government
Political Organization Economy
Political Organization Society
Political Organization Society
Political Leadership and Gender
Chancellor Angela Merkel (1954 - ) of
Germany. Elected Chancellor 2005. First German
Chancellor. President of the European Council and
Chair of the G8. Forbes magazine named her the
most powerful woman in the world at the present
  • Queen Elizabeth I of
  • England (reign 1558-
  • 1603). - established
  • English Protestant
  • church.

Benazir Bhutto (1953-2007). First woman elected
to lead a Muslim state. Prime Minister 1988-90
1993-96. Assassinated 12/27/2007 two weeks before
the scheduled Pakistani general election of 2008.
Gender and Politics
  • Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf inspects
    members of the Liberian police after taking the
    presidential oath in January 2006.
  • The first female president on the African
    continent, Sirleaf is a Harvard-educated
    economist who took the world by surprise when she
    won the head office in her war-torn and
    poverty-stricken country.

Political Satire
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vo76WQzVJ434

Politics Control
Niccolo Machiavelli 1469-1527
  • Niccolo Machiavelli - Italian diplomat
    political philosopher in Florence. Key figure
    in the Italian Renaissance.
  • The Prince, Discourses and History made his name
    synonymous with ruthless politics, deceit the
    pursuit of power by any means.
  • it is best to be both feared and loved however,
    if one cannot be both it is better to be feared
    than loved.
  • the greatest moral good is a virtuous and stable
    state, and actions to protect the country are
    therefore justified even if they are cruel

Machiavelli (center right) depicted with (from
left to right) Cesare Borgia, Pedro Luis de Borja
Lanzol de Romaní, and Don Micheletto Corella
Internalized Controls
  • Hegemony A type of empire, wherein, the imperial
    state controls the subordinate state with power
    perception of force) , rather than force (direct
    physical action).
  • Social controls external enforcement through
    open coercion (example political, religious,
    reputation, ect.).
  • Cultural Controls Self-imposed by individuals
    through beliefs values.
  • Rely on shame, fear of divine (supernatural)
    punishment, magical retaliation.
  • Often insufficient by themselves.

Former Soviet Union had a centralized State
(Russia) that had regional control (Soviet Union).
Sole Super Power?
Externalized Controls
  • Sanctions externalized social designed to
    encourage conformity to social norms.
  • Positive sanctions reward appropriate behavior
    (awards, titles, recognition, etc).
  • Negative sanctions punish behavior (fines,
    imprisonment, ostracism, etc).

Formal Sanctions Iraq - 1990
  • The Iraq sanctions were a near-total financial
    and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations
    Security Council against the nation of Iraq.
  • Their stated purpose was at first to compel
    Iraq's military to withdraw from Kuwait and after
    that to compel them to pay reparations, and to
    disclose and eliminate any weapons of mass
    destruction, and to do certain other things.
  • The economic sanctions failed to topple Saddam.
    However, they may indeed have diminished Iraq
    militarily, in terms of WMDs, and in its capacity
    for any aggression against its neighbors.

A scaled map of Iraq showing major cities, the
Euphrates the Tigris, the unnamed peak, and the
surrounding area.
Functions of Law
  • Defines relationships among a societys members
    and behavior under different circumstances.
  • Allocates authority to employ coercion to enforce
  • Redefines social relations and aids its own
    efficient operation by ensuring it allows change.
  • Malinowski argued that law is distinguished from
    customs in that they are regarded as the
    obligation of one person and the rightful claim
    of another sanctioned by definite social
    machinery (i.e., laws employ sanctioned overt
    coercion. Not just psychological motive.

Settling Disputes
  • A dispute may be settled in two ways
  • Negotiation - the parties to the dispute reach an
    agreement with or without the help of a third
    party (mediator).
  • Adjudication - An authorized third party issues
    a binding decision.

Song Duels
  • Having a song duel is the traditional approach to
    dispute resolution among the Inuit of northern
    Canada Greenland.

  • A method of resolving disputes in which the
    disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a
    mutually satisfactory agreement is called
  • negotiation.
  • mediation.
  • adjudication.
  • use of sanctions.
  • law.

Answer A
  • A method of resolving disputes in which the
    disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a
    mutually satisfactory agreement is called

  • In _____________, two parties present their
    grievances, but do not take part in the
    resolution of the dispute.
  • deception.
  • the development of a court system.
  • negotiation.
  • mediation.
  • adjudication.

Answer E
  • In adjudication, two parties present their
    grievances, but do not take part in the
    resolution of the dispute.

Why Wars?
  • Natural male aggressiveness (aggressive group
    behavior exhibited by chimpanzees).
  • War more common after 10,000 years ago with the
    invention of food-production techniques and
    especially since the formation of the centralized
    state 5,000 years ago.
  • Colonial Expansion British, French, Spanish,
  • Religious (Holy) wars the Crusades, the Aztecs,

The Big one
Aggressive Chimps Aggressive humans?
1st Afgan War Fighting Colonialism (British)
The Crusades
Visual Counterpoint
  • A display of human skulls commemorate victory
    over enemies on this stone wall in the ancient
    Maya city of Chichen Itza in southeastern Mexico.
  • A display may also serve as a monument of
    violence as in this Cambodian map made of skulls
    belonging to victims of the Khmer Rouge regime
    that claimed the lives of 1.7 million innocent
    Cambodians in the 1970s.

Child Soldiers
  • Today, there are more than 250,000 child
    soldiers, many as young as 12 years old. Among
    them are these boys training to be guerrillas in
    Sahel, Eritrea.

Warfare in Multinational States
Religion Politics
Theocracy is a form of government in which a god
or deity is recognized as the state's supreme
civil ruler, or in a broader sense, a form of
government in which a state is governed by
immediate divine guidance or by officials who are
regarded as divinely guided.
  • Iran and Great Britain permit a closer
    relationship between political and religious
  • Shiite Muslim religious leader Ayatollah Khamenei
    is Irans supreme spiritual leader and his
    countrys highest political authority.
  • In England, Queen Elizabeth is her countrys
    nominal head of state and head of the Anglican
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